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Showing 16 results for Vitamin E

Mohammad Nouri, Aliyeh Ghasemzadeh, Laya Farzadi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to deleterious effects on a range of sperm parameters. Vitamins E and C are capable of reducing ROS levels and lipid peroxidation. Objective: The aim of study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation as indicated by Malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamins E and C in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men and their relationships with semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Forty men with normozoospermic and 60 infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermic semen profiles were randomly selected. Semen analysis was done according to the WHO standard. Sex hormonal profiles were measured by ELISA methods. The level of vitamins (C and E) and MDA were measured by HPLC and tiobarbiotic acid, respectively. Results: MDA concentration in the spermatozoa (0.10.06 nmol/ml) and seminal plasma (1.90.35 nmol/ml) of asthenoteratozoospermic were significantly higher than in normozoospermic males (p<0.001).The level of vitamins E and C in seminal plasma of normozoospermic were significantly higher than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). However, the amount of vitamin C in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic was significantly less than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value of MDA of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were more than vitamins C and E. The level of vitamin C of spermatozoa had more diagnostic value when compare to vitamins C and E in seminal plasma. Conclusion: The level of MDA in seminal plasma and spermatozoa and vitamin C in spermatozoa may be a diagnostic tool for etiology of infertility in the asthenoteratozoospermic patients.
Hamid Reza Momeni, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Mohammad Hosien Abnosi, Monireh Mahmoodi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: para-nonylphenol (p-NP) is able to induce malformations in male reproductive system.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventing role of vitamin E (Vit.E) on sperm parameters and reproductive hormones in developing rats.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: control p-NP Vit.E and p-NP+Vit.E. Treatments were performed on day 7 of gestation and continued during weaning. The male pups were then divided into the same groups as the mothers and were treated till 90 days of age. Finally body and left testis weight were recorded and left epididymis was cut in Ham’s F10. Released sperm were used to analyze number motility and viability of the sperm. Blood serum was used to assess follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) estrogen and testosterone.
Results: In p-NP-treated rats a significant decrease was found in body and testis weight sperm number and sperm motility compared to control and p-NP+Vit.E groups. A significant increase was also found in sperm viability in Vit.E group (83.3±7.6) compared to both p-NP (59.5±7.5) and control (66.3±9.7) groups. Rats treated with p-NP showed a significant decrease in FSH level and a significant increase in estrogen level. However testosterone and LH level remained constant. In p-NP+Vit.E group the change of estrogen level but not FSH was significantly reversed compared to p-NP group. Conclusion: Vit.E not only is able to compensate the toxic effects of p-NP on testis weight sperm number sperm motility and estrogen level but also increases sperm viability in developing rat.
Ashraf Aleyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Mahshid Mohseni, Atossa Mahdavi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: Reviewing the literature reveals that pentoxifylline (PTX) plus tocopherol (vitamin E) are used mainly to promote sperm quality. However trials focusing on the effects of these drugs in female partner are limited. Combination of pentoxifylline and vitamin E appeared to improve the pregnancy rate in patients with a thin endometrium by increasing the endometrial thickness and improving ovarian function.
Objective: To determine whether combined PTX and tocopherol treatment can improve clinical pregnancy rate.
Materials and Methods: One hundred twelve infertile women undergoing standardized controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for ICSI- ZIFT entered this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to equal groups of combined PTX and tocopherol therapy or none (not receiving PTX and tocopherol). These drugs were administered to the intervention group for two cycles before starting ICSI-ZIFT cycle. Main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. SPSS.11 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago IL.) was used for data collection and analysis.
Results: The clinical pregnancy was higher in the intervention (combined PTX and tocopherol) group in comparison to the other group (57.14% vs 39.29% p=0.01). However there was no difference in the mean endometrial thickness number of retrieved oocytes the number of metaphase II oocytes and grade of them in both groups.
Conclusion: This study showed that PTX plus tocopherol could improve the ZIFT outcome in infertile couples. Local effects and anti oxidative characteristics of these drugs may be the cause of better results.
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Ali Noorafshan, Ahmad Hamta, Hamid Reza Momeni, Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Monireh Mahmoodi, Morteza Anvari, Maryam Hazaveh,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is one of the environmental pollutants which cause reproductive system disorders.
Objective: The effects of vitamin E on ovary structure during its development in rats treated with p-NP.
Materials and Methods: 32 Wistar female rats after mating were divided into 4 groups; control vitamin E (100mg/kg/day) p-NP (250mg/kg/day) and p-NP + vitamin E. The rats were treated from the day 7 of pregnancy till 21st day of postnatal through sucking period. After weaning the female pups were treated by gavages for 120 days. The total volume of ovary number of follicles volume of oocyte follicular cells and their nuclei and the thickness of zona pellucida were estimated stereologically. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The ovary weight, mean total volume of ovary and cortex, number of antral and graafian follicles and body weight were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the p-NP treated rats compared to control and other groups, while the number of atretic follicles was increased significantly (p<0.05). A significant reduction (p<0.05) in volume of oocyte, follicular cells and their nuclei in antral and graafian follicles was found in p-NP group. In addition, treatment with only vitamin E showed an improving effect on folliculogenesis due to a highly significant increase (p<0.01) in the number of primordial follicles.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of p-NP on the ovary structure during its development.
Hamid Reza Momeni, Najmeh Eskandari,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Arsenic as an environmental toxicant is able to exert malformations in male reproductive system by inducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E (Vit.E) is known as antioxidant vitamin.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters and the antioxidant effects of Vit.E on sperm anomalies in sodium arsenite treated rats.
Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), Vit.E (100 mg/kg/day) and sodium arsenite+Vit.E. Oral treatments were performed till 8 weeks. Body and left testis weight were recorded and then left caudal epididymis was cut in Hamchr('39')s F10. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze number, motility, viability and abnormalities of the sperm. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed by nuclear staining using acridine orange and aniline blue.
Results: Body and testis weight showed no significant change in 4 groups (p>0.05). A significant decrease in the number, motility, viability and normal sperm morphology was found in sodium arsenite-treated rats compared to the control (p<0.001). Sodium arsenite had no effect on sperm DNA integrity and histon-protamine replacement (p>0.05). In sodium arsenite+Vit.E group, Vit.E could significantly compensate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm number, motility, viability and morphology compared to sodium arsenite group. In addition, sperm viability and motility was significantly increased in rats treated with Vit.E alone compared to the control and sodium arsenite+Vit.E group.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters in adult rats.

Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Rezvan Taefi,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant, protecting cells against oxidative stress.
Objective: In this investigation the protective effect of vitamin E on the testis during development and spermatogenesis in rats exposed to sodium arsenite was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8) control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite+vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E. Treatment was carried out from day seven of pregnancy till 90 days. Finally the right testis was stereologically studied. The obtained data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukeychr('39')s test and the means difference was considered significant at p<0.05.
Results: The weight and volume of testis, volume of seminiferous tubules and its diameter, volume of interstitial tissue, height of germinal epithelium and the total number of types A and B spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sertoli cells reduced significantly in sodium arsenite group compared to the control. Co-administration of vitamin E and sodium arsenite compensated the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the above parameters.
Conclusion: We concluded co-treatment of rats with sodium arsenite and vitamin E could prevent the adverse effects of sodium arsenite exposure on the testicular tissue during the prenatal stage till sex maturity.
Shabnam Mohammadi, Mehdi Jalali, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh, Mehran Gholamin, Mojtaba Sankian,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: CatSper genes are a novel family of four sperm-specific calcium channels, which indicate testis-specific expression patterns. Despite the crucial role of CatSper genes in the male reproduction, very little is known about the factors that regulate their expression.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E treatment on the expression of CatSper 1 and CatSper 2 genes as well as sperm quality in the aged male mice.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four 11-12 months old aged male mice and twenty four 2-3-months old young male mice were randomly divided into four groups. Control groups received no injection. The experimental groups of male mice were received intraperitoneal injection of 106 mg/kg vitamin E daily for 35 days. Left testis and cauda epididymides from each mouse were collected on the days 21, 28 and 35 following vitamin E treatment and were used for Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Also, sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines given for human sperm examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Administration of vitamin E improved sperm parameters in the aged as well as young adult male mice. In addition, the expression of CatSper genes increased following vitamin E treatment. Also, intensity of signal for CatSper1 and CatSper2 increased in the head and middle piece of sperm in experimental group as compared to those of control ones.
Conclusion: The vitamin E treatment significantly improved the sperm quality, especially in terms of sperm motility, count and morphology rate. Furthermore, CatSper genes expression could be up-regulated by the vitamin E treatment.
Mohammad Mardani, Ahmad Vaez, Shahnaz Razavi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Currently, relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) ROS concentration and semen quality was indicated. Saffron has traditionally been not only considered as a food additive but also as a medicinal herb, which has a good antioxidant properties.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection potency of saffron and vitamin E on sperm chromatin integrity.
Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats divided equally into saffron (100 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and control (0.5cc distilled water /day) groups. After 60 days, cauda epididymis dissected and sperm cells were used for analysis of sperm chromatin packaging by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining, and sperm chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation by acridine orange (AO) staining.
Results: The mean percentage of CMA3 positive sperm was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups relative to control group (p<0.001). Moreover, the AO staining results showed that the mean percentage of sperm with DNA damage was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups as compared with control group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Our results purposed that saffron can protect sperm against DNA damage and chromatin anomalies.
Fatemeh Rahimi Anbarkeh, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Mehdi Jalali, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Zinat Sargazi, Leila Mohammdzadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate pesticide that widely used for agricultural pest control all over the world. DZN affects target organs including reproductive system by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase and inducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a strong antioxidant which inhibits free radicals, and probably can reduce lipid perxidation effectively in biological systems.
Objective: The present study, aimed to evaluate the effects of DZN on malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in testis of rats and protective effect of vitamin E.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male Wistar rats (200-250 gr) were divided into 5 groups (n= 6): control group (did not receive any material), sham group (received only pure olive oil), experimental group 1 (DZN, 60 mg/kg), experimental group 2 (Vit E, 200 mg/kg) and experimental group 3 (DZN+Vit E, with the same dose). All groups were sacrificed after 6 weeks and right testis was used to measure the MDA and GSH levels. The amount of MDA was determined by the thiobarbituric acid assay and 5, 5-Dithio-bis (2nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB-recycling protocol was used for GSH assay.
Results: The results showed that DZN increased MDA level (p<0.001) and reduced GSH level (p<0.001). Administration of DZN plus vitamin E decreased the MDA level (p<0.001) and increased GSH level (p=0.001).
Conclusion: DZN induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of rats. Vitamin E by its antioxidant activity was able to improve the toxic effect of DZN.
Ashraf Kazemi, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Nasr-Esfahani,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects.
Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes.
Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and Malondialdehyde and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid (FF) in 219 women undergoing ART were assessed. The number of retrieved oocytes, percentages of metaphase II MII) stage oocytes, fertilization rate, and embryo quality were also determined.
Results: No significant association was found between vitamins intake levels and OS biomarkers, but the mean of TAC level in FF among women who received vitamin C greater than 75 mg/d was higher than women with lower intakes (p<0.05). The ART parameters were not related to the vitamin E intake level, but the normal cleaved embryo rate was positively related to vitamin A (p<0.05) and vitamin C (p=0.02) intake levels. Also, the percentage of MII oocytes (p=0.02) and the fertilization rate (p<0.05) were related to the vitamin C intake level. The relation between the TAC level in FF and ART outcomes were not significant.
Conclusion: Current results indicated that high dietary intake of vitamin C would be followed by increasing the TAC level in FF and improving the oocyte competence, but this effect of vitamin C is not dependent of increasing of antioxidant defense in follicular environment.
Milad Azami, Tayebe Azadi, Sepidezahra Farhang, Shoobo Rahmati, Khadijeh Pourtaghi,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (6-2017)

Background: Several studies have reported the uncertain role of multi-minerals andvitamins in the prevention of preeclampsia.
Objective: The present study aims to investigate the effect of multimineral-vitaminD supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin D) and vitamins (C+ E) inthe prevention of preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women weredivided into three groups: group A received Ferrous sulfate (1 tablet/day) + onetablet of Claci-care multimineral-vitamin D containing 800mg calcium, 200mgmagnesium, 8mg zinc and 400 IU Vitamin D3 per day; group B received Ferroussulfate (1 tablet/day) + 250 mg vitamin C + 55 mg vitamin E; and the controlsreceived only one Ferrous sulfate tablet daily.
Results: The incidence of preeclampsia in group A was significantly lower than thecontrol group (p=0.03), while there was no significant difference between group Band controls (p=0.50), as well as groups A and B (p=0.063). The incidence ofneonatal complications in the group A was significantly lower than the control group(p=0.01), while there was no significant difference between group B and control(p=0.48).
Conclusion: According to the results, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplementshave a significant effect on the prevention of preeclampsia. In addition, prescriptionof multimineral-vitamin D during pregnancy can be a low-cost and affordable wayto reduce the incidence of preeclampsia in women who are at high risk ofpreeclampsia
Elaheh Mesdaghinia, Behnaz Mohammad-Ebrahimi, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Hamid Reza Banafshe,
Volume 15, Issue 10 (12-2017)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion has high incidence rate. The etiology is unknown in 30-40%. However high uterine artery resistance is accounted as one of the recurrent abortion reasons.
Objective: The objective of the current study was to determine the impacts of vitamin E and aspirin on the uterine artery blood flow in women having recurrent abortions due to impaired uterine blood flow.
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 99 women having uterine pulsatility index (PI) more than 2.5 and the history of more than two times abortions. The candidates were categorized into three groups; receiving aspirin, only vitamin E, and aspirin+vitamin E. After 2 months, uterine PIs were compared with each other.
Results: All drug regimens caused an enhancement in uterine perfusion with a significant decline in uterine artery PI value. The women receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin had the least mean PI of the uterine artery (p<0.001). The total average PI score of the right and left uterine arteries in groups receiving vitamin E in accompanied with aspirin was lower than the two counterparts significantly (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Vitamin E, aspirin and especially their combination are effective in improving uterine artery blood flow in women with recurrent abortion due to impaired uterine blood flow. More well-designed studies are needed to find out whether the enhancement of uterine perfusion may lead to a better pregnancy outcome.
Zinat Sargazi, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Mehdi Jalali, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Fatemeh Rahimi Anbarkeh,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (2-2019)

Background: Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide that has been widely utilized in agriculture all over the world and caused many negative effects on different species such as plants and animal species, especially on a human.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on rats’ ovarian follicles following an administration of  diazinon.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: a control group (without any intervention), sham group (received only pure olive oil, as solvent), experimental group I (DZN+olive oil, 60 mg/kg), experimental group II (vitamin E, 200 mg/kg), and experimental group III (DZN: 60 mg/kg+vitamin E: 200 mg/kg). All drugs were injected intraperitoneally, except vitamin E which was administrated by gavage. The animals were scarified after two weeks and left ovary was used to measure proliferation of ovarian follicles. Tissues were analyzed by the PCNA technique and viewed with an optical microscope for evaluating cells proliferation.
Results: The result of the present study revealed that the number of proliferative cells in the experimental group I decreased significantly in contrast to the control group in secondary and Graffian follicles (p< 0.001). The administration of vitamin E plus DZN significantly increased proliferative cells compared to the DZN group (p< 0.001). Primordial follicles showed that all study groups were lacking PCNA positive cells, which means no expression of PCNA in these follicles. The results of this study showed that primary follicles in all study groups had a few and scattered PCNA positive cells with no significant difference between the groups (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: Results showed that DZN reduced proliferation in secondary and Graffian follicles and vitamin E increased it. The results of this study suggested that vitamin E by its antioxidant activity was able to improve the DZN-induced ovarian toxicity.
Khadijeh Mirzaei Khorramabadi, Ali Reza Talebi, Abolghasem Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Aghdas Mirjalili,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (2-2019)

Background: Generation of free radicals and oxidative stress are a major contributor to diabetes. These factors lead to the development of diabetic testicles disorders.
Objective: In this study, the protective effect of vitamin E on functional disorders associated with diabetes induced oxidative stress in male reproductive systems has been investigated.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult male Mice were divided into control, diabetic, and untreated diabetic groups. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes. In the treated group, vitamin E was given to the Mice intraperitoneally for 30 days. Then, animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. Animal testicles were isolated and homogenized in phosphate buffer and used for measuring sperm count, motility and survival of sperm, MDA concentration and antioxidant capacity (TAC). Apoptosis was also performed with the TUNEL test.
Results: The results of reduction (12.03±98.11) TAC, MDA concentration (–28.5±2.58), sperm motility (unstable sperma= 86.4±7.48), sperm count (171.51), Sperm morphology (natural morphology= 49.69±31.93) and abnormal morphology (9.77±49.7) with increased oxidative damage. These changes were statistically significant in comparison with the control group for all variables other than MDA (p= 0.05). Treatment of vitamin E diabetic Mice improved the ability of antioxidants to prevent oxidativedamage in the testicles, restore the sperm movement, and increase the number of normal sperm as well as TAC. The level of apoptosis in the treated group has decreased compared to the untreated group.
Conclusion: Vitamin E protects the reproductive system against diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it was concluded that vitamin E may be a suitable agent for protecting the sperm and testicular parameters against undesirable effects of diabetes.
Mina Omidi, Akram Ahangarpour , Seyed Ali Mard, Layasadat Khorsandi,
Volume 17, Issue 11 (11-2019)

Background: Aging is accompanied by decreasing general function in the cells and tissues. D-galactose (D-gal) induces aging and plays a role in the pathogenesis of it. Myricitrin is a plant-derived antioxidant.
Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of myricitrin on antioxidant defense, sex hormone levels, uterus, and ovarian histology in D-gal-induced aging female mouse model.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 female adult NMRI mice, weighing 30-35 gr, 3-4 months old, were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12/each): (I) Control (vehicle; normal saline), (II) D-gal at 500 mg/kg/d for 45 days, (III-V) D-gal + myricitrin-treated groups (these groups received myricitrin at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d, and (VI) D-gal + 100 mg/kg/d vitamin E orally for the last 28 days. The antioxidant indices were done on the basis of colorimetric method, and sex hormone levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Histological assessment of the uterus and ovaries were also evaluated.
Results: D-gal impaired the estrous cycle, also degenerative changes occur in the ovarian follicles and damage to the uterus and ovarian tissue occurs. In D-gal group, the level of sex hormones (p =0.03) and the total antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) decreased, while the level of malondialdehyde and gonadotropins increased (p = 0.03). Myricitrin at lower doses and vitamin E ameliorated the D-gal effects.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that myricitrin at low doses can effectively prevent D-gal-induced oxidation and aging in mice. The effect of myricitrin was equivalent and sometimes better than vitamin E.
Mohamadreza Doostabadi, Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri, Mahmoud Asgharzadeh, Masoomeh Mohammadzadeh,
Volume 19, Issue 6 (6-2021)

Background: Excessive consumption of alcohol induces an increase in oxidative stress production and can lead to detrimental effects on the male reproductive system.
Objective: To evaluate the possible protective effects of co-administration of vitamin (vit) E on the detrimental changes in the sperm quality of mice administered ethanol.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-four BALB/c mice were categorized into nine groups (n = 6/each). The control group received a basal diet while the eight experimental groups received ethanol 10%; ethanol 20%; vit. E 100 mg; vit. E 200 mg; ethanol 10% + vit. E 100 mg; ethanol 10% + vit. E 200 mg; ethanol 20% + vit. E 100 mg; ethanol 20% + vit. E 200 mg. After 35 days, the sperm parameters and sperm chromatin were assessed.
Results: The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the motility rate, normal morphology rate, viability rate, increase in abnormal DNA structure and packaging (TB staining), and DNA damage (TUNEL) in ethanol consumer groups. In addition, the findings showed a significant increase in the aforementioned parameters in ethanol- and vit. E-consumer groups compared to the ethanol-only consumer groups. The ethanol group received 20% of the most damage among the groups. The group receiving vit. E 100 mg and those receiving ethanol 10% + vit. E 200 mg gained the highest benefit among the groups.
Conclusion: Sperm forward progressive motility, normal morphology rate, and viability decreased in the ethanol groups. Also, the rates of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA structure and DNA fragmentation increased in the ethanol groups. Our findings revealed that the co-administration of vit. E and ethanol can protect destructive changes in DNA structure and damage.

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