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Showing 11 results for Melatonin

Fatemeh Mostajeran, Maryam Naderi, Shahriar Adibi,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: During the detorsion of a torsioned ovary, oxidant agents are released and melatonin as an antioxidant can reduce ischemia. We studied the histopathological changes after using melatonin on experimental torsioned ovary in cat.
Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of Melatonin on histopathological changes in torsion – detorsion injury in cat ovary.
Materials and Methods: An adnexal torsion – detorsion model was created by using 20 adult cats randomly divided equally in to 2 groups of Saline and Melatonin. Ischemia was induced by iathrogenic 360° clockwise torsion of the cat adnex for 3 hr. Reperfusion was achieved for 3 hr. Melatonin or saline were injected intra peritoneally (10mg/kg) 30 min before ovarian detorsion in both groups. After 3 hr of ovarian detorsion, ovarian tissue was removed and fixed in 10% formalin solution, embedded in paraffin and evaluated for ischemic indices.
Results: Histological examination showed a significant improvement in ovarian morphology in the melatonin treated cats. Edema and vasoconstriction in saline group were more severe than Melatonin group (p-value = 0.009). Hemorrhage and leukocyte infiltration were also more obvious in saline group (p-value 0.0018)
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that Melatonin administration reduced ovarian histopathological damage due to oxidative injury associated with torsion.
Mohammad Hadi Bahadori, Fatemeh Ghasemian, Mina Ramezani, Zakieh Asgari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: It is important to protect oocytes and embryos from oxidative stress in the culture medium. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger.
Objective: Effect of melatonin during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development of mouse oocytes was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Oocytes from supper-ovulated mouse were divided to two groups: cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, group I) and denuded COC (d-COCs, group II). The oocytes were cultured in maturation medium with different doses of melatonin (1×101-105 nM). The cumulus expansion and nuclear status were evaluated after 24 h of in-vitro maturation. The oocytes were used for in-vitro fertilization. The fertilized oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with different doses of melatonin.
Results: The expansion (86.79%) and maturation (80.55%) rate of COCs increased in supplemented medium with 10 nM of melatonin vs. control group (73.33%), p=0.006 and p=0.026 respectively), but oocytes without cumulus cells indicated higher maturation rate at higher melatonin doses (10 and 100 M, 84.34% and 79.5% respectively( vs. 69.33% in control group (p=0.002). Fertilization rate was higher in treated medium with 1 μM of melatonin (93.75%, p=0.007). The rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation was promoted in medium supplemented with 10 and 100 nM of melatonin (92.37% and 89.36% vs. 81.25% in control group, p=0.002). We observed a dose dependent response to melatonin treatment in this experiment.
Conclusion: Exogenous melatonin can promote cumulus cell expansion, in vitro oocyte maturation, and embryo development. However we investigated a dose-dependent response in different stages of maturation and development. It may reflect sensitive rate of oocytes and embryos to culture conditions.
Behrooz Niknafs, Ahmad Mehdipour, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh,
Volume 12, Issue 12 (12-2014)

Background: Melatonin, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and an antioxidant, has been shown that can inhibit apoptosis. Administration of melatonin may improve embryo development in assisted reproductive technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of melatonin in inhibition of spontaneous and induced apoptosis by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alph (TNF-α) and actinomycin-D during preimplantation development of mouse embryos.
Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), then allowed to mate with male mice. The resultant 2-cell embryos were divided into six groups as follows: control (group I), melatonin (group II), actinomycin-D (group III), actinomycin-D + melatonin (group IV), TNF-α (group V), and TNF-α + melatonin (group VI). We recorded the numbers and developmental rates of the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst embryos. Blastocysts were stained with acridine orange in order to assess for the embryo quality.
Results: The group IV showed a significantly higher developmental rate of blastocysts compared to group III (p<0.05). The number of dead blastomers was significantly decreased in group IV in comparison to group III (p<0.05). Both V and VI groups had a lower developmental rate and lesser quality of blastocysts compared with group I. There was no significant difference in the developmental rate of blastocysts from group II compared to group I (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Supplementation of embryo culture media with melatonin can improve the quality and developmental rate of embryos. Melatonin can prevent cell death that was induced by TNF- α and actinomycine-D.
Sara Soleimani Rad, Shamsi Abbasalizadeh, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Mehzad Sadagheyani, Azadeh Montaseri, Jafar Soleimani Rad,
Volume 13, Issue 7 (9-2015)

Background: Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve the pregnancy within a year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a complex issue and different factors such as stress oxidative can be involved in this problem. So, any attempt to neutralize oxidative stress would be helpful in the treatment of infertility. Melatonin is a known scavenger of free radicals.
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the level of melatonin and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in fertile and infertile women.
Materials and Methods: The participants including fertile and infertile women were divided into two groups of 30 people. Blood sampling was performed and sera were collected. The level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and melatonin were detected. Data were analyzed using T-test and their correlation was assessed using Spearman test.
Results: Serum melatonin from fertile women was higher than infertile women but the difference was not significant (p= 0.46). MDA level in fertile women was significantly lower than infertile women (p<0.001) and the level of TAC in fertile women was significantly higher than infertile women (p<0.001). Spearman test revealed a significant and direct correlation between melatonin and TAC in fertile and infertile women and a significant but reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA in infertile and fertile women.
Conclusion: Differences in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in fertile and infertile individuals have been reported. This study revealed a significant correlation between melatonin and oxidative stress biomarkers, concluding that melatonin level could be involved in infertility.
Ghasem Saki, Mehri Mirhoseini, Masoud Hemadi, Ali Khodadadi, Fereshteh Beygom Talebpour Amiri,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)

Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse.
Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 µm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity.
Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells.
Mehri Mirhoseini, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Abbas Ali Karimpour Malekshah, Zahra Rezanejad Gatabi, Elmira Ghaffari,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

Background: Testicular damage due to spermatic cord torsion may lead toinfertility. It is probably because of changes in oxidative stress factors such asmalondialdehyde.
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of melatonin (MLT), as anantioxidant, on testicular damage induced by acute unilateral spermatic cord torsionand detorsion (T/D) in rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 adult male Wistar rats wererandomly divided into three groups (8 rats/group): sham group underwent rightscrotal surgery only., the T/D group underwent right testicular torsion (for 1 hr) anddetorsion, and the melatonin group underwent right testicular torsion, received 25μg/kg melatonin intraperitoneally immediately after surgery of T/D. Then thehistological parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) changes were evaluated.
Results: Torsion and detorsion decreased the diameter of the tubules significantlycompared to controls (p=0.003). Melatonin could increase the diameter, but it wasnot significant (p=0.26). The heights of the epithelium were constant in sham, T/D,and melatonin groups without any significant difference between groups (p=0.98).Based on Johnsen’s score, spermatogenesis was normal in the sham group. Thetorsion significantly injured all lineage cells (p<0.001). There was no any spermatidor sperm in the seminiferous tubules. Melatonin improved the spermatogenesissignificantly (p=0.02), but could not improve MDA level significantly (p=0.99).
Conclusion: Severe degenerative changes of testis were induced by acute unilateralspermatic cord torsion and detorsion in rats, but it had no effect on MDA level.
Mohammadreza Gholami, Seyyed Amir Yasin Ahmadi, Abolfazl Abaszadeh, Arash Khaki,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (6-2017)

Spermatocytogenesis starts from lumens of seminiferous cords and after migrationto the basal membrane ends to the lumens again. We attempt to review the protectiveeffects of melatonin and ghrelin on Spermatocytogenesis and in particular onspermatogonial stem cells, as two rather newly-discovered hormones. Testicularfreezing prior to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is one of the ways of preservingfertility in children with cancer. The freezing has two methods of slow-freezing(cryopreservation) and rapid-freezing (vitrification). Administration of melatonincan maintain the quality of the germ cells underwent such processes, as well asghrelin, can protect germ cells from the toxicities secondary to ischemic injuries,and pathologic apoptosis. This review indicates that in vitro or in vivoadministration of melatonin or ghrelin, could be effective to preserve fertilizationand also they can be used in assisted reproductive technologies to improve thequality of sperms. Future original studies should be propelled toward human studies,of course with observing the ethics.
Fereshte Torabi, Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Nourollah Rezaei,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (8-2017)

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) has been known as an anticancer drug with several side effects on various organs such as a male reproductive system that can cause infertility.
Objective: To evaluate the possible combined effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZno) and melatonin (Mel) on sperm parameters and histopathological changes of the testis in CP-treated rats.
Materials and Methods: 42 adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. GI: control, GII: 60 mg/kg/wk CP, GIII and GIV, 10 mg/kg/wk Mel and 5mg/kg/wk nZno and GV: 5 mg/kg/wk nZno and 10 mg/kg/wk Mel were given 2 hr prior to CP injection, respectively,GVI: 5mg/kg/wk nZno and 10 mg/kg/wk Mel simultaneously. After 8 wk of treatment, rats were sacrificed and testis and epididymis were harvested for further evaluation.
Results: The CP-treated group showed significant decreases in the body, testes and epididymis weights and sperm parameters (sperm count, viability, motility) with an increase abnormal sperms when compared with the control (p<0.001), as well as many histological alterations included decreased diameters of seminiferous tubules and Johnsen’s Testicular Score (with degeneration, desquamation, multi-nucleated giant cell formation), whereas combined treatment (GV), showed more protective effects on CP-induced reproductive system damage compared with groups III or IV (p<0.001).
Conclusion: These results suggest simultaneous administration of Mel and nZno have more effectively protections against CP-induced reproductive damage than Mel or nZno alone.
Sina Mojaverrostami, Narjes Asghari, Mahsa Khamisabadi, Heidar Heidari Khoei,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread endocrine disorder, affecting approximately 20% of women within reproductive age. It is associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity, menstrual irregularity, and anovulatory infertility. Melatonin is the main pineal gland hormone involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm. In recent years, it has been observed that a reduction in melatonin levels of follicular fluid exists in PCOS patients. Melatonin receptors in the ovary and intra-follicular fluid adjust sex steroid secretion at different phases of ovarian follicular maturation. Moreover, melatonin is a strong antioxidant and an effective free radical scavenger, which protects ovarian follicles during follicular maturation.
Objective: In this paper, we conducted a literature review and the summary of the current research on the role of melatonin in PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Reaxys were searched from their inception to October 2018 using the keywords ″Melatonin″ AND ″Polycystic ovary syndrome" OR "PCOS.″
Results: Based on the data included in our review, it was found that the administration of melatonin can improve the oocyte and embryo quality in PCOS patients. It may also have beneficial effects in correcting the hormonal alterations in PCOS patients.
Conclusion: Since metabolic dysfunction is the major finding contributing to the initiation of PCOS, melatonin can hinder this process via its improving effects on metabolic functions.
Wannisa Sukhorum, Jariya Umka Welbat, Suchada Ktutsri, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 18, Issue 5 (5-2020)

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) has been shown to affect the testes adversely, especially the seminiferous epithelium. As melatonin, an endocrine hormone, has been shown to normalize testicular function, its ability to prevent MTX-induced testicular damage should be considered.
Objective: Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities of melatonin, this study aimed to investigate its protective effect against testicular damage induced by MTX.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats (200-230 g) were divided into five groups (n = 8/each). The rats in group I were injected with vehicle as a control. In group II, the rats were received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (8 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The rats in group III were intravenously injected with MTX (75 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The remaining two groups received melatonin (8 mg/kgBW) for 15 (group IV) and 30 (group V) consecutive days, intraperitoneally, and then intravenously received MTX (75 mg/kgBW) on days 8 and 15 of the experimental period. Reproductive parameters, including epididymal sperm concentration, testicular tyrosine-phosphorylated protein expression, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression, and caspase-3 and malondialdehyde levels, were examined.
Results: The sperm concentrations (×106/ml) of groups IV (58.75 ± 1.28) and V (55.93 ± 2.57) were improved significantly (p = 0.032) compared with that of group II (32.92 ± 2.14). The seminiferous epithelium in groups IV and V also increased, while caspase-3 expression decreased. In the melatonin-treated groups, the expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at 32 kDa was decreased and that of proteins at 47 kDa was increased compared with the MTX group. StAR protein expression was not altered in any of the groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that melatonin improves the epididymal sperm concentration by decreasing the expression of caspase-3 and increasing that of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in MTX-treated testes.
Elham Tajabadi, Abdolreza Javadi, Nasim Ahmadi Azar, Masoud Najafi, Alireza Shirazi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa,
Volume 18, Issue 12 (12-2020)

Background: The spermatogenesis system includes highly radiosensitive cells. Hence, this system is a potential target for toxic effects of ionizing radiation during radiotherapy of abdomen and pelvis cancers, as well as after accidental radiation events. Accordingly, metformin and melatonin are two important radioprotectors that have shown an ability to prevent cell death through neutralization of free radicals and stimulating DNA damage responses.
Objective: To evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin and metformin on mice spermatogenesis when administered alone or as a combination.
Materials and Methods: In this histological Study, 40 (6-8 wk, 30 gr) NMRI mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 5/each) as control, metformin, melatonin, melatonin + metformin, radiation, radiation + melatonin, radiation + metformin, and radiation + melatonin + metformin. 37 days after the irradiation, the testicular tissues were collected for histological evaluation.
Results: Single administration of melatonin could ameliorate effectively radiation toxicity in mice testis. Metformin showed radioprotective effects on some parameters such as the numbers of spermatogonia and mature sperms. Interestingly, the melatonin and metformin combination reversed the reduced number of sperms rather than single drug administration.
Conclusion: The combination of melatonin with metformin can protect mice spermatogenesis against ionizing radiation more effectively compared to the single forms of these drugs.

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