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Showing 12 results for Semen Analysis

Valli A Dehghani, Mohammad A Khalili, Nahid Zamani, Fakhri Dreh-Zereshki,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Proper collections of human ejaculates are necessary for semen analysis and infertility treatment purposes. The objective of this study was to assess the seminal characteristics of ejaculates collected by patients via masturbation and coitus interruptus. Thirty individuals produced one sample via masturbation and one via incomplete coitus during a 3-days interval. The semen parameters were compared and analyzed with student t-test and Nemar test. The results showed that mean values for progressive motility of spermatozoa were increased from 46.81+15.7% to 58.76+13.5% in coitus interruptus and masturbation, respectively (P<0.01). Also, the mean values for normal sperm morphology was 54.03+25.1% in coitus interruptus and 63.36+13.4% in samples collected via masturbation (P<0.01). In addition, sperm concentration was significantly improved in ejaculates collected with masturbation (P<0.05). Although, insignificant, the concentration of round cells were lower in specimens collected via masturbation than coitus interruptus. Therefore, via masturbation method, better semen characteristics were yielded which subsequently may improve the infertility treatment outcome.
Afsaneh Khademi, Leili Safdarian, Ashraf Alleyassin, Marzieh Agha-Hosseini, Ehsan Akbari Hamed, Hojatollah Saeidi Saeidabadi, Omid Pooyan,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: The etiologic cause in near one third of male factor infertility is unknown. The percentage of men with idiopathic infertility who have been successfully treated by the empirical therapeutic modalities is not high. Objective: The aim of this study was to assay the effect of L-carnitine on sperm parameters in patients who needs intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a method for infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 men (mean age± SD: 34.4 ± 6.07) presenting with primary infertility due to idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. L-carnitine was prescribed 1gram orally every 8 hours for 3 months. Before and after the ending of the L-carnitine treatment, semen analysis was performed. Results: The proportion of patients who had motile and grade C sperms rose significantly after treatment. Percentile of abnormal shaped sperms decreased significantly after treatment. In approximately 22%, complete asthenozoospermia changed to relative asthenozoospermia. Conclusion: Appearing motile sperms will potentially improve the technique of ICSI. The magnitude of the elevation in normal morphology is not clinically obvious, but it seems that it can be important in obtaining normal-shaped sperms for intracytoplasmic injection. Designing a study on selected patients with complete asthenozoospermia who have not other abnormalities in semen parameters can reveal the real effect of carnitine therapy in this category. Article
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Najmeh Zare-Zadeh, Hamideh Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms non-sperm cells and various types of lipids and glucose.
Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL in serum samples of infertile men with abnormal SA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 infertile men (aged 23-49 years) with abnormal SA were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Sperm concentration and motility was evaluated using Makler chamber. While normal morphology was done after Geimsa staining. Following 12 h of fasting the blood samples were obtained for evaluation of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL levels. The lipid profiles were compared with the rates of normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Chi-square and fisher exact tests were used for data evaluation.
Results: 75.5% and 98% of the subjects with normal levels of triglyceride had abnormal sperm morphology and progressive motility respectively. Also abnormal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were related with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. The levels of LDL and HDL were normal in 80% and 89.3% of the cases respectively. The majority of the patients with normal LDL had abnormal sperm parameters.
Conclusion: The results showed that the concentrations of serum lipids were not generally related with the quality of semen parameters. Further studies on the role of lipid profiles of infertile men with sperm fertilizing potentials are necessary.
Zhi Hong Zhang, Hai Bo Zhu, Lei Lei Li, Yang Yu, Hong Guo Zhang, Rui Zhi Liu,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Previous researches about the effect of smoking on semen quality are contradictory, and the mechanism behind the harmful effect of smoking on semen quality still remains unclear until today.
Objective: The objectives of this study are evaluation of the relationship between smoking and fertility, investigation of the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and detection of presence of leukocytes within the semen of idiopathic infertile men from Northeastern China.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1512 infertile patients who visited affiliated hospitals of Jilin University from 2007-2010 were enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned into one non-smoking and one smoking group which was divided into mild, moderate and heavy subgroups. Sperm parameters (including leukocytes) and sperm morphology analysis were performed using standard techniques.
Results: Compared with non-smokers, smokers had a significant decrease in semen volumes (p=0.006), rapid progressive motility (p=0.002) and sperm viability (p=0.019); moreover, smokers had a significant increase in the levels of immotile sperms (p=0.005) and semen leukocytes (p=0.002); pH and sperm concentration were not statistically significant (p=0.789 and p=0.297 respectively). Sperm motion parameters were all lower in the smokers except for beat-cross frequency (Hz) (BCF). Further, the percentage of normal morphology sperm was decreased significantly in smokers (p=0.003), the sperm morphology was worse with increasing degree of smoking.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that smoking leads to a significant decline in semen quality and higher levels of leukocytes, thus smoking may affects the fertilization efficiency.
Renata Julia Menendez-Helman, Claudia Sanjurjo, Patricia Vivian Miranda,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)

Background: Glycosidases profusion in male reproductive fluids suggests a possible relationship with sperm function. Although Hexosaminidase (Hex) is the most active glycosidase in epididymal fluid and seminal plasma, as well as in spermatozoa, Glucosidase is considered a marker for epididymal function and azoospermia.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine Hex activity in seminal plasma from patients with normal and abnormal spermograms and analyze its correlation with seminal parameters.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, seminal plasma from azoospermic, asthenozoospermic, teratozoospermic, and normozoospermic patients was analyzed for the activity of: total Hex, HexA isoform, and glucosidase. Besides, hexosamine levels were determined, and the amount of Hex was quantified by immunoblot with a specific antibody. Correlation of Hex activity with seminal parameters was also analyzed.
Results: Hex activity, like glucosidase, was significantly reduced in azoospermic samples (44, 49, and 60% reduction for total Hex, HexA and glucosidase, respectively). A reduced amount of Hex in azoospermic samples was confirmed by western immunoblot. Hex activity was negatively correlated with round cells in azoospermic samples and positively correlated with motility in asthenozoospermic ones.
Conclusion: The results suggested that Hex activity was reduced in azoospermic samples and this was due to a lower amount of enzyme. The correlation to seminal parameters related to particular pathologies suggests a possible relationship of Hex with fertilizing capacity.
Jalil Hosseini, Azar Mardi Mamaghani, Hani Hosseinifar, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Farid Dadkhah, Mahdi Sepidarkish,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (8-2016)

Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions.
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in infertile men.
Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group). Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization.
Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02) in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5) in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39) was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13) after three month of treatment (p=0.02). In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009). There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters.
Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men.
Naina Kumar, Amit K Singh, Ajay R Choudhari,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (9-2017)

Background: High rates of sub-fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes were seen after age 40. In contrast to oogenesis, spermatogenesis continues in elderly men.
Objective: To retrospectively study the impact of aging on semen parameters in male partners of infertile couples in the rural area of developing country over 10 years and to find out whether aging affects male factor fertility and various semen parameters in this part of developing country.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, the laboratory semen analysis records of 1219 male partners of infertile couples of a rural tertiary care center of Central India in a 10-year period from January 2005 to December 2014 were evaluated into 5 groups based on men age: Group 1: 21-28 yr (n=57); group 2: 29-35 yr (n=450); group 3: 36-42 yr (n=532); group 4: 43-49 yr (n=165), and group 5: 50-60 yr (n=15). Evaluation of all semen parameters were done according to WHO standard criteria (1999).
Results: The analysis of semen records revealed the significant negative association of semen volume, total sperm count, sperm motility, and morphology with age. There was a significant fall in total sperm count, sperm motility, and morphology after the age of 35 yr.
Conclusion: Age has significant negative effect on semen volume, total sperm count, and sperm motility and morphology in this region of India.
Obose Rufus, Osaikhuwuomwan James, Aziken Michael,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men.
Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI) on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2): normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2). The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology.
Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4%) while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%). Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2%) were overweight and 44 (21.4%) were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese) (p=0.813).
Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.
Faduola Paul, Gbolahan Oladele Obajimi, Charles Olubukunmi Kolade ,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (7-2018)

Background: Sperm morphology has been strongly linked to fertilization. This makes it an important component in semen analysis. They are usually assessed by world health organization (WHO) standard or Kruger strict criteria in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) centers all over the world. Sperm count, motility, and morphology together form the basis by which patients are allocated into IVF or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection.
Objective: This study aimed to compare fertilization rates in standard IVF from patients with normal sperm count and motility with and without morphological assessment by WHO guideline.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, sperm count, motility, and morphology of 504 men candidate for IVF program over a three years period in our center were evaluated in two groups: Group A (case group) included men with normal sperm count and motility but with a poor morphology and group B (control group) included men with normal sperm count, motility and morphology evaluated by WHO criteria. Fertilization rate in both groups were then analyzed after 16-18 hr post insemination.
Results: Fertilization rate was higher in group B (p=0.028). Participants in group B, apart from having a normal sperm count (32.9±7.2) and motility (62.4±8.9), have a strict morphology of ≥30%. Our result has shown that spermatozoa in group B had a higher fertilization rate (71.4%). Though the sperm count (36.4±6.7) and motility (66.3±7.4) in group A were slightly higher (p=0.058 and p=0.060 respectively) than group B, the fertilization rate was lower.
Conclusion: Our study showed that sperm morphology could be a very important consideration before decisions towards allocation of patients into IVF or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection.
Elham Azizi, Mohammad Naji, Maryam Shabani-Nashtaei, Aligholi Sobhani, Atefeh Najafi, Fardin Amidi,
Volume 16, Issue 11 (11-2018)

Background: Vitamin D has multifaceted function in human reproductive physiology. It has been revealed that vitamin D is involved in spermatogenesis, and semen quality can be linked to vitamin D status in men.
Objective: Evaluating the correlation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in serum with basic and advanced semen parameters and essential determinants of spermatozoa function.
Materials and Methods: Participants were categorized, based on semen parameters, into normozoospermic (NS) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Serum level of 25-OHD was measured. Apoptotic status of spermatozoa, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species content of semen were assessed.
Results: Difference of 25-OHD concentration in serum of NS men versus OAT ones did not meet significance threshold. DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species content of semen and mitochondrial membrane potential state revealed significant difference between NS and OAT subjects. There were no significant differences in basic and functional semen parameters when men were stratified based on serum 25-OHD level. Taking both 25-OHD and semen categories (NS and OAT) into consideration did not indicate any significant difference in studied parameters. Total motility of spermatozoa was positively correlated with serum concentration of 25-OHD in all studied subjects. In addition, normal morphology of spermatozoa in NS men revealed a positive and significant correlation with levels of 25-OHD in serum.
Conclusion: Vitamin D may affect motility and morphology of spermatozoa. Lower content of serum vitamin D may affect fertility of men and should be considered in examination of men with abnormal spermogram.

Aimé Césaire Momo Tetsatsi, Désiré Alumeti Munyali, Georges Romeo Bonsou Fozin, Esther Ngadjui, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Pierre Watcho,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (2-2020)

Background: Infertility is a common condition affecting at least 15% of couples worldwide, and male factors are involved in about half of this prevalence rate. In Cameroon, about 20%-40% of couples are the victims. However, the sperm characteristics of infertile men are yet to be described in the health districts in Cameroon for better management of male infertility.
Objective: The present study was designed to assess the sperm profile and related sociodemographic factors of men attending the urology services at the Dschang Health District.
Materials and Methods: It consisted of a 10 yr retrospective study carried out in the Dschang Health District. The results of patients’ semen analysis (SA) were computed using Epi Info software and expressed as qualitative and quantitative spermogram state as described by the clinician and sociodemographic features of those patients.
Results: Out of the 379 patients studied, 83.91% had abnormal spermogram. Patients older than 50 yr were the most affected when grouped into age categories. With regard to patient’s profession, 52.51% had specified their profession and from that group, although farmers (9.31%) represented the lowest size category, they were the most affected with 94.74% having abnormal spermogram.
Conclusion: This study indicates that the sperm damage is the major cause of male infertility in the Dschang Health District. It also shows that farmers are the most affected category and it could be linked to the long-term exposure to pesticides. These results call for the assessment of the reproductive toxicity of locally used pesticides.
Roudabeh Sadat Moazeni Pourasil, Kambiz Gilany,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (2-2021)

Background: Idiopathic infertile men suffer from unexplained male infertility; they are infertile despite having a normal semen analysis, a normal history, and physical examination, and when female infertility factor has been ruled out.
Objective: The present study aimed to develop a metabolic fingerprinting methodology using Raman spectroscopy combined with Chemometrics to detect idiopathic infertile men vs. fertile ones by seminal plasma.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the seminal plasma of 26 men including 13 fertile and 13 with unexplained infertility who reffered to, Avicenna Infertility Clinic, 2018, Tehran, Iran, have been investigated. The seminal metabolomic fingerprinting was evaluated using Raman spectrometer from 100 to 4250 cm-1. The principal component analysis and discriminate analysis methods were used.
Results: The total of 26 samples were divided into 20 training and 6 test sets. The Principal component analysis score plot of the training set showed that the data were perfectly divided into two sides of the plot, which statistically approves the direct effect of semen metabolome changes on the Raman spectra. A classification model was constructed by linear discriminant analysis using the training set and evaluated by the test group which resulted in completely correct classification. While three of the six test samples appeared in the fertile group, the rest appeared in the infertile as expected.
Conclusion: Metabolic fingerprinting of seminal plasma using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric classification methods accurately discriminated between the idiopathic infertile men and the fertile ones and predicted their fertility type.

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