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Marzieh Mehrafza, Nadia Nobakhti, Zahra Atrkar Roushan, Havva Dashtdar, Mane Oudi, Ahmad Hosseini,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Backgroud: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is generally attempted before proceeding to more expensive and invasive assisted reproductive techniques such as invitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This procedure is most commonly performed as a therapeutic method for couples with a wide variety of subfertility etiologies, such as low count or low motility of sperm, or an incompatibility between the sperm and the cervical mucus. The objective of this clinical trial study was to compare the correlation between the semen parameters and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing hyperstimulation and IUI. Materials and Methods: 336 infertile couples that underwent 336 cycles of IUI with washed husband�s semen were included in this study. All patients� charts were reviewed for age, etiology and duration of infertility, semen characteristics and pregnancy rates. The SPSS 9 software and Chi-square tests were applied for statistical analysis. P<0.05 was determined as statistical significance. Results: Total pregnancy rates were18.2% (61 out of 336 cycles). Postwash semen parameters including: sperm count ?10? 106 ,motility ?50% (grade III and IV >20%) had significant effect on pregnancy rates after IUI. The Outcome of this procedure was not significantly affected by female age, duration or etiology of infertility. Conclusion: Postwash semen quality was the most important factor for predication of successful pregnancy in this study.
Ashok Agarwal, Sushil Anandh Prabakaran,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Infertility is one of the most stressful conditions amongst married couples. Male factor infertility is implicated in almost half of these cases. Recent advances in the field of reproductive medicine have focused the attention of many researchers to consider reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction. Although, ROS is involved in many physiological functions of human spermatozoa, their excess production results in oxidative stress. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membranes are the two locations of ROS production that involves complex enzyme systems such as creatine kinase and diaphorase. ROS causes damage to the spermatozoa DNA, resulting in increased apoptosis of these cells. The production of ROS is greatly enhanced under the influence of various environmental and life style factors such as pollution and smoking. An effective scavenging system is essential to counteract the effects of ROS. Various endogenous antioxidants belonging to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic groups can remove the excess ROS and prevent oxidative stress. Since, ROS is essential for the normal sperm physiology, rationale use of antioxidants is advocated.
Mir Davood Omrani, Agneta Nordenskhold,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: For screening sequence variations in genes, rapid turnover time is of fundamental importance. While, many of the current methods are unfortunately time consuming and technically difficult to implement. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method had been shown to be a high-throughput, time saving, and economical tool for mutation screening. Objective: In the present study DHPLC method was used to explore the potential association between estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR2) variants and male infertility. Materials and Methods: DNA from 96 men with infertility and 96 normal male as control were screened for mutation in the nine exons of the ESR2 gene, using WAVE� DHPLC device equipped with a DNA separation column and automated sequence analysis on the ABI Prism 310. Results: DHPLC evaluation of ESR2 gene in 96 infertile patients, revealed one heterozygous sequence variation (IVS 8�4G&gt;A) near the 5� splicing region of intron 8 in 5 patients. No variation was identified in control population. Conclusion: Mutation detection by DHPLC, as it is presented in this context, is a high-throughput, quick, and economical tool for mutation screening. The gene alterations in ESR2 gene that we�ve found might increase susceptibility to infertility; but without cDNA screening, the consequences of these genetic alterations cannot be predicted
Mohammad Hossein Dehghan, Thomas Martin, Robabeh Dehghanan,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)

Background: About 90% of the world�s contraceptive users are women. This gender-based usage has occurred due to the emphasis of family planning programs and contraception research. Condom, vasectomy and withdrawal are the only male contraception devices available with less assurance for men. For new male contraceptive to have an impact, they must be acceptable to both men and women, as well as effective. A hormonal method will likely come to the market within the next few years. It is necessary to use biologically active botanical substances or fertility-regulating agents of plant origin which are ecofriendly. Objectives: The epididymis is a site which can be exploited for male contraception without undue side effects. It was therefore of interest to investigate the effect of biologically active botanical ecofriendly plants such as Azadirchta Indica (neem) seed alcoholic extract as an efficient and competent male contraceptive on male mouse epididymis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental case control study sixty adult healthy mice divided into two groups of 40 as the control and 20 as the treated group. The treated group was administered by Iranian Botanical Azadirachta Indica seed alcoholic extract, cultivated at Dashteh Moghan (Ardabil province). The seeds was extracted with ethanol then administered first 50 mg/kg body weight /day then 100 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 15 days, following WHO guide lines (MB-50). The target organ, epididymis parameters viz. sperm motility, sperm count fertility rate, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) morphology of spermatozoa and ATPase activity of epididymis of the two groups were compared. Results: The 50 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day showed no significant change in epididymal sperm motility, as compare to the control. Therefore the dose was changed to 100 mg/kg BW/day for 15 days. The body and organ weights (epididymis) of the treated animals were not significantly changed as compare to control group (p&gt;0.05). The treatment brought about a significant reduction in fertility rate when normal cycling female mice were mated with treated males (p&lt;0.001). Decline in ATPase activity in caput and cauda epididymis was observed (p&lt;0.001). SEM photographs showed spermatozoa with abnormal head and bent mid-piece region. Conclusion: Decrease in ATPase activity could be attributed to androgen dependent parameters. However, the fertility rate was also significantly reduced which can be due to the decrease in cauda epididymal sperm motility and their morphological abnormalities. Since the effect on epididymal sperm motility and morphology was manifested in short period of 15 days, it is evident that the extract has potential as an antifertility agent. As this extract do not cause change in the body and organ weight, it is likely that no effect occurred on electrolyte balance
Afsaneh Khademi, Ashraf Alleyassin, Marzieh Agha-Hosseini, Nasrin Dadras, Allaleh Asghari Roodsari, Leila Tabatabaeefar, Mehrnoosh Amini,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a real problem that affects 25-63% of women. There is no valid Persian version of sexual function questionnaire (FSQ).
Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of Persian version of sexual function questionnaire.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 547 women were questioned by Persian version of SFQ. Factor analysis produced five domains of female sexual function. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity were calculated.
Results: Five-factor structure accounted for 63% of the variance. Arousal-orgasm domain was as same as arousal-sensation, arousal-lubrication, and orgasm domains of the original version. Enjoyment-desire domain was similar to enjoyment and desire domains except one question. Pain and partner domains were consistent with original domains. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity were reasonable in Persian version of SFQ.
Conclusion: Persian version of SFQ is almost valuable and reliable to use for Iranian population with exception of one question. Results of the omitted question from enjoyment domain should interpret separately as unusual sex domain.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Vali Ollah Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Serajadin Vahidi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: We compared ROS levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with this level in healthy donors. We also determined the ROS level in semen of infertile men according to the etiology of infertility, and also the effect of smoking on its level.
Materials and Methods: In total, 63 infertile patients and 63 healthy donors as control were selected. Complete physical examination, semen analysis, scrotal sonography and hormone assay were done for all patients. Azoospermic patients were excluded from the study. ROS level in semen was measured by chemiluminescence assay in both groups. Patients also were divided in two groups according to the etiology of infertility.
Results: The mean age of normal subjects and infertile men were 30.78±3.73 years and 31.43±6.60 years respectively. The mean ROS level in normal men was 180.05 RLU (Relative light unit), while this was 1852.04 RLU in infertile patients, which is significantly higher in case group (p=0.000). Fifty patients had varicocele and in 13 patients no specific etiology was found. The mean ROS level in varicocele patients was 2215.42 RLU and in unknown group was 454.44 RLU (p=0.048).
Conclusion: Our study showed that the level of ROS in seminal fluid of infertile men is significantly higher than fertile donors and also in infertile patients with varicocele it is higher than patients with unknown cause.
Anju Mutreja, Meera Agarwa, Sonalika Kushwaha, Alka Chauhan,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: Nelumbo nucifera has been used as antifertility agent in females by the local tribals of Rajasthan especially of Udaipur district India. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Nelumbo nucifera on the fertility and general physiology in female rats.
Materials and Methods: 20 female albino rats were taken and divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 received ethanolic extract at dose of 800mg/kg b.wt. for investigating the nature of the drug and antifertility effect. Vaginal smear was monitored everyday in the morning to study the estrous cycle. On day 41st all the animals were sacrificed and various haematological and biochemical parameters were estimated.
Results: Data revealed that oral administration of Nelumbo nucifera extract brought about a significant decline in the weight of Ovary; Control (43±4.75mg), Nelumbo extract treated (25±3.86mg), Uterus; Control (236±0.004mg), Nelumbo extract treated (214±0.007mg) and Vagina; Control (221±0.002mg), Nelumbo extract treated (178±0.003mg) as well as protein and glycogen level, however cholesterol level increased significantly. In addition, the diestrous phase of the estrous cycle was found to be prolonged; Control (1.81±0.21) days, Nelumbo extract treated (3.62±0.42) days. Conclusion: These results suggest that Nelumbo nucifera has the anti-estrogenic nature without altering the general physiology of the female rats.
Nasrin Sheikh, Iraj Amiri, Marzieh Farimani, Rezvan Najafi, Jafar Hadeie,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It is established that sperm DNA integrity is essential in fertilization and normal embryo and fetal development. Routine semen analysis gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. Therefore, the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity, in addition to routine sperm parameters, could add further information on the quality of spermatozoa and reproductive potential of males.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of sperm DNA damage in fertile and infertile males and its correlation with semen parameters.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 45 infertile men selected from couples attending the infertility clinic with a history of infertility of ≥1 years and 75 healthy volunteers of proven fertility (initiated a successful pregnancy) served as the control group. After routine sperm analysis, DNA damage was determined using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay method.
Results: The mean of DNA damage (comet value) in the sperms of infertile males was significantly higher than that of fertile males (12.9±7.59 vs. 48.77±24.42, p&lt;0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between DNA damage and sperm motility in fertile group (p<0.02, R=-0.263). In infertile males, significant negative correlations were observed between DNA damage with sperm motility (p<0.002, R=-0.45) and morphology (p<0.03, R=-0.317). There was no significant correlation between sperm concentration and sperm DNA damage in both groups.
Conclusion: These results indicate that sperm DNA damages in infertile males is significantly higher than fertile males and sperms with abnormal morphology and low levels of motility has more abnormal DNA damages than motile and normal sperms.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Mehrdad Soleimani, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: To study the effect of varicocele and its severity on the level of ROS in infertile men with clinical varicocele.
Materials and Methods: In this controlled prospective study, 42 men with clinically diagnosed left varicocele and 30 fertile men were studied. Patients were asked about history of urogenital infection, using any antioxidant medication and smoking. Grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Levels of ROS in seminal plasma were measured in each group by a chemiluminiscence assay. The sperm parameters were also determined and compared in different groups.
Results: The ROS levels were significantly higher in patients with varicocele than normal men (mean: 1575.42 RLU (Radio Luminescence Unit) vs. 53.79 RLU, p=0.005). In total 20 patients had grade I, 20 patients grade II and 2 patients had grade III varicocele. The mean ROS levels were 669.12 RLU, 2406.87 RLU and 2324 RLU in patients with grade I, II and III varicocele respectively (p=0.144). In case group, 15 patients were smoker and 27 were non-smokers. The mean ROS levels in patients with the history of smoking was 1367.71 RLU while in non-smokers it was 897.672 RLU (p=0.729). Conclusion: Our study showed that increased levels of ROS production in the seminal fluid can be an important factor in the etiology of male infertility in patients with varicocele, and this effect is more prominent with higher grade of varicocele.
Mona Zvâncă, Radu Vlădăreanu, Asim Kurjak, Awatif Juma Al Bahar,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: With the technical development, ultrasound tends to overpass its limits and to become the main investigation tool even for situations when it was traditionally considered second best. It is more convenient both for patient and doctor, less expensive and has real diagnostic value.
Objective: The present paper, and its graphic back-up, are intended as a visual testimony of the fact that the newer three dimensional (3D) ultrasound technique is much more than a simple generator of nice, commercial, images. Moreover, its use may be extended from obstetrics to gynecological pathology, especially in cases related to infertility.
Materials and Methods: We performed a review of the main local infertility causes and their perception by the 3D ultrasound, as compared to the conventional methods. General literature citations were completed with personal cases and images. In our research, we used a Kretz Voluson Expert 730 ultrasound machine with a full logistic equipment. Our database was completed over a period of 18 months and included various pathology, such as uterine anomalies, fibroids, polyps, ovarian cysts and many others.
Results: Three dimensional ultrasound represents the best tool in evaluating the uterine cavity, the endometrium, assessing its volume and vascularity pattern. It also offers a very good image of the uterine structure, the adnexal morphology and their relationship. It performs a thorough pelvic assessment by a single examination. Moreover, it may realize a histerosalpingography, which is as efficient as the radiological method, but easier and with fewer side effects.
Conclusion: Even though it is technically more difficult and time consuming, a good practice and high quality ultrasound equipment offer a series of benefits over any other kind of investigation.
Rahul B Patil, Shreya R Vora, Meena M Pillai,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: High content of phospholipids in testes and epididymis is involved in regulation of spermatogenesis. On the other side, it makes testes susceptible to oxidative stress due to lipid peroxidation, which alters the normal mechanism of spermatogenesis.
Objective: In the present investigation, antioxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of parsley, lettuce and brahmi were tested against D-galactose induced oxidative stress in mouse testes and epididymis.
Materials and Methods: Oxidative stress was induced in six months old mice by injecting a low dose of D-galactose. Antioxidant effect of plant extracts was studied in testes and epididymis of oxidatively stressed mice in conjunction with thin layer chromatographic separation of phospholipids and quantitative estimation of phospholipid phosphorus.
Results: The results showed decrease in total phospholipids content and level of phospholipid phosphorus in the testes and epididymis of D-galactose stressed mice. The administration of plant extracts along with D-galactose showed no significant alterations in the phospholipids content in testes and epididymis.
Conclusion: Decreased phospholipids and phospholipids phosphorus in testes and epididymis of D-galactose stressed mice indicates peroxidation of lipids due to injection of D-galactose. The plant extracts helped to maintain the level of peroxidation in these organs even under stressed condition. It is postulated that ethanolic extracts of parsley, brahmi and lettuce are protective against D-galactose induced oxidative stress in testes and epididymis.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Najmeh Zare-Zadeh, Hamideh Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms non-sperm cells and various types of lipids and glucose.
Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL in serum samples of infertile men with abnormal SA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 infertile men (aged 23-49 years) with abnormal SA were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Sperm concentration and motility was evaluated using Makler chamber. While normal morphology was done after Geimsa staining. Following 12 h of fasting the blood samples were obtained for evaluation of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL levels. The lipid profiles were compared with the rates of normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Chi-square and fisher exact tests were used for data evaluation.
Results: 75.5% and 98% of the subjects with normal levels of triglyceride had abnormal sperm morphology and progressive motility respectively. Also abnormal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were related with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. The levels of LDL and HDL were normal in 80% and 89.3% of the cases respectively. The majority of the patients with normal LDL had abnormal sperm parameters.
Conclusion: The results showed that the concentrations of serum lipids were not generally related with the quality of semen parameters. Further studies on the role of lipid profiles of infertile men with sperm fertilizing potentials are necessary.
Shahdokht Motazedian, Bahareh Hamedi, Jaleh Zolghadri, Khatereh Mojtahedi, Nasrin Asadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Although intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most common methods which is used for male factor and unexplained infertility the relative influence of various semen parameters on the likelihood of a successful outcome is controversial. Several semen parameters have been evaluated as predictors of a successful outcome with intrauterine insemination.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of sperm morphology on the success rate of IUI.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of 200 couples who underwent IUI cycles of ovarian stimulation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The patients were chosen in 2 groups group A: 100 patients with ≤20% normal sperm morphology and group B: 100 patients with >20% normal sperm morphology (unexplained infertility). The other semen parameters were normal in both groups.
Results: Total clinical pregnancies were 10.5% (pregnancy rate / cycle). There was not any difference between two groups in rate of pregnancy and also pregnancy outcome.
Conclusion: Intrauterine insemination used for treating male factor infertility has not shown excessive advantage when normal sperm morphology in semen analysis is more than 20% in comparison with ≤ 20%.
Javid Ahmad Ganaie, Vinoy K. Shrivastava,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Active immunization with gonadotropin releasing hormone conjugate (GnRH-BSA) manipulates the fertility axis and thus alters the reproductive cyclicity serum estradiol and progesterone levels. While the application of Kamdhenu ark increases the efficacy of GnRH-BSA.
Objective: This experimental investigation is aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects on estrous cycle serum estradiol and progesterone levels in female mice after Kamdhenu ark and GnRH-BSA immunization.
Materials and Methods: Sixty sexually mature female mice were divided into three groups of twenty each. Group I served as control while group II was immunized with GnRH-BSA conjugate (50µg/animal) for 120 days. However group III was supplemented with Kamdhenu ark (100 ppm) orally along with GnRH-BSA conjugate immunizations and their vaginal estrous cyclicity serum estradiol and progesterone levels were estimated after 30 60 90 and 120 days of intervals.
Results: GnRH-BSA immunized females showed regular estrous cycle initially but after 13th day animals started showing irregular and prolonged estrous cycle with a complete diestrus stage after 65th day onwards. In connection to this GnRH-BSA + Kamdhenu ark supplemented animals also showed regular cyclicity initially but later they showed more interrupted cycle with complete diestrus stage after 55th day. Besides this the serum estradiol and progesterone levels lowered significantly in all the experimental groups as compared to control animals. The more severe decrease in hormonal levels was noticed in later part of the experiment especially in the group supplemented with Kamdhenu ark along with GnRH-BSA immunizations.
Conclusion: All these observations suggest that the GnRH-BSA conjugate has a deleterious effect on the reproductive hormones and estrous cycle of female mice; and Kamdhenu ark acts as a bioenhancer in immunization efficacy to modulate these effects.
Seema Bibi, Mohammad Ali Pir, Roshan Ara Qazi, Misbah Bibi Qureshi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy) has been considered as a risk factor for several obstetrical complications such as early pregnancy loss pre-eclampsia and IUGR. Recently its association with infertility has been underscored in IVF failures; however limited information is available about the relationship of hhcy and subfertility.
Objective: To find out the association between unexplained subfertility and hhcy in Pakistani women.
Materials and methods: This observational study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from 1st April 2008 to 31st March 2009. Study group consisted of all those women who were subfertile for more then one year have body mass index less than 25 regular menstrual cycle normal pelvic examination findings and no past history of pelvic inflammatory disease. Exclusion criteria was male factor subfertility endocrine and ovulatory dysfunction and tubal blockage. Evaluation was done by semen analysis pelvic ultrasound scan hystero-salpingography and hormonal assays. Fasting serum levels of homocysteine were determined using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay.
Results: In total 61 subjects were enrolled in the study including 49 subfertile women and 12 healthy women. Among subfertile women 39 (80%) were suffering from primary subfertility while 10 (20%) were complaining of secondary subfertility. Majority of the subjects were young house wives and residents of Hyderabad city. Mean serum fasting homocysteine levels were significantly higher in women suffering from unexplained subfertility as compared to controls (12.8+5.1 versus 9.7+1.7 p-value= 0.04).
Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in women suffering from unexplained subfertility. However large scale clinical studies are required to confirm the association.
Maryam Eidi, Akram Eidi, Omid Pouyan, Pouneh Shahmohammadi, Reza Fazaeli, Massih Bahar,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: The trace element copper has been identified as a highly toxic element for sperm. It is known to affect sperm motility in humans and experimental implantation of copper in the epididymis vas deferens and scrotum of mammals has been demonstrated to affect fertility detrimentally. Objective: Sperm concentration motility vitality and morphology are parameters used to evaluate potential male fertility. Since copper is believed to be important for spermatogenesis; we conducted a study to investigate the correlation between seminal plasma copper concentration and human semen parameters in 232 males.
Materials and Methods: We selected 232 subfertile or infertile men who referred to Omid Fertility Clinic randomly. Samples were categorized into normospermic (n=32) oligozospermic (n=73) asthenozospermic (n=111) and azospermic (n=16) groups according to their spermiogrames. Total seminal plasma copper concentration was determined by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: The results showed that seminal plasma copper concentrations in oligozospermic asthenozospermic and azospermic groups are significantly higher than normozospermic group (p<0.01). Also, negative correlations were found between seminal plasma copper concentration and sperm count (p<0.05), sperm motility (p<0.01), sperm vitality (p<0.01), normal morphology (p<0.01) and pH (p<0.01) in all groups.
Conclusion: It was suggested that excess copper in seminal plasma was detrimental for male reproductive capacity by reducing sperm count, motility, vitality and morphology.
Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Hiroaki Shibahara, Ayustawati , Yuki Hirano, Tatsuya Suzuki, Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony , Mahtab Zainalzadeh, Mitsuaki Suzuki,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Leptin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by white adipose tissue in proportion to body energy. Although the participation of leptin in female reproduction is well established any role in male reproductive function is at best tenuous.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the leptin concentration in human seminal plasma and then the relationships between seminal leptin and semen parameters were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were provided from 71 men; normozoospermic (n=22) asthenozoospermic (n=31) and oligoasthenozoospermic (n=18) referring to Jichi Medical University Hospital for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment. After liquefaction all sperm specimens were evaluated for sperm parameters and motility characteristics by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system. After semen analysis concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of all groups were measured by ELISA.
Results: The mean concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of normozoospermic asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men were 0.75+/-0.09 ng/ml 0.8+/-0.14 ng/ml and 0.8+/-0.15 ng/ml respectively. A trend was observed for a lower leptin concentration in seminal plasma of normozoospermic men compared with asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men. There was a significant negative correlation between seminal plasma leptin concentration with sperm motility (p<0.05) and Curvilinear Velocity of the sperm kinetic parameter (p<0.01).
Conclusion: It was demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between seminal leptin with the sperm motility.
Mohsen Vigeh, Smith Derek R, Ping-Chi Hsu,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects.
Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah, Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Narges Moslemizadeh, Sepideh Peivandi, Ayyub Barzegarnejad, Nadali Musanejad, Gholamali Jursarayee,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran.
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated.
Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%.
Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.
Rahmatollah Parandin, Namdar Yousofvand, Rostam Ghorbani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: The task force on plants for fertility regulation in men continued with its program to identify novel prototypes in plants alleged to have fertility regulating properties. Nigella Sativa  seeds are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and treatment of many ailments.
Objective: To evaluated the role of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on fertility potential, Pituitary-testicular axis hormones and Testosterone in male rats.  
Materials and Methods: 24 male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; control, group A and group B, each group comprising of 8 rats. Animals in control group received 1 ml of normal saline and treatment groups (A and B) received (gavage) graded doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on a daily basis for 60 days. At the end of treatment period, fertility parameters such as body and reproductive organs weight, sperm motility, viability and count, epididymal sperm reserve (ESR), daily sperm production (DSP), blood testosterone concentration, Gonadotropins levels and fertility index were measured.
Results: There was a significant difference in testes and epididymidis weight, sperm count, ESR, DSP, blood testosterone concentration, LH and fertility index in both the lower dose group and the higher group as compared to the control group.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed especially in higher doses could increase fertility potential, LH and testosterone concentration in male rats.

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