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Showing 9 results for Embryo Implantation

Zohreh Alizadeh, Shamila Faramarzi, Massoud Saidijam, Tahereh Alizamir, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari , Nooshin Shabab, Marzieh Farimani Sanoee,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: HOXA11 and HOXA10 are expressed in endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and show a dramatic increase during the mid-luteal phase at the time of implantation. The expression of these genes is decreased in women with myomas.
Objective: To determine whether myomectomy would reverse HOXA11 and HOXA10 expression, we evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in the endometria of patients before and after myomectomy.
Materials and Methods: Expression of HOXA11 and HOXA10 were examined prospectively during the midluteal phase in endometrium obtained from infertile women (n=12) with myoma before and three months after myomectomy. Endometrial HOXA11 and HOXA10 expression were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results: Endometrial HOXA11 and HOXA10 mRNAs expression levels (normalized to 18SrRNA) were increased insignificantly in endometrium of patients after myomectomy (p=0.7 and p=0.15 respectively).
Conclusion: The results suggest that the alteration in expression pattern of these genes could not account for some aspects of fertility after myomectomy.
Laya Farzadi, Homa Khayatzadeh Bidgoli, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Zahra Bahrami, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Vitamin D in complex with its receptor by regulating gene expression, endometrium immune response and stimulation of endometrium decidualization can be involved in implantation. So, it seems that the amount of vitamin D in follicular fluids (FF) may have an association with ART success.
Objective: First, we intended to investigate the possible association between levels of follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D with assisted reproductive outcomes. Second, we examined relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels with number and quality of oocytes.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 80 infertile female candidates for IVF/ICSI were enrolled. Blood samples (on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration) and follicular fluids were taken, and then levels of serum estradiol and follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D were measured. Also clinical characteristics of patients (duration of infertility, causes of infertility, menstrual status), number and quality of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes, estradiol levels, and clinical pregnancy were evaluated.
Results: Concentration of FF 25-OH vitamin D in pregnant women was significantly higher than non-pregnant women (p=0.007) but there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), duration of infertility, menstrual status, number of oocytes, oocytes quality, number of fertilized oocytes, and serum estradiol levels between the two groups. Statistically positive correlation was found between 25-OH vitamin D levels with patient age and implantation rate (r=0.264, p=0.018 and r=0.301, p=0.007 respectively).
Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that vitamin D without affecting the number and quality of oocytes can independently improve implantation rate and IVF outcome.
Soheila Arefi, Ahmad Hoseini, Fattaneh Farifteh, Hojjat Zeraati,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (7-2016)

Background: Natural endometrium in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer (FET) may have some benefits upon implantation in patients with Repeated Implantation Failure (RIF). It might be due to possible differences between natural and stimulated endometrial growth factors and cytokins secretions. 
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the pregnancy rate of FET on modified natural cycle versus hormone replacement therapy (HRT) cycle endometrium in patients with RIF. 
Materials and Methods: In this observational study the pregnancy rate of patients with RIF undergoing day 3 FET in natural cycle endometrium (group 1, n=56), were compared with another group of patients with RIF in whom frozen-thawed day 3 embryos were transferred on HRT cycle (group 2, n=52). 
Results: The pregnancy rate in group 1 was 41.07%, compared with the pregnancy rate of group 2; 36.5% (p=0.63). The abortion rate was not significantly different among the groups. 
Conclusion: It can be concluded that FET in a modified natural cycle is comparable with HRT cycle in patients with RIF.
Saghar Salehpour, Marzieh Zamaniyan, Nasrin Saharkhiz, Shahrzad Zadeh Modares, Sedighe Hosieni, Samira Seif, Narges Malih, Parinaz Rezapoor, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi,
Volume 14, Issue 9 (9-2016)

Background: Recurrent implantation failure is one of the most issues in IVF cycles.Some researchers found that beneficial effects of endometrial Scratching in womenwith recurrent implantation failure, while some authors demonstrated contrary results
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intrauterine. Salineinfusion as a form of endometrial injury, during fresh in vitro fertilization-embryotransfer cycle, among patients with recurrent implantation failure.
Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 63 women undergoing assistedreproductive technology were divided into two groups either local endometrialinjury by intrauterine saline infusion during day 3-5 of the ongoing controlledovarian stimulation cycle, or IVF protocol performed without any other interventionin Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The main outcome measure was clinicalpregnancy rates.
Results: Patients who received intra uterine saline infusion (n=20), had significantlylower clinical pregnancy numbers (1 vs. 9, p<0.05) and implantation rates (4.7% vs.41.6%, p<0.05), compared to controls (n=39). However, there was no significantdifference in miscarriage rates (9.4% vs. 8.7%, p>0.05) and multiple pregnancynumbers (1 vs. 3, p>0.05) between groups.
Conclusion: When intrauterine saline infusion as a form of endometrial injury isperformed during the ongoing IVF cycles it has negative effect on reproductiveoutcomes among patients with recurrent implantation failure.
Marzie Farimani, Jalal Poorolajal, Soghra Rabiee, Maryam Bahmanzadeh,
Volume 15, Issue 12 (12-2017)

Background: Platelets contain a significant amount of growth factors that have positive effects on local tissue repair and endometrial receptivity.
Case: Here we present a 45-yr-old woman with primary infertility and two failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles who was candidate to receive donor eggs. Five consecutive frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles with good quality embryos were performed within 2 yr. With the diagnosis of recurrent implantation failure (RIF), the patient was treated for improving endometrial receptivity with intrauterine administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), 24 hr before embryo transfer. The patient gave birth to a healthy baby boy weighing 2350 gr in the cesarean section.
Conclusion: Extensive literature search suggests that this is the first successful pregnancy after administration of PRP in a woman with RIF. Local administration of PRP before embryo transfer may play a vital role in successful implantation
Soheila Arefi, Elham Fazeli, Manijeh Esfahani, Nasim Borhani, Nazila Yamini, Ahmad Hosseini, Fattaneh Farifteh,
Volume 16, Issue 5 (5-2018)

Background: Family of colony-stimulating factors (CSF) have an essential role on early cross talk between embryo and uterine endometrium.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the single dose of Granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) injection on clinical outcome of assisted reproductive technology cycle in patients with repeated implantation failures.
Materials and Methods: This randomized control trial study was performed on 52 infertile women who referred to the clinic with the history of more than three previous In vitro fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer failures. All patients were stimulated with standard long protocol. All embryos were transferred on day five in blastocyst stage in both groups. The treated group received 300 μg (0.5 ml) recombinant human G-CSF subcutaneously which was injected 30 min before blastocyst embryo transfer.
Results: There was not statistically significant differences in abortion rate in G-CSF and control group (p=0.09). G-CSF treated group showed higher clinical pregnancy rate in comparison with control group (56.2% vs. 40.0%) but it was not statistically significant (p=0.09). Although live birth rate in G-CSF group was higher than control group (53.1% vs. 35.0%) but there wasn’t statistically significant difference in the overall live birth rate between the two groups (p=0.10). G-CSF group had a twin pregnancies while in control group there was no twin pregnancy.
Conclusion: Our result demonstrates the possibility that pregnancy outcome is better in women with repeated unexplained In vitro fertilization failure who are treated with G-CSF.
Zeinab Mardanshahi, Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Reza Valadan,
Volume 16, Issue 12 (12-2018)

Background: Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as an environmental pollutant is ubiquitous in the environment and it has destructive effects on human health. So far, various studies have demonstrated that BaP can cause adverse effects on the female reproductive system, but the existing information is limited about the effects of BaP on the endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BaP on the endometrial receptivity and implantation in mice.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 pregnant BALB/c mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8/each) as follows: experimental groups received the doses of 100 μg/kg, 200 μg/kg, and 500 μg/kg BaP dissolved in corn oil, the control group received normal saline and sham group received corn oil. Pregnant mice administered these solutions from Day 1 to Day 5 of gestation by gavage. On Day 6, the mice were sacrificed. Then their embryos were counted and the hormonal, histomorphological and molecular analyses were performed on themocusa of uterine tube.
Results: The data revealed that BaP reduces estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases the number of implantation site, endometrium thickness, uterine lumen diameter, stromal cells and endometrial glands, and blood vessels in the endometrium.
However, the expression of Activin receptor-like kinase 5 and E cadherin genes was not changed by BaP with different doses.
Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that BaP can change estrogen and progesterone levels, and endometrial morphology leads to impairing the endometrial receptivity and decreasing the number of implantation site.

Abbas Bakhteyari, Yasaman Zarrin, Parvaneh Nikpour, Zeinab Sadat Hosseiny, Fatemah Sadat Mostafavi, Nahid Eskandari, Mohammad Matinfar, Roshanak Aboutorabi,
Volume 17, Issue 6 (6-2019)

Background: Diabetes mellitus deeply changes the genes expression of integrin (Itg) subunits in several cells and tissues such as monocytes, arterial endothelium, kidney glomerular cells, retina. Furthermore, hyperglycemia could impress and reduce the rate of successful assisted as well as non-assisted pregnancy. Endometrium undergoes thorough changes in normal menstrual cycle and the question is: What happens in the endometrium under diabetic condition?
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the endometrial gene expression of α3, α4, αv, Itg β1 and β3 subunits in diabetic rat models at the time of embryo implantation.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, diabetic group, pioglitazone-treated group, and metformin-treated group. Realtime PCR was performed to determine changes in the expression of Itg α3, α4, αv, β1, and β3 genes in rat’s endometrium.
Results: The expression of all Itg subunits increased significantly in diabetic rats’ endometrium compared with control group. Treatment with pioglitazone significantly reduced the level of Itg subunits gene expression compared with diabetic rats. While metformin had a different effect on α3 and α4 and elevated these two subunits gene expression.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus significantly increased the expression of studied Itg subunits, therefore untreated diabetes could be potentially assumed as one of the preliminary elements in embryo implantation failure.
Ronak Zarei, Roshanak Aboutorabi, Bahman Rashidi, Nahid Eskandari, Parvaneh Nikpour,
Volume 18, Issue 9 (9-2020)

Background: Implantation requires intimate crosstalk between the embryo and uterus for a successful establishment of pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus may lead to implantation failure. The effect of diabetes and its therapeutic drugs on implantation is still largely unclear.
Objective: To assess the endometrial expression changes of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), at the time of implantation in diabetic rats following treatment with Metformin and Pioglitazone.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight 6-8-wk-old Wistar female rats weighing 200-250 gr were divided into four groups (n= 7/each). Type 2 diabetes was induced and Metformin and Pioglitazone were applied for 4 wk. The expression of VEGFA and LIF was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.
Results: The relative expression of VEGFA transcript was higher in the diabetic (p = 0.02) and Metformin-treated (p = 0.04) rats compared to the control group. Furthermore, the VEGFA transcript level significantly reduced in Pioglitazone-treated diabetic rats (p = 0.03). LIF expression was elevated in the Metformin- and the Pioglitazone-treated rats and reduced in the diabetic group in comparison with the control group. Compared to the diabetic rats, the expression of LIF was significantly elevated in the Metformin- (p = 0.01) and Pioglitazone-treated (p = 0.03) groups.
Conclusion: The expressions of LIF and VEGFA were altered in diabetic rats during implantation which may be associated with diabetic-related infertility. Pioglitazone is able to restore the VEGFA and LIF expressions to their baseline levels more efficiently than Metformin.

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