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Showing 200 results for Sperm

Mir-Mehrdad Farsi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)
Abstract

Background: While traditional semen parameters are of significant clinical value, total fertilization failure in IVF cycles is not uncommon. Sperm function testing such as; Hamster egg penetration test has severed limitations as a clinical test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of semen parameters by using of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]I increase in response to progesterone. Materials and Methods: The [Ca2+]i response to progesterone was measured in spermatozoa of 86 patients referring to the Assisted Conception Unit for semen analysis. The patients were divided into 3 groups; according to their semen parameters and measured intracellular [Ca2+]i increasing in response to progesterone . Results: There was no significant correlation between each individual semen parameter and [Ca2+]i elevation in response to the progesterone, but most of the patients in each group had [Ca2+]i increasing as expected based on sperm parameters. However, there were cases in groups 1 and 2 (Normal and IVF) that demonstrated [Ca2+]i increases which were poor or lower than expected. Out of the 22 patients in the normal category, 8 cases had poor response to [Ca2+]I increase and out of the 47 patients in the IVF group, 9 patients were as well. In addition we measured [Ca2+]I increases in 6 fertile donor samples for comparison purposes. Conclusion: [Ca2+]i increase in response to progesterone is related to predicting value of sperm parameters in most cases. However, the response of sperm to progesterone could be different in some cases that are expected in normal or IVF category based on our semen analysis criteria. We suggest that the [Ca2+]i measurements may perfect the sperm fertility potential.
Mohammad A Khalili, Alexander G Rabchevsky,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)
Abstract

Materials and Methods: Young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g) were assigned into one of the three different groups of control, SCI, and adenovirus transfer (Ad) (n=3/ group). Control rats received no injury, nor any surgery. For SCI rats, SCI was produced by a 10g brass rod with a tip diameter of 2 mm which was dropped from a height of 12.5 mm onto exposed spinal cord at level of T10 with NYU impactor. Animals were perfused transcardially 43 days post SCI. Both spinal cord and testicular tissues were cryo-sectioned and ultra thin-sectioned, respectively. Cellular morphology and morphometry were done for spinal cord tissues. The testicular samples were processed for both light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The third group of rats underwent SCI first, followed by microinjection of LacZ adenoviral vectors (5x106 p.f.u./ �l) along the T6-T10 dorsal root entry zone bilaterally. The immune system of animals were suppressed before the Ad administration. Each Ad injection was done using a glass micropipet and a Nonoject injector. Rats were killed 43 days after Ad injections, and the tissues were studied as for other groups.
Nosratollah Zarghami, Ali Khosrowbeygi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress plays an important role in male infertility. The aims of this study were to compare seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2?), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total (sum of free and bound) homocysteine (tHcy) in normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic men, and to examine the relationships between tHcy and lipid peroxidation products. Materials and Methods: The study was a case-control study with a simple random sampling. The case group consisted of 15 asthenozoospermic males. This group was compared with 15 normozoospermic men. Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and tHcy were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MDA levels were determined by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman’s correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value <0.05 level. Results: MDA levels were lower in asthenozoospermic subjects than in control subjects (0.72±0.06 µM vs. 0.40±0.06 µM; p<0.05). No differences were seen in 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in asthenozoospermic subjects and controls (65.00±3.20 pg/ml vs. 58.17±4.12 pg/ml; p>0.05). Interestingly, tHcy levels were slightly higher in asthenozoospermic subjects than in controls (6.18±1.17 µM vs. 4.8±0.52µM). Sperm motility was inversely correlated with seminal plasma 15-F2t-isoprostane and MDA levels, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and tHcy showed no significant differences between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men. Sperm motility correlated inversely with seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and MDA. No relationship was found between tHcy and lipid peroxidation. However, higher sample size is required to confirm these findings.
Afsaneh Khademi, Leili Safdarian, Ashraf Alleyassin, Marzieh Agha-Hosseini, Ehsan Akbari Hamed, Hojatollah Saeidi Saeidabadi, Omid Pooyan,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: The etiologic cause in near one third of male factor infertility is unknown. The percentage of men with idiopathic infertility who have been successfully treated by the empirical therapeutic modalities is not high. Objective: The aim of this study was to assay the effect of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in patients who needs intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a method for infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 men (mean age± SD: 34.4 ± 6.07) presenting with primary infertility due to idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. L-carnitine was prescribed 1gram orally every 8 hours for 3 months. Before and after the ending of the L-carnitine treatment, semen analysis was performed. Results: The proportion of patients who had motile and grade C sperms rose significantly after treatment. Percentile of abnormal shaped sperms decreased significantly after treatment. In approximately 22%, complete asthenozoospermia changed to relative asthenozoospermia. Conclusion: Appearing motile sperms will potentially improve the technique of ICSI. The magnitude of the elevation in normal morphology is not clinically obvious, but it seems that it can be important in obtaining normal-shaped sperms for intracytoplasmic injection. Designing a study on selected patients with complete asthenozoospermia who have not other abnormalities in semen parameters can reveal the real effect of carnitine therapy in this category. Article
Iraj Rashidi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Taki Tiraihi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: Pentoxifylline (PX) prevents cAMP breakdown by inhibiting the activity of the cAMP-phosphatase and presumably, stimulates sperm motion. Incubation with PX causes hyperactivation of sperm, an important step in achieving fertilization, and leads to changes in membranes associated with sperm capacitation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pentoxifylline on sperm viability, motility and fertilization rate after mouse sperm preservation. Materials & Methods: Epididymal spermatozoa from adult NMRI mice were collected in T6 medium supplemented with 5% BSA and divided into four control and four experimental groups. The control groups included: (1) Fresh sperm sample (2) Preserved sperm sample at room temperature for 18 hours. (3) Preserved sperm sample at incubator 37°C for 18 hours. (4) Preserved sperm sample at 4°C for 18 hours. Experimental groups were the same groups after treatment with 3mmol/L PX. All the samples were assessed according to World Health Organization Criteria. Oocytes from superovulated NMRI female mice were inseminated in-vitro incubated sperm of all the control and experimental groups. After insemination and washing, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate were assessed by the presence of two pronucleus (2PN) and 2-cell stage embryos. To study the acrosomal reaction of control and treated spermatozoa transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used. Results: The results showed that addition of 3mmol PX to preserved mouse spermatozoa at 4 ºC and 37 ºC could increase the motility rate significantly (P<0.05) and also it could enhance abnormal morphology rate. Significant increase of fertilization rate was seen after preservation of treated sperm at 4 ºC (P<0.05), but there was not seen significant difference regarding cleavage rate comparing treated and non-treated spermatozoa (P>0.05). Studies with electron microscopy showed that addition of PX to the preserved spermatozoa prevent early acrosomal reaction. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that addition of pentoxifylline in mouse sperm samples after short time preservation can enhance the motility and fertilization rate, although it can enhance the abnormal morphology. It also can increase the number of intact sperm after preservation Article
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: Leydig cell tumor is a rare form of testicular neoplasm which comprises 1-3% of all testicular tumors and only about 3% of these tumors are bilateral. A few Leydig all tumor have been described in patients with klinefelter�s syndrome so far. Case: The patient described in this case report was a 24 year-old man with chief complaint of infertility for one year. Physical examination, semen analysis, testes sonography and hormonal assay were done for him. Right side simple orchiectomy was performed for patient. Conclusion: This tumor is always benign in children and approximately 90% are benign in adults. Clinical presentation is testicular enlargement, gynecomastia, sexual activity disturbances such as decreased libido, infertility and azoospermia. We recommend complete exam and karyotype in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Arash Davoudi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: Pentoxifylline (PX) is a methyxanthin derivative that influences the sperm motion characteristics. In general, PX has been reportedly effective in preserving sperm motility in vitro, also when administered orally to the asthenozoospermic patients. Objective: The main objective of this prospective clinical trial study was to rule out the effect of oral administration of PX on sperm progressive motility of asthenozoospermic ejaculates obtained from men with or without mild testicular varicoceles. In addition, the role of patient�s age on sperm motility following PX administration was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 infertile men with asthenozoospermia were allocated to this study. Following physical examination, 20 cases were found with mild varicocele of testis. A dosage of 400 mg PX/ twice daily for duration of 3 months was administered to each patient. Two semen samples (one before and one after the PX therapy) were evaluated under blind condition. Semen parameters of sperm concentration, total and fast progressive motility (%) and morphology (%) were analyzed for each sample. Also, the sperm motion characteristics of asthenozoospermic patients with testicular varicocele were compared with cases lacking varicocele. The subjects were divided into two age groups of <30 and ?30 years old. Results: PX was significantly effective on the fast progressive motility of sperm (p<0.01). Also, total progressive motility was enhanced from 26.82�16.8 to 29.60�22.2 with PX therapy. However, PX did not have any negative effect on other semen parameters. Oral therapy of PX was also effective in improving the fast progressive motility of sperm of samples from cases with or without mild testicular varicocele (p<0.01). Fast progressive motility was also significantly enhanced in ejaculates of men from both age groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that low dose of oral therapy of PX is significantly useful in enhancing fast progressive motility of sperms from infertile men with asthenozoospermia. Also, testicular varicocele did not interfere with enhancing effect of PX on sperm motility.
Farnoush Farzi, Marzieh Mehrafza, Ali Mirmansouri, Mona Oudi, Ahmad Hoseeini,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: Recent studies of uterine contractility in IVF�embryo transfer led us to consider an alternative, and possibly complementary, explanation for the high implantation rates of blastocysts. It has been demonstrated that myometrial contractile activity influences embryo implantation, possibly through mechanical displacement of embryos. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nitroglycerine (NTG) treatment for priming the uterus on the pregnancy outcome of ICSI-ET programs. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial. One hundred consecutive cycles of ICSI-ET on infertile couples were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment group (50 cycles) received an oral dose of 0.4 mg of NTG, and the control group (50 cycles) received a placebo, 15 minutes before fresh ET. An informed consent from was obtained form each patients. The main outcomes were implantation rate (IR) and pregnancy rate (PR). Results: The mean age of females in the control group and in the treatment group were 30.1�5.1 and 31�5.5 years respectively. Data showed that the mean duration of infertility was not significantly different between control and treatment groups (6.6�5.8 versus 7.8�5.1 years, respectively). The mean number of oocyte retrieval (metaphase II), 2pn, embryo cleaved, embryo transferred and PR weren't different between two Groups (p>0.05). Overall PR was 36%, it was 38% in treatment group and 34% in control group but there wasn�t statistically significant difference between two groups. (p>0.05) Conclusion: NTG didn't increase PR compared to placebo group. These results suggest that NTG treatment before ET isn't effective in the priming of a uterus
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Over recent decades a possible decrease in sperm quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported in many populations. Some recent findings, as cohort studies, showed an increased risk of testicular cancer in men with abnormal semen analysis.
Case: A 30 years old man referred to our clinic with chief compliant of infertility for 3 years. Spermogram revealed azoospermia and right extratesticular intrascrotal mass was detected by ultrasound examination. Right inguinal surgical approach showed intact small sized atrophic right testis and an intrascrotal mass. In microscopic examination of the mass mixed germ cell tumor with teratoma, yolk sac and embryonal components were reported.
Conclusion: Extragonadal germ cell tumors, like their testicular counterparts are associated with primary germ cell defects. The higher incidence of antecedent infertility suggests that either congenital or acquired primary germ cell defect contributes to defective spermatogenesis and therefore, there is higher risk of cancer development in incompletely migrated germ cells. We recommend complete evaluation of cancer in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Hossein Hadinedoushan, Mohammad Ghafourzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

The presence of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in semen or serum may impair sperm function leading to immunological infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ASA on the surface of sperm and in circulating blood of infertile couples. In this cross sectional study, we studied 49 couples suffering from infertility for at least one year. Serum ASA (IgG and IgA classes) was examined by indirect SpermMAR test. Also, ASA (IgG and IgA classes) attached to the surface of spermatozoa were tested by direct SpermMAR method in ejaculates from infertile men. ASA were positive in 8% of semen samples (2% IgG, 4% IgA, 2% both IgG and IgA classes). Only in one woman, ASA of the IgG class was found in serum samples. The presence of ASA may impair fertilizing ability and is a serious factor which may prevent the success of various fertilization techniques. ASA assessment should be considered as an essential part of infertility management.
Mir Mehrdad Farsi, Ali Jorsaraei, Mahmood Hajiahmadi, Sedigheh Esmaelzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Multiple factors have been suggested for prediction of pregnancy in Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles such as the number of injected oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo morphology and quality of transferred embryos. Predictive value of these factors is important in ICSI outcome.
Objectives: To evaluate the role of embryo morphology for prediction of pregnancy in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done on 97 patients who were treated by ICSI in Fatemeh Zahra Fertility and Infertility Centre from April 2004 to March 2005.  Number of retrieved oocytes, number of injected oocytes, fertilization rate, zygote morphology, rate of cytoplasmic fragmentation, number of four cell transferred embryos, and quality of embryo transfer, as predictors of pregnancy in ICSI cycles were evaluated. The results analysed by T-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisherchr('39')s exact test. Logistic regression was used to estimate the significance of variables in the prediction of pregnancy probability.
Results: Out of 97 patients, 42 cases of pregnancy were detected (Pregnancy rate: 43.3%). The number of four cell transferred embryos was 112 (53.84%) in pregnant group. Pregnancy occurred in 33 (58.9%) patients with at least one good quality zygote.  The mean number of four cell transferred embryos and the quality of zygotes had significant difference between pregnant and not pregnant groups (p=0.006 and p=0.000 respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the number of four-cell transferred embryos (p=0.007) and the quality of zygotes (p=0.003) were significant predictors of the pregnancy outcome.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the number of four-cell transferred embryos with ≤ 15% cytoplasmic fragmentation and zygotes with centralized, apposed and polarized pronuclei in women <38 years old are significant predictors for pregnancy in ICSI cycles.
 
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Ashraf Moini, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Batol Hossein Rashidi, Parvin Jaberi Pour, Elham Azimi Neko,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Although the uterine fibroids are common, their influence on fertility remains controversial. The association of submucosal fibroid with subfertility is well recognized, but debate persists as to whether intramural fibroids can cause infertility and the evidence for its effect on pregnancy in cycles of assisted conception remains unclear.
Objective: The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing uterine cavity on the outcome of ART cycles in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 94 women with uterine intramural fibroids and 184 controls referred to Royan Institute between 2001 and 2002 were enrolled. The intramural fibroids and their location were detected by transvaginal ultrasound performed just before the ART cycle. All patients underwent long standard GnRH agonist protocol. Student t-test and Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age of patients was 33.9 ±3.37 years in myoma group (n=94) and 33.28 ±3.59 years in control group (n=184). The total dose of gonadotropin used, estradiol level on day of hCG administration, the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos developed and transferred, the clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were similar in two groups.
Conclusion: The presence of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing endometrial cavity does not adversely affect clinical pregnancy rate in patients undergoing IVF or ICSI.
Davoodi Sohrabi, Mohsen Alipour, Ali Awsat Mellati,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Metronidazole and its derivatives have both antiprotozoal and anti bacterial effects. The reproductive toxicity of metronidazole has been observed in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the detrimental effects of metronidazole on spermatogenesis and testicular androgenesis in male adult rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats (70-90 days old) were randomly divided into three groups. Animals in group I (Control group) were administered with the water only. Animals in groups II and III were administered with metronidazol at the doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 60 days. Quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis was carried out by counting the relative number of each variety of germ-cells at the stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, i.e. type-A spermatogonia (ASg), pre-leptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), and step 7 spermatids (7Sd). Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In groups II and III, there was a significant decrease in the testes, accessory sex organ weights, plasma concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone with massive degeneration of all the germ cells at stage VII. Our data concluded that metronidazole has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and sex hormones in rats.
Mitra Bakhtiari, Aligholi Sobhani, Mohammad Akbari, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Mehdi Abbasi, Azim Hedayatpoor, Fardin Amidi , Feridoon Sargolzaei,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Various approaches have been used in the attempts to improve the quality of frozen–thawed mouse sperms. According to literatures, it seems that hyaluronic acid (HA) has an important role on the permeability and motility of sperms and their interaction with gametes.
Objective: For evaluation of HA supplementation on sperm characteristics and fertilization capability, we investigated the effect of different doses of HA on mouse sperm morphology, motility, vitality and fertilization capability after freezing and thawing.
Materials and Methods: The cauda epididymes was removed from 6 male mice with aseptic method. The sperm samples were frozen in 1.8 ml cryotubes with 18% raffinose and 3% skimmed milk containing cryo-protectant solution. HA at the concentration of 750, 1000 or 1250 µg/ml was supplemented to frozen-thawed sperms. Sperm motility was measured with microscope, and fertilization rate was evaluated after routine IVF by counting the fertilized oocytes. For sperm morphology, papaniclau staining was used while; Eosin B was used for the assessment of sperm viability rate.
Results: HA supplementation (750 µg/ml) improved motility parameters (p < 0.05) and increased the fertility rate (p < 0.05). The effect of 1,000 µg/ml HA was also positive on the sperms. But 1,250 µg/ml HA had negative effect on above mentioned characteristic. On the other hand, none of these doses had any effect on sperm morphology.
Conclusion: The dose of 750 µg/ml of HA has the greatest effect on the motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms after cryopreservation.

 
Karim Nayernia, Jae Ho Lee, Wolfgang Engel, Jessica Nolte, Nadja Drusenheimer, Kristina Rathsack, Arvind Dev, Gerald Wulf, Ingrid E Ehrmann, David Elliott, Ulrich Zechner, Thomas Haaf, Andreas Meinhardt, Hans W Michelmann, Gerlad Hasenfuss, Kaomei Guan,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Germline and somatic stem cells are distinct types of stem cells that are dedicated to reproduction and somatic tissue regeneration, respectively. Germline stem cells (GSCs), which can self-renew and generate gametes, are unique stem cells in that they are solely dedicated to transmit genetic information from generation to generation. We developed a strategy for the establishment of germline stem cell lines from embryonic stem cells (ES). These cells are able to undergo meiosis, generate haploid male gametes in vitro and are functional, as shown by fertilization after intra-cytoplasmic injection into mouse oocytes. In other approach, we show that bone marrow stem (BMS) cells are able to trans-differentiate into male germ cells. BMS cell-derived germ cells expressed the known molecular markers of primordial germ cells. The ability to derive male germ cells from ES and BMS cells reveals novel aspects of germ cell development and opens the possibilities for use of these cells in reproductive medicine. Conversely, we showed that adult male germline stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), can be converted into embryonic stem cell like cells which can differentiate into the somatic stem cells of three germ layers. Understanding how SSC can give rise to pluripotent stem cells and how somatic stem cells differentiate into germ cells could give significant insights into the regulation of developmental totipotency as well as having important implications for male fertility and regenerative medicine.
Tahmineh Peirouvi, Gholamhossein Farjah, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Phospholipids are distributed asymmetrically between inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane of live cells. Early during apoptosis, this asymmetry is disrupted and phosphatidylserine becomes exposed on the outside surface of the plasma membrane. There is little information about the effects of vitrification on apoptosis.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification on apoptosis of subfertile and fertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this study, semen samples were collected from subfertile (n=20) and fertile men (n=10) after 48h abstinence of intercourse. After semen analysis according to WHO criterias, each semen sample was divided into two portions. First portion was assessed by Annexin V-flous staining kit for showing apoptosis in subfertile and fertile men and second portion was assessed after vitrification-thawing. Results were analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test.
Results: After vitrification-thawing, mean percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa has increased 6 and 3 times in subfertile and fertile men respectively. This difference is significant.
Conclusion: Vitrification-thawing could disrupted membrane asymmetry and caused apoptosis. Therefore, it will cause reduction of functional spermatozoa in access of Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ART).
Morteza Koruji, Mansoureh Movahedin, Seyed Javad Mowla, Hamid Gourabi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: The basis of spermatogenesis is the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). The concentration of SSCs is very small. However, a system that supports the proliferation and maintenance of SSCs in vitro could be used to preserve and expand SSCs numbers as well as increase success in transplantation. It is a new avenue to restore spermatogenesis in azoospermia subjects.
Objective: Proliferation and enhancement of frozen-thawed SSCs numbers during in vitro culture.
Materials and Methods: Both Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated from adult mouse testes. Frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells were cultured in two groups: simple culture (Experimental 1) and co culture with Sertoli cells (Experimental 2). Also, Fresh cells were considered as control groups: simple culture (control1) and co culture with Sertoli cells (control 2).Assay of the spermatogonial-cell-derived colonies was carried out at the end of each week.
Results: Results indicated that the viability rate of the frozen cells after thawing (68.4±10.2%) was influenced by cryopreservation procedure significantly (p ≤0.001). In addition, the number of the colonies and their diameters in the co-culture system with fresh cells (25.1±5.2 and 205.8±50 µm, respectively) were more than other groups and the differences were significant (p<0.001). Number of the colonies and their diameters in experimental 1(9.5±4.3 and 124±35.9 µm, respectively), experimental 2 (15.6±3.5 and 157.6±41.9µm, respectively) groups were better than control 1 group (3.1±2.2 and 87.5±30.6µm, respectively) and the differences were significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: We demonstrated that co-culture system with Sertoli cells can increase in vitro colony formation of adult fresh and frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells in mouse.
 
 
Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Hossein Nahangi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men at the peak of their reproductive health. Only 10% of SCI men can father children without medical assistance due to potential impairments in ejaculation and sperm quality.
Objective: The main objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the epididymal necrospermia- sperm death, after chronic SCI in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of SCI, sham, and control. Following laminectomy, SCI was induced onto exposed dura matter (T10) of anesthetized rats. Sham group underwent laminectomy of T10 only; while, control rats were not exposed to any type of injury or medication. The spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were aspirated after 50 days for analysis of necrospermia with three assays of Eosin-Y staining, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS), and Hoechst 33258 fluorescent dye.
Results: The rate of necrospermia in SCI rats was significantly increased when compared with other groups (p<0.05). Also, the rates of necrspermia in SCI samples were similar with application of 3 assays (Eosin-Y: 46.11±9.41; HOS: 45.88±8.89; Hoechst: 46.76±9.31). Total necrospermia was not observed in any of the epididymal samples.
Conclusion: The results showed that chronic SCI is associated with high rate of epididymal necrospermia in mammals such as rats. It is, therefore, recommended that an effective laboratory technique, such as Hoechst 33258 should be used for separation of live and motile sperms from necrospermic ones for assisted reproduction program.
Mohamed Youssry, Batuhan Ozmen, Yasser Orief, Khaled Zohni, Safaa Al-Hasani,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)
Abstract

Fertilization involves direct interaction of the sperm and oocyte, fusion of the cell membranes and :::::union::::: of male and female gamete genomes. The completion of this process and subsequent embryo development depend in part on the inherent integrity of the sperm DNA. Sperm genome quality has been emphasized for several years as playing a major role in early embryogenesis. There is clinical evidence showing that human sperm DNA damage may adversely affect reproductive outcomes and that spermatozoa of infertile men possess substantially more DNA damage than do spermatozoa of fertile men. Testing DNA integrity may help selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA or with the least amount of DNA damage for use in assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). This review will focus on how sperm DNA is organized, what causes sperm DNA damage and what impact this damage may have on reproductive outcome.
Ali Khosrowbeygi, Nosratollah Zargham, Laya Farzadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)
Abstract

Background: The lipids of the spermatozoa membrane are important for the fluidity and flexibility of spermatozoa. However, spermatozoa’s lipids are the main substrates for peroxidation, which may provoke severe functional disorder of sperm.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids composition of spermatozoa in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The patients were 51 men with seminal parameters abnormalities undergoing infertility screening. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n=15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n=21) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n=15). The patients were compared with 21 males with normozoospermia. Sperm fatty acid analysis was performed using capillary gas chromatography.
Results: Levels of stearic acid and oleic acid were significantly higher in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects compared with these levels in normozoospermic males. Levels of arachidonic acid and DHA were significantly lower in the sperms of oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males than normozoospermic men. Sperm motility and morphology were correlated positively with levels of arachidonic acid and DHA while a negative correlation was observed with levels of stearic acid and oleic acid.
Conclusion: In conclusion, impaired sperm function can originate from the disorder of sperm lipid metabolism. Low levels of DHA and arachidonic acid in spermatozoa of oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects may be the result of breakdown of them.

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