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Showing 191 results for Infertility

Robabeh Taheripanah, Mohammad A Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ghafourzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: The retrieval of good quality oocytes that is accomplished with selection of the best induction ovulation protocol on the basis of patients condition, age and cause of infertility, is one of the most important aspects of ART cycles. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of low dose, long acting GnRH-a (Decapeptyle) for pituitary desensitization and outcome of ART compared to long protocol of short acting GnRH-a (Busereline). Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial that was performed at Yazd IVF Center, 60 patients with 61 cycles of ART were included. Patients with endometriosis or age > 40 were excluded in this study. Using COH-ET, patients were randomly divided into two groups. In group one, 30 patients received a single half dose of Decapeptyle (1.87mg) in mid-luteal phase. In the other group, 31 patients received Buserelin daily (0.5mg), starting from previous mid-luteal phase. This was reduced to 0.25mg from gonadotropin administration day and was continued until the day of hCG injection. In these groups, the number of oocytes, the fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy and cancellation rates were compared. Results: In two groups, there was no case of cancellation due to premature LH surge. In group I, the mean number of gonadotropins was 27.5+4.2 ampoules while in the second group, it was 28.4±2.8 ampoules (P>0.05). 312 oocytes from group I and 294 oocytes from group II were retrieved. Oocyte quality in group II was better than group I (84.3% vs 77.2%, P<0.05). In long-acting GnRH-a group fertilization rate was 81.9% versus 71.1%in group II (P<0.01). However, embryo development in Group I (85.6% vs 94.1%, P<0.05) was lower than group II. Although, pregnancy rate was 20% in Group I which was higher than group II (12.6%) but, there was no significant difference in cancellation, pregnancy rate and gonadotropins dose in two groups. Conclusion: The low dose long acting GnRH-a is a useful method for pituitary suppression. Low dose GnRH-a combined with gonadotropins permitted the retrieval of good quality oocytes and had no effect on oocytes. The fertilization and pregnancy rates with this method are acceptable and its cost and tolerance is valuable for patients.
Mohammad Ghafourzadeh, Mojgan Karimi, Mohammad Ali Karimazadeh, Mahshid Bokai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: Infertility affects about 10-15% of reproductive-age couples. About half the causes of infertility are female related and approximately 40% of the cases are caused by anovulation, mostly in PCO women. Objective: This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of two drug treatment regimens: higher dose of clomiphene and a combination of lower dose of clomiphene and tamoxifen in treating infertile women with PCO. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 100 infertile patients who referred to Yazd-Iran Infertility Clinic between the years 2001-2003. The patients were selected who had received at least 3 periods of clomiphene, but no pregnancy had occurred. They were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, clomiphene was increased to 100 mg and the second group 20 mg of tamoxifen was added to 50 mg of clomiphene from day 5-9 of menstruation cycle. Infertility duration, duration of medicine used, PCT score, endometrial thickness, ovulation, and pregnancy rate were studied in both groups. Results: Ovulation rate in clomiphene group was 54.9%; Tamoxifen + clomiphene group was 73.5% without significant differences in both groups. (PV = 0.053). Positive pregnancy rate in clomiphene group was 39.2%; clomiphene + tamoxifen group was 61.2% (P value < 0.05), which could be concluded that pregnancy rate was higher in clomiphene/tamoxifen group than in the clomiphene group. The presence of a dominant follicle in the two treatment groups in women between 18-24 was not significant, but in women between 25-39 years was significant (PV= 0.049) (Table III). Conclusion: The recommendation is to add Tamoxifen to Clomiphene in 35-39 women with 20? BMI ?26.99 before the use of gonadotropins treatment in PCOS with or without IUI, because these options have higher risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Article
Alireza Vahidi, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mehrdad Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Amir Arjmand, Abbas Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Afsaneh Kermaninejhad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Backgrownd: Studies in regions with seasonal climatic variations have revealed a correlation between human natural conception and birth rates. Holidays and other cultural activities probably have influence on conception, but the ambient temperature and emotional influences on the female hormones related to fertility may play an important part in the seasonal variation in conception. Objectives: The aim of study was to determine the relationship between the success rate of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) treatment cycles and temperature in different seasons. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on all individuals undergoing assisted ART at our institution was performed during June 2000 to June 2001. The study population represented 258 IVF-ET cycles and 821 ICSI treatment cycles. Different variables were analyzed using ?2 test. Results: In IVF treatment cycles, conception was more common from early spring (March to June). This decreased from spring, with the minimum in fall, 22% and 14%, respectably. A significant seasonal variability in the number of eggs, embryo transferred and sperm motility was not demonstrated (p>0.05), but sperm count was significantly higher in spring than any other season (72+4 x106 and 52+7x106, respectively). Conclusion: The seasonal changes should be taken into account together with other factors when evaluating infertility data. Article
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Leydig cell tumor is a rare form of testicular neoplasm which comprises 1-3% of all testicular tumors and only about 3% of these tumors are bilateral. A few Leydig all tumor have been described in patients with klinefelter�s syndrome so far. Case: The patient described in this case report was a 24 year-old man with chief complaint of infertility for one year. Physical examination, semen analysis, testes sonography and hormonal assay were done for him. Right side simple orchiectomy was performed for patient. Conclusion: This tumor is always benign in children and approximately 90% are benign in adults. Clinical presentation is testicular enlargement, gynecomastia, sexual activity disturbances such as decreased libido, infertility and azoospermia. We recommend complete exam and karyotype in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Soheila Arefi, Mahmoud Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Ali Reza Mousavi, Mahnaz Heidari, Ahmad Ali Bayat, Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Auto antibodies to zona-pellucida (AZA) seem to be important autoantibodies implicated in reproduction, with substantial role in both endocrine and reproductive functions of the human ovary. There are some debates on the relation of AZA with infertility, repeated In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempts, and outcome of it. Objective: In this study, we assessed the presence of AZA in the follicular fluids (FFs) of women who underwent intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in relation to etiology of infertility and multiple puncture of ovaries. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, follicular fluids were evaluated from 96 infertile women, (19-40 years old, 31.5�5.1), who were candidates for ICSI based on the etiology of infertility. From these 80 women had explained infertility whereas 16 had unexplained infertility. All FFs were evaluated for presence of AZA by ELISA test. Results: Twenty patients (20.8%) were positive for AZA in follicular fluid. In patients with unexplained infertility, AZA antibody in follicular fluid, was significantly higher than the group with proven etiology of infertility (p=0.001). In addition, 20.4 % of patients who had been punctured previously showed AZA in their FFs which is statistically similar to the patients who were punctured for the first time. Conclusions: The high incidence of AZA in infertile women, especially women with unexplained infertility has to be considered. Relation of the presence AZA and repeated puncture of ovaries is still debatable. Determinations of AZA are highly recommended in evaluation of infertile couples especially in patient with unexplained infertility
Ashok Agarwal, Sushil Anandh Prabakaran,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Infertility is one of the most stressful conditions amongst married couples. Male factor infertility is implicated in almost half of these cases. Recent advances in the field of reproductive medicine have focused the attention of many researchers to consider reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction. Although, ROS is involved in many physiological functions of human spermatozoa, their excess production results in oxidative stress. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membranes are the two locations of ROS production that involves complex enzyme systems such as creatine kinase and diaphorase. ROS causes damage to the spermatozoa DNA, resulting in increased apoptosis of these cells. The production of ROS is greatly enhanced under the influence of various environmental and life style factors such as pollution and smoking. An effective scavenging system is essential to counteract the effects of ROS. Various endogenous antioxidants belonging to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic groups can remove the excess ROS and prevent oxidative stress. Since, ROS is essential for the normal sperm physiology, rationale use of antioxidants is advocated.
Mir Davood Omrani, Agneta Nordenskhold,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: For screening sequence variations in genes, rapid turnover time is of fundamental importance. While, many of the current methods are unfortunately time consuming and technically difficult to implement. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method had been shown to be a high-throughput, time saving, and economical tool for mutation screening. Objective: In the present study DHPLC method was used to explore the potential association between estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR2) variants and male infertility. Materials and Methods: DNA from 96 men with infertility and 96 normal male as control were screened for mutation in the nine exons of the ESR2 gene, using WAVE� DHPLC device equipped with a DNA separation column and automated sequence analysis on the ABI Prism 310. Results: DHPLC evaluation of ESR2 gene in 96 infertile patients, revealed one heterozygous sequence variation (IVS 8�4G>A) near the 5� splicing region of intron 8 in 5 patients. No variation was identified in control population. Conclusion: Mutation detection by DHPLC, as it is presented in this context, is a high-throughput, quick, and economical tool for mutation screening. The gene alterations in ESR2 gene that we�ve found might increase susceptibility to infertility; but without cDNA screening, the consequences of these genetic alterations cannot be predicted
Mir Davood Omrani,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene give rise to a wide array of phenotypic abnormalities. Various mutations of the AR gene and expanded polyglutamine repeats (CAG) at exon 1 of the gene have been reported in patients with infertility and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of the AR gene trinucleotides repeats has not been systemically studied in those with hypospadias or genital ambiguity. In this study it was tried to find out the potential association between these repeats and sexual development in a family consisted of 10 persons including one girl with primary amenorrhea and two boys with severe hypospadias. Mother was heterozygote for both CAG and GGN repeats. All affected children inherited the longer CAG and GGN repeat from their mother and all their healthy siblings inherited shorter CAG and GGN repeat. Only one girl had heterozygous situation like her mother. Our results indicated that disease locus is in linkage disequilibrium with the CAG and GGN trinucleotide repeats in the AR gene.
Marjan Anvar, Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf, Roya Kokabi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: The experience of infertility can be extremely stressful and associated with a range of psychiatric problems in infertile women. Generally; some of the risk factors which may lead to psychiatric problem are repeated unsuccessful treatment of infertility, low socioeconomic status, lack of partner support, being female, life events, etc.
Objective: In this study, we have analyzed the psychiatric problems of infertile women by means of primary health questionnaire (PHQ).
Materials and methods: In a cross sectional study 100 infertile women were selected and advised to fill up PHQ. After obtaining their consents psychiatric problems such as somatoform, panic, other anxiety disorder major depressive and other depressive disorders, were assessed, and their results were analyzed and compared with these results from 98 fertile women.
Results: According to PHQ results major depression and anxiety disorders were significantly more frequent in infertile women, but considering somatoform and panic disorder there was no significant difference between infertile and fertile women.
Conclusions: Infertility may be considered as one of the major casual factor in major depressive and anxiety disorders in association with other social problems.
Sayee Rajangam, Preetha Tilak, Aruna N, Rema Devi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Division of Human Genetics (DHG) is a referral center for karyotyping and counseling to the couples as well as to the individuals referred with bad obstetric history and infertility.
Materials and Methods: From 1972 to 2003, overall 1666 couples and 131 female partners with bad obstetric history (BOH) such as; spontaneous abortions, live births with congenital malformations and still born and 73 infertile male partners have been referred for chromosomal analysis.
Results: The chromosomal abnormality was found in 4.4% (83) of the sample studied. Chromosomal abnormality was seen in 56 couples (3.4%), 15 female (11.5%) and 12 male (16.4%) partners. The numerical chromosomal abnormality were seen in 34 (41%) and the structural abnormalities in 49 (59%) cases. The numerical chromosomal abnormalities were associated with sex chromosomes as follows (the number of cases are shown in parenthesis): 47, XXY (9); 46, XY/ 47, XXY (2); 46, XY/ 48, XXXY (1); 46, XY/ 47, XYY (2) and X mosaicism; 45, X/ 46, XX (14); 46, XX/ 47, XXX (6). The structural anomalies were 40 translocations and 9 duplication/ deletion/ marker/ iso chromosome for the X chromosome; Male: 46,XY/ 47,XY+ mar (1); Female: 45,X/ 47,XX+mar (1); 46,XX/ 47,XX+mar (1); 47,XX+frag (1); 46,X,Xq- (2); 46,X,Xp- (1); 46,X,Xp+ (1); 45,X/46,X,i(Xq)(1). The frequently involved chromosomes in the translocations were 4, 11, 15 and X. There were three X; autosomal translocations and a unique combination of translocation 1; 15 in the parents of a female carrier and 13; 14 in a non- consanguineous couple. On the whole, 57.5% of the females (23/ 40) were translocation carriers. Non-significant chromosome polymorphisms were observed in 79 cases (4.2%).
Conclusion: The current study has demonstrated the presence of the chromosomal abnormality and its influence in reproductive failure. On an average, in this study one in 56 couple and one in 12 males with infertility or one in 15 females with BOH has had a chromosomal abnormality as the genetic cause. The identification of chromosomal abnormality as the etiology has facilitated the counseling and appropriate management.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Vali Ollah Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Serajadin Vahidi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: We compared ROS levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with this level in healthy donors. We also determined the ROS level in semen of infertile men according to the etiology of infertility, and also the effect of smoking on its level.
Materials and Methods: In total, 63 infertile patients and 63 healthy donors as control were selected. Complete physical examination, semen analysis, scrotal sonography and hormone assay were done for all patients. Azoospermic patients were excluded from the study. ROS level in semen was measured by chemiluminescence assay in both groups. Patients also were divided in two groups according to the etiology of infertility.
Results: The mean age of normal subjects and infertile men were 30.78±3.73 years and 31.43±6.60 years respectively. The mean ROS level in normal men was 180.05 RLU (Relative light unit), while this was 1852.04 RLU in infertile patients, which is significantly higher in case group (p=0.000). Fifty patients had varicocele and in 13 patients no specific etiology was found. The mean ROS level in varicocele patients was 2215.42 RLU and in unknown group was 454.44 RLU (p=0.048).
Conclusion: Our study showed that the level of ROS in seminal fluid of infertile men is significantly higher than fertile donors and also in infertile patients with varicocele it is higher than patients with unknown cause.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad1, Tayebeh Naderi, Shohreh Irani, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Mullerian disorders are present in 5-25% of infertile women. Myoma, polyp and endometrial adhesions are among other involved factors in infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of pregnancy occurrence in infertile women after the diagnostic-surgical hysteroscopy on selected infertile cases including those with abnormal uterine.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen women with at least 12 months infertility who had abnormal uterine cavity and patients who had at least 4 unsuccessful ART cycles with no confirmed diagnosis of uterine cavity problem, underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and if required hysteroscopic surgery. Follow up sonography and HSG performed 2-3 months later and all subjects were followed for pregnancy occurrence for 12 months.
Results: Mean age of subjects was 32.65 ± 6.2 years and mean of infertility duration was 8.33 ± 5.25 years. Based on the sonography and HSG performed prior to the hysteroscopy, respectively 69.6% and 41.8% of the subjects had abnormality. In 65.2% of the cases, hysteroscopy showed septum, myoma, endometrial adhesion and irregularity and all of them underwent hysteroscopic operation. Among the operated cases, in 27 cases pregnancy occurred during the first 6 postoperative months and in 2 cases during the second 6 postoperative months of whom one case was EP. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the rate of pregnancy occurrence between those who had abnormal hysteroscopy and those who were normal (p= 0.63). This can show the variation of infertility causes and the fact that infertility is not just due to uterine problems. Therefore, the repetition of therapeutic measures and longer follow up of infertile cases are necessary.
Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraiee, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Hojjat Zeraati, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Pegah Ebadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Immune system disturbances have an important role in endometriosis which may lead to infertility. It seems that inflammatory cytokines specially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) which were produced by activated macrophages have an important role in pathology of endometriosis.  Based on this theory, anti TNF-a  drugs like pentoxifylline (PX) are suggested as new drugs for Endometriosis.            
Objective: This experimental study has been done on female rats to determine the effect of PX on the endometrial implants and leukocytes in serum.
Material and Methods: In proestrous phase, one horn of rat’s bicorn uterus was removed surgically and the endometrium was implanted to different places as follows: subcutaneous, peritoneum and near ovaries. After two months observation, female rats divided into two groups randomly. In treated group (n=10) PX (5mg/kg twice a day) and in control group (n=10), normal saline (same dose) were injected subcutaneously. Then, via second laparotomy and in the same phase of the cycles, the size of implants and the amount of leukocytes in serum were measured.
Results: In treated group compared with control, the size of implants was decreased significantly in right subcutaneous  (8.05mm vs 13.50mm) p<0.01, left subcutaneous (7.64 mm vs 14mm) p<0.01, right ovary (6.64 mm vs 15.22mm) p<0.001 and left ovary (7.18 mm vs 14.56 mm) p<0.005. In treated group, the total leukocyte count (5259.54 ± 178.78 vs 15833.33 ±  259.27) p<0.02 was decreased. The number of esterous cycle was similar in both groups.
Conclusion: PX can reduce the size of endometrial implants as well as leukocyte count.
Nasrin Sheikh, Iraj Amiri, Marzieh Farimani, Rezvan Najafi, Jafar Hadeie,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It is established that sperm DNA integrity is essential in fertilization and normal embryo and fetal development. Routine semen analysis gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. Therefore, the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity, in addition to routine sperm parameters, could add further information on the quality of spermatozoa and reproductive potential of males.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of sperm DNA damage in fertile and infertile males and its correlation with semen parameters.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 45 infertile men selected from couples attending the infertility clinic with a history of infertility of ≥1 years and 75 healthy volunteers of proven fertility (initiated a successful pregnancy) served as the control group. After routine sperm analysis, DNA damage was determined using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay method.
Results: The mean of DNA damage (comet value) in the sperms of infertile males was significantly higher than that of fertile males (12.9±7.59 vs. 48.77±24.42, p&lt;0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between DNA damage and sperm motility in fertile group (p<0.02, R=-0.263). In infertile males, significant negative correlations were observed between DNA damage with sperm motility (p<0.002, R=-0.45) and morphology (p<0.03, R=-0.317). There was no significant correlation between sperm concentration and sperm DNA damage in both groups.
Conclusion: These results indicate that sperm DNA damages in infertile males is significantly higher than fertile males and sperms with abnormal morphology and low levels of motility has more abnormal DNA damages than motile and normal sperms.
Mohammad Nouri, Aliyeh Ghasemzadeh, Laya Farzadi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to deleterious effects on a range of sperm parameters. Vitamins E and C are capable of reducing ROS levels and lipid peroxidation. Objective: The aim of study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation as indicated by Malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamins E and C in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men and their relationships with semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Forty men with normozoospermic and 60 infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermic semen profiles were randomly selected. Semen analysis was done according to the WHO standard. Sex hormonal profiles were measured by ELISA methods. The level of vitamins (C and E) and MDA were measured by HPLC and tiobarbiotic acid, respectively. Results: MDA concentration in the spermatozoa (0.10.06 nmol/ml) and seminal plasma (1.90.35 nmol/ml) of asthenoteratozoospermic were significantly higher than in normozoospermic males (p<0.001).The level of vitamins E and C in seminal plasma of normozoospermic were significantly higher than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). However, the amount of vitamin C in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic was significantly less than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value of MDA of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were more than vitamins C and E. The level of vitamin C of spermatozoa had more diagnostic value when compare to vitamins C and E in seminal plasma. Conclusion: The level of MDA in seminal plasma and spermatozoa and vitamin C in spermatozoa may be a diagnostic tool for etiology of infertility in the asthenoteratozoospermic patients.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Mehrdad Soleimani, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: To study the effect of varicocele and its severity on the level of ROS in infertile men with clinical varicocele.
Materials and Methods: In this controlled prospective study, 42 men with clinically diagnosed left varicocele and 30 fertile men were studied. Patients were asked about history of urogenital infection, using any antioxidant medication and smoking. Grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Levels of ROS in seminal plasma were measured in each group by a chemiluminiscence assay. The sperm parameters were also determined and compared in different groups.
Results: The ROS levels were significantly higher in patients with varicocele than normal men (mean: 1575.42 RLU (Radio Luminescence Unit) vs. 53.79 RLU, p=0.005). In total 20 patients had grade I, 20 patients grade II and 2 patients had grade III varicocele. The mean ROS levels were 669.12 RLU, 2406.87 RLU and 2324 RLU in patients with grade I, II and III varicocele respectively (p=0.144). In case group, 15 patients were smoker and 27 were non-smokers. The mean ROS levels in patients with the history of smoking was 1367.71 RLU while in non-smokers it was 897.672 RLU (p=0.729). Conclusion: Our study showed that increased levels of ROS production in the seminal fluid can be an important factor in the etiology of male infertility in patients with varicocele, and this effect is more prominent with higher grade of varicocele.
Mona Zvâncă, Radu Vlădăreanu, Asim Kurjak, Awatif Juma Al Bahar,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: With the technical development, ultrasound tends to overpass its limits and to become the main investigation tool even for situations when it was traditionally considered second best. It is more convenient both for patient and doctor, less expensive and has real diagnostic value.
Objective: The present paper, and its graphic back-up, are intended as a visual testimony of the fact that the newer three dimensional (3D) ultrasound technique is much more than a simple generator of nice, commercial, images. Moreover, its use may be extended from obstetrics to gynecological pathology, especially in cases related to infertility.
Materials and Methods: We performed a review of the main local infertility causes and their perception by the 3D ultrasound, as compared to the conventional methods. General literature citations were completed with personal cases and images. In our research, we used a Kretz Voluson Expert 730 ultrasound machine with a full logistic equipment. Our database was completed over a period of 18 months and included various pathology, such as uterine anomalies, fibroids, polyps, ovarian cysts and many others.
Results: Three dimensional ultrasound represents the best tool in evaluating the uterine cavity, the endometrium, assessing its volume and vascularity pattern. It also offers a very good image of the uterine structure, the adnexal morphology and their relationship. It performs a thorough pelvic assessment by a single examination. Moreover, it may realize a histerosalpingography, which is as efficient as the radiological method, but easier and with fewer side effects.
Conclusion: Even though it is technically more difficult and time consuming, a good practice and high quality ultrasound equipment offer a series of benefits over any other kind of investigation.
Javid Ahmad Ganaie, Vinoy K Shrivastava,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: Gonadotropin releasing hormone conjugate (GnRH-BSA) raises antibodies against biologically active gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) which affects body weight, gonadosomatic indices (GSI) and sperm quality in male mice.
Objective: The objective of this experimental investigation is to develop an effective and reliable hormonal immunocontraceptive vaccine to suppress spermatogenesis by using GnRH-BSA conjugate.
Materials and Methods: Forty sexually mature mice, Mus musculus were divided into two groups of twenty each. Group 1, served as control, while group 2 were immunized at monthly intervals for four times against GnRH with a GnRH-BSA conjugate (50 µg) with aqueous adjuvant (Freund&#039;s adjuvant). After 30 days of each immunization, body weight, GSI and sperm quality were observed in the immunized groups and compared with the control group.
Results: Body weight showed alterations in immunized animals as compared to control. However, GSI, sperm motility, sperm count and sperm morphology were significantly decreased in immunized animals throughout the experimental investigation and these effects were more prominent and significant in the later part of the experiment.
Conclusion: These results suggested that the active immunization against GnRH produced bioeffective antibodies as indicated by significant reduction in GSI level and sperm quality and induced infertility in male mice.
Sundararajan Venkatesh, M.pharm Gurdeep Singh, Narmada Prasad Gupta, Rajeev Kumar, Munusamy Deecaraman, Rima Dada,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the semen is believed to affect fertility in men. Morphologically abnormal sperms and their relation to seminal oxidative stress in infertile and subfertile men are not clear.
Objective: To correlate various sperm morphological defects with seminal oxidative stress in infertile and subfertile men.
Materials and Methods: The study included 25 primary, 21 secondary infertile men of idiopathic infertility and 15 fertile controls. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO (1999) guidelines. Sperm inter-morphological defects were evaluated in 100 sperms per sample by Giemsa staining. ROS in spermatozoa was measured by the chemiluminescence assay.
Results: Significant difference in percent sperm amorphous head was found between secondary infertile group and control men. The study showed a significantly higher percent spermatozoa with residual cytoplasm between primary [11.61 (6.6, 3.9)], secondary [7.49 (0.8, 13)] and fertile controls [2.44 (0.8, 3.7)] similar to sperm count, percent sperm progressive motility, and ROS levels. A non significant but strong positive correlation (r=0.3479, p=0.0884) between percent cytoplasmic retained spermatozoa and ROS levels was observed in the primary infertile group. However, no correlation between other sperm morphological defects and oxidative stress was observed.
Conclusion: Sperm morphology was not found to be associated with oxidative stress in the present study. However, retained cytoplasmic residues in the sperm may be an important source of ROS in both primary and secondary infertile men. These immature spermatozoa are believed to be associated with impaired fertility.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Atefeh Larti, Zahra Ezabadi, Nadia Jahangiri, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most challenging diseases that constitute 20% - 40% of women searching for their infertility diagnosis. Objective: This study was undertaken in order to compare the outcome of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in women with endometriosis, and tubal factor infertility as controls.
Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 a retrospective study was carried out in patients with endometriosis (n=80) and tubal infertility (n=57) after treatment with IVF/ICSI. The main outcome measures were ovarian responsiveness, quality of oocytes, implantation, pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and student t-tests.
Results: No differences were found in mean number of ampoules of hMG, duration of hMG injection, number of MΙΙ oocytes, number of embryo transferred, and rates of implantation, pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and twin birth between women with endometriosis and tubal infertility and also between women with stages I/II or those with stages III/IV disease with women with tubal factor infertility.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that endometriosis does not seem to have adverse effect on outcome of IVF/ ICSI as compared with tubal infertility.

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