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Showing 46 results for Testis

Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Masood Hemadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Sodium arsenite and/ or vasectomy may cause variation in sex hormones which affect pathophysiology of reproductive organs.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the morphological changes in structure of testis and hormonal imbalance in bilateral Vasectomised rats treated with sodium arsenite.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats: bilateral vasectomy + sodium arsenite, bilateral vasectomy, sham operated + sodium arsenite and sham operated only were considered, and 8 mg/kg/ day of sodium arsenite was given for 8 weeks to the rats. The total volume of testis, volume of interstitial tissue, volume of seminiferous tubules, diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal epithelium thickness were evaluated using stereological methods. Hormones were also measured and the results were analyzed using one way ANOVA.
Results: A significant reduction of total volume of testis (p<0.01), mean volume of seminiferous tubules (p<0.002) as well as germinal epithelium thickness (p<0.05) in both vasectomy + sodium arsenite and vasectomy rats was seen compared to sham operated only. In addition a significant reduction of testosterone was observed in vasectomy + sodium arsenite group when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). LH level decreased significantly in vasectomy + sodium arsenite when compared to sham operated ones (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Vasectomy and treatment with sodium arsenite affect the structure of testis with respect to its volume, volume of seminiferous tubules and thickness of germinal epithelium, which may be due to variation of LH and testosterone level in the rats.
Arash Khaki, Mahnaz Heidari, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Amir Afshin Khaki,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Ciprofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the treatment of genitourinary tract infection.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ciprofloxacin on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rat.
Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups; control (n=10) and experimental (n=10). The experimental group was orally received 12.5 mg/kg ciprofloxacin daily for 60 days and the control group just received water and food. Rats were then killed and sperm removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and viability. Testis tissues were also removed and prepared for TUNEL assay to detect apoptosis.
Results: Results showed that ciprofloxacin significantly decreased the sperm concentration, motility (p<0.05) and viability (p<0.001). In addition, ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sperm) in the seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. The apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubular cross section was significantly increased in the experimental group (15.11±3.523) as compared with the control group (7.3±0.762) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It is concluded that ciprofloxacin has the toxicological effects on reproductive system in male rats.
Forouzan Absalan, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: In most mammals, the testis is always maintained at a lower temperature than that in the abdomen, and exposure of the testis to body temperature causes degeneration of germ cells.
Objective: In this research, the long effect of heat exposure on sperm parameters and microstructure of mouse testis were investigated. Cryptorchid mouse were induced by exposure to abdominal heat.
Materials and Methods: Immature mice were anesthetized and a small incision was made in the abdominal skin, then fat pad at the upper end of testis was sutured to peritoneum. Weight of testis, spermatogenic cell numbers, tubular ectasis (rate of tubular lumen comparing to the thickness of germinal epithelium) as well as epididymal sperm parameters were measured.
Results: The results showed that spermatogenesis was arrested and testicular weights, seminiferouse tubular diameters and epididymal sperm parameters were significantly reduced in the bilateral undescended testis compared with unilateral undescended testis and the control mice. However, complete depletion of seminiferous tubules and absence of germ cells was not found in the animals.
Conclusion: In general, high temperature caused a decreased in all analyzed parameters except spermatogonial cell number probably due to the apoptosis and these changes significantly increase in bilateral groups compared with unilateral groups. We believe that the present model is a suitable tool for enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells, also it is useful for treatment of cryptorchidism and further biological research on spermatogenesis.
Arash Khaki, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Afshin Khaki, Chelar C Ozanci, Marefat Ghafari-Novin, Mohammad Hamadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae) is used medicinally and as a culinary spice.
Objective: Medicinal use of ginger dates back to ancient China and India. Ginger and its constituents are stated to have antiemetic, antithrombotic, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, stimulant, cholagogue and antioxidant. It has been used since ancient time as medicinal and food origins it contain antioxidative and androgenic activities and have well effect in diseases treatment in more countries world-wide. As an antioxidant’s ginger has a useful effect on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters.
Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n=30) were allocated into three groups, control (n=10) and test groups (n=20), that subdivided into groups of 2 that received ginger rhizome powder (50 and 100mg/kg/day) for 20 consequence day. Animals were kept in standard conditions. In twentieth day the testes tissue of Rats in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis and prepared for analysis.
Results: Serum total testosterones significantly increased in experimental group that has received 100 mg/kg/day Ginger (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both test groups significantly increased (p<0.05) in comparison to control group, Whereas, LH, FSH hormones, sperm concentration, morphology and testes weights in both experimental and control group were similar.
Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of 100 mg/kg/day of ginger significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and serum total testosterones. This suggested that ginger may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters.
Seyyed Mostafa Shiryazdi, Abbas Modir, Soheil Benrazavi, Nooshin Moosavi, Mohammad Kermani-Alghoraishi, Rahil Ghahramani,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

Background: Undescended testis (UDT) is the most common endocrine disorder in male children. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of UDT lead to complications such as infertility, malignancy and testis rotation.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of delay in proper treatment of patients with undescended testis in our population.
Materials and Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross sectional study of 143 male patients, who applied to Shahid Sadoughi University Hospitals for orchiopexy operation was performed. The maximum recommended age for orchiopexy was 18 months.
Results: The mean age at referral was 5.34 years. Only 44 (30.8%) cases were operated on before the age of 18 months. The most common reasons of delay in treatment were absence of early diagnose (42.5%), parentchr('39')s unawareness of surgery necessity and its complications associated (33.7%) and parentchr('39')s disregard (23.5%). Only 19.6% of patients were diagnosed at born in the hospital. 49% of parents had the correct information for proper operation age and 40.6% of them had enough information about necessity of surgery and side effects of disease. Parent’s literacy, place of living and type of cryptorchidism had no significant relation with delay diagnosis (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: These results revealed that late diagnosis by physician and lack of insight of parents are the main reasons in delayed diagnosis and treatment of UDT. Therefore, education of parents and careful physical examination of the babies at birth and regular follow-up until 18 months can prevent the delay in diagnosis. 
Mehran Dorostghoal, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Adel Zardkaf,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in both developing and adult animals.
Objective: This study was designed to assess long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) on reproductive ability of both neonatal and adult male offspring.
Materials and Methods: 60 female rats randomly divided in four equal groups; vehicle control and three treatment groups that received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP via gavage during gestation and lactation. At different ages after birth, the volumes of testes were measured by Cavellieri method, testes weights recorded and epididymal sperm samples were assessed for number and gross morphology of spermatozoa. Following tissue processing, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height evaluated with morphometric techniques.
Results: Mean testis weight decreased significantly (p<0.05) in 500 mg/kg/day dose group from 28 to 150 days after birth. Significant decreases were seen in total volumes of testis in 100 (p<0.05) and 500 (p<0.01) mg/kg/day doses groups until 150 days after birth. Seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height decreased significantly in 100 (p<0.05) and 500 (p<0.01) mg/kg/day doses groups during postnatal development. Also, mean sperm density in 100 mg/kg/day (p<0.05) and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.01) doses groups and percent of morphologically normal sperm in highest dose group (p<0.05) decreased significantly until 150 days after birth.
Conclusion: Present study showed that maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate during gestation and lactation caused to permanent and dose-related reductions of sperm and testicular parameters in rats offspring.
Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Mazdak Razi, Rajab Ali Sadrkhanloo, Hassan Malekinejad, Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: The exact pathophysiology of testicular degeneration, following varicocele has not been completely understood yet.  
Objective: The current study was designed to determine the effect of varicocele on germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasmic biohistochmical alterations.   Materials and Methods: To follow-up this study, left varicocele was induced in test groups. Non-varicocelized rats were served as control-sham (n=6). Following 4, 6 and 8 months, right and left testes were dissected out and the blood serum sample was taken. The GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, lipase and alkaline-phosphates (ALP) ratios were analyzed. Serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured.
Results: Observations demonstrated that in varicocele-induced rats, the spermatogenesis cell lineage exhibited lower number of cells with periodic acid shift positive cytoplasm, higher number of cells with lipid and ALP positive stained cytoplasm in comparison to control animals. Lipase enzyme decreased by the time in the test animals. In varicocelized groups the number of Leydig cells decreased in to 2.25±0.41 and 1.16±0.75 per one mm 2 in left and right testicles respectively after 8 months, and these cells demonstrated an ALP positive feature. In test groups, the serum levels of LH and FSH reduced into 1.12±0.01 and 2.03±0.05 ng/ml respectively after 8 months. Although testosterone level diminished by the time in the test animals, and this decreasing was significant (p=0.031) after 8 months (3.08±0.10 ng/ml).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that following varicocele induction major alterations occur in GE, which may lead to loss of GE cells physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems.
Esmail Fattahi, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mossa Gardaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide widely used to control pests in agriculture and farm. Carbaryl adversely affect the reproductive endocrine systems in animals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate Carbaryl effects on the pituitary-gonad axis in rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental - analytical study, 60 adult male rats were divided into four equal groups: control, sham and experimental (1 and 2) groups that received 10 and 30 mg/kg Carbaryl via intraperitoneally injection. The sham group was subjected to intraperitoneally injection with olive oil while the control group did not receive any injection. Animals were sacrificed 35 days after the last treatment. Tissue sections were prepared from testes to investigate possible changes occurring in spermatogenic and Leydig cells. Blood samples were collected in which the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormones (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured.
Results: The results showed significant reduction in testes weight (p=0.042) and seminiferous diameters (p<0.001) within the experimental groups compared with control group. Also, the number of germ cells, spermatocyts, spermatids and Leydig cells on the testes of the experimental groups was significantly decreased (p<0.001). Accordingly, significant decline in the testosterone levels (p<0.001) and increase in LH and FSH levels were observed (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These results demonstrated that Carbaryl has capacity to exert adverse effects on fertility. Therefore, have to be taken to account in applying Carbaryl for any studies and or commercial use.
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Rezvan Taefi,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant, protecting cells against oxidative stress.
Objective: In this investigation the protective effect of vitamin E on the testis during development and spermatogenesis in rats exposed to sodium arsenite was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8) control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite+vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E. Treatment was carried out from day seven of pregnancy till 90 days. Finally the right testis was stereologically studied. The obtained data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukeychr('39')s test and the means difference was considered significant at p<0.05.
Results: The weight and volume of testis, volume of seminiferous tubules and its diameter, volume of interstitial tissue, height of germinal epithelium and the total number of types A and B spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sertoli cells reduced significantly in sodium arsenite group compared to the control. Co-administration of vitamin E and sodium arsenite compensated the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the above parameters.
Conclusion: We concluded co-treatment of rats with sodium arsenite and vitamin E could prevent the adverse effects of sodium arsenite exposure on the testicular tissue during the prenatal stage till sex maturity.
Ali Cyrus, Hassan Solhi, Mahdi Azizabadi Farahani, Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh, Davoud Goudarzi, Ghasem Mosayebi, Hamed Mohamadian,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls.
Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups.
Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001).
Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency.
Elham Movahed, Vahid Nejati, Rajabali Sadrkhanlou, Abbas Ahmadi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads.
Objective: The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated.
Results: Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). ACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). In addition ACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (p<0.05). As well ACV decreased potential fertility in male rats.
Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.
Ademola Ayodele Oremosu, Edidiong Nnamso Akang, Catherine Chukwumuanya Adigwe, Iniebehe Essien Okoko, Onyemaechi Okpara Azu,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Long term alcohol use has been implicated in men with sexual disorders including suppression of testosterone levels as well as testicular morphological changes.
Objective: This research investigated the ability of Telfairia occidentalis (T.O.) to attenuate the damaging effects of alcohol on the testicular parameters.
Materials and Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 170-190 grams were divided into 6 groups, A to F and treated with distilled water (DW) for the period of 8 weeks (positive control group A), ethanol for 2 weeks followed with DW for 6 weeks (group B) (negative control), ethanol alone for 2 weeks (group C) while others received ethanol for 2 weeks, followed with 200 (group D), 400 (group E) and 600 mg/kg (group F) of T.O. for 6 weeks.
Results: Testicular histological sections showed that ethanol produced marked loss of testicular germ cells after two weeks of administration. T.O (200 mg/kg body weight) was not able to attenuate this microanatomical distortion when compared with control groups, but at 400 mg/kg body weight, T.O reversed the ethanol`s effects with resultant significant increase in sperm count and motility (p<0.05), serum testosterone levels (p<0.05), and testicular weight (p<0.05). However, at 600 mg/kg dosage, there was marked depletion of testicular germ cells with atrophied seminiferous tubules and a decrease in semen parameters and testicular weight.
Conclusion: Our result suggests that T.O promotes the regeneration of testicular germ cells and improves semen quality at a certain critical dose. Hence, T.O has a potential of reversing ethanol induced testicular damage.
Farzaneh Dehghani, Ashraf Hassanpour, Aghdas Poost-Pasand, Ali Noorafshan, Saeid Karbalay-Doust,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: Busulfan (Bus) is a chemotherapy drug that is widely used for cancer treatment. However, administration of busulfan may cause temporary or permanent sterility in male patients. Therefore, reduction of this side is necessary.
Objective: evaluation of the protective effects of L-carnitine and testis homogenized tissue (THT) on sperm parameters and the testis structure after busulfan treatment.
Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided four groups. Group I (Control) received a single dose of DMSO and 1mL of distilled water (I.P.). Group II (Bus) received a single of busulfan (10 mg/kg) plus 1 ml of the distilled water (I.P.). Group III (Bus+THT) received busulfan plus 1mL of THT daily by oral gavages. Group IV (Bus+L-car) received a single dose of busulfan plus 100 mg/kg/day L-carnitine (I.P.). After 48 dayst, the Stereological technique was used for the estimating volume and diameter of testis, seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, flagella length, germinal epithelium height and spermatoginic cell number. Semen analysis was used for the assessment of sperm parameters.
Results: THT increased volume of testis (6.5%), seminiferous tubule and interstitial tissue volume (6.5%, 6.9% and 11.7% respectively), germinal epithelium height (13%), sperm count (7.5%), and decreased sperm with abnormal morphology (1%) in comparison with the L-carnitine in busulfan treated group.
Conclusion: It seems the use of L-carnitine and THT decreases side effects of busulfan on the male reproductive system. However, in our study, THT is more effective than L-carnitine and leads to the recovery testis structure and sperm parameters after treatment with busulfan.
Afsaneh Niakani, Farah Farrokhi, Shapour Hasanzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a reproductive key hormone. The GnRH analogues are widely used in in vitro fertilization and treatment of sex hormone-depended cancers induced by the materials used in chemotherapeutic agents.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cyclophosphamide and decapeptyl (analogues of GnRH) on histomorphometry and stereology of testicular tissue as well as gonadotropic and gonadal hormones indices in mice.
Materials and Methods: For this study, 24 adult male Balb/C strain mice were divided in four groups; first, cyclophosphamide (65 mg/kg/body weight (BW)), second, decapeptyl (0.05 mg/kg/BW), third, decapeptyl at first, and after 10 days of cyclophosphamide injection, and control group was received same volume of sterile saline. In order to evaluate the tissue changes in testes of the mice, sections were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosine, Periodic Acid Schiefchr('39')s (PAS) and Oil-Red-O staining techniques.
Results: The cyclophosphamide causes histomorphologic changes in the testicular tissue; whereas such changes by decapeptyl were comparatively mild. The morphometric results revealed significant reduction in diameters of seminiferous tubules (p=0.02), and the stereological results confirmed significant differences in spermatogenesis (SI) as well as rate of tubal differentiation (TDI) indices between experimental and control groups (p=0.001). In addition, the morphometric findings proved that, there are significant decrease (p=0.001) in thicknesses of epithelia and stereologic result revealed reduction in number of cell layers in both decapeptyl and chemotherapy groups, but the decrements of these parameters were significant (p=0.02) in later group. In groups that had received cyclophosphamide, and decapeptyl alone, the LH and testosterone levels were decreased significantly (p=0.03), whereas in those that had received decapeptyl along with cyclophosphamide, the LH and FSH levels showed a decline but the level of testosterone increased.
Conclusion: These results demonstrated that, analogue of GnRH i.e., decapeptyl protect morphologic, morphometric, and stereologic alterations of the testes tissue, as well as gonadotropic and gonadal hormonal changes preceding cyclophosphamide treatment in male mice.
Ozra Nasrolahi, Fereshteh Khaneshi, Fatemeh Rahmani, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties.
Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses.
Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels.
Shabnam Mohammadi, Mehdi Jalali, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh, Mehran Gholamin, Mojtaba Sankian,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: CatSper genes are a novel family of four sperm-specific calcium channels, which indicate testis-specific expression patterns. Despite the crucial role of CatSper genes in the male reproduction, very little is known about the factors that regulate their expression.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E treatment on the expression of CatSper 1 and CatSper 2 genes as well as sperm quality in the aged male mice.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four 11-12 months old aged male mice and twenty four 2-3-months old young male mice were randomly divided into four groups. Control groups received no injection. The experimental groups of male mice were received intraperitoneal injection of 106 mg/kg vitamin E daily for 35 days. Left testis and cauda epididymides from each mouse were collected on the days 21, 28 and 35 following vitamin E treatment and were used for Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Also, sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines given for human sperm examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Administration of vitamin E improved sperm parameters in the aged as well as young adult male mice. In addition, the expression of CatSper genes increased following vitamin E treatment. Also, intensity of signal for CatSper1 and CatSper2 increased in the head and middle piece of sperm in experimental group as compared to those of control ones.
Conclusion: The vitamin E treatment significantly improved the sperm quality, especially in terms of sperm motility, count and morphology rate. Furthermore, CatSper genes expression could be up-regulated by the vitamin E treatment.
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Maryam Radan,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability.
Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased .Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups.
Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent.
Tayebeh Amirshahi, Gholamreza Najafi, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins.
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male wistar rats (220±20gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). Control group (CG) received normal saline 10 ml/kg twice a week with Intraperitoneal (I.P) for 48 days (0.3 ml/rat(. Royal Jelly group (RJG) received jelly (100 mg/kg daily) for 48 days orally. Bleomycin group (BLG) received BL (10 mg/kg twice a week) with I.P for 48 days. Royal Jelly+ Bleomycin group (RJ+BLG) received royal Jelly (100 mg/kg /day) orally concomitant with BL administration. Sperm count, motility, and viability were investigated and chromatin quality and DNA integrity were also analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were measured as well.
Results: BL caused decline significantly (p<0.05) sperm count, sperm viability, motility as well as testosterone concentration compared to control group while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration were announced in BL in comparison with CG and RJ+BLG. Royal jelly improved Bleomycin-induced toxicity on sperm parameters and testosterone and MDA concentrations.
Conclusion: The present results support the idea that BL adversely affects sperm parameters and MDA and the RJ with antioxidant properties has positive effects on these parameters.

Fatih Mehmet Gur, Sema Timurkaan,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)

Background: Previous researches about the effects of epididymal obstruction on the testes are contradictory, and the mechanism harmful effect of male duct system obstruction on seminiferous tubules still remains unclear.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epididymal obstruction in prepubertal rats on the testis.
Materials and Methods: 15 days of age, the young rats were divided at random in two groups for epididymal ligation (n=25) or sham operation (n=15). Both groups were sacrificed at 21, 35, 56, 90, 120 days. The testis were removed, fixed in Bouin’s fixative and embedded in paraffin wax. The tissues were sectioned at 5 μm and stained with haematoxylin-eosin and triple stain.
Results: In ligated rats the first histological alterations were detected at 56 days. These degenerative changes included increase at the seminiferous tubule diameter and basal membrane thickness, decrease at the germinal epithelium thickness, depletion of spermatids and presence of multinucleated spermatids. In 90 and 120 days ligation groups; germ cells greatly reduced in number.
Conclusion: progressive degenerative alterations occurred in the seminiferous tubules after prepubertal epididymal obstruction but these degenerative alterations are not observed until puberta and in the seminiferous tubules that showed extensive degeneration, seminiferous epithelium was composed mainly of Sertoli cells.

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