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Showing 35 results for Abortion

Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance.
Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss.
Seyed Mahmood Ghoraishian, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammd Seyed Hasani, Mohammad Ghafourzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Recurrent abortion is a critical problem in which many factors play a crucial role such as anticordiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of anticardiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody in pregnancy failures in women with the history of recurrent pregnancy loss. In 154 women with the history of two or more recurrent pregnancy losses, serum anticardiolipin and serum antiphospholipid were measured using ELISA method. The positive IgG anticardiolipin and IgG antiphospholipid were detected in 12. 34% (19 patients) and 6.5% (10 patients) of patients respectively. Although 16 out of 19 patients with positive IgG anticardiolipin were negative for IgG antiphospholipid and 7 out of 10 patients with positive IgG antiphosphplipid were negative IgG anticardiolipin, but there was a significant correlation between IgG anticardiolipin and IgG antiphaspholipid ( r = 0.222 p=0.000). Our data concluded that anticardiolipin antibody is found to be more important than anti phospholipid antibody in recurrent abortion.
Sedigheh Ayaty, Fatemeh Vahid Roudsari, Fatemeh Tavassoly,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: CA-125 is a glycoprotein and its origin is uncertain during pregnancy. It arises during the first trimester and return to a non-pregnancy range in late pregnancy.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare CA-125 level in threatened abortion and normal pregnancy less than 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case study carried out on 50 healthy pregnant (group 1) and 50 threatened abortion women (group 2). We compared the levels of CA-125 in these groups and followed them to be informed of the outcome of pregnancy.
Results: Fifty percent of women were in 20-24 years old group, primigravida and in the first trimester of pregnancy. The mean level of CA-125 in group 1 was 26.2 ± 3.25 IU/ml and in group 2 was 37.44 ± 2.72 IU/ml. The mean level of CA-125 in finally aborted patients was 58.17±7.25 IU/ml and in normal pregnant women, who continue to term, was 26.61±1.76 IU/ml. The CA-125 level in threatened women,whose pregnancy continued and did not abort, was 30.89 IU/ml. There was statistically significant difference between mean serum CA-125 levels of two groups (p < 0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference between these levels in the patients of both groups who continued pregnancies (p > 0.1). In group 2, there was a statistically significant difference in the level of CA-125 between those who developed abortion and those whose pregnancy continued but not aborted (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Measurement of serum CA-125 may be an inexpensive, easily available, sensitive and specific predictor of outcome in threatened abortion, which results the loss of pregnancy.
Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Shahin Narooi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rarely occurs during pregnancy and is usually associated with high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, in conditions such as molar or multifetal pregnancies.
Case report: Here we report spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation in a patient presenting with missed abortion at 16th week of gestation, when serum ß-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin level detected to be 400 milliunit per milliliter. Evacuation and curettage was performed and the ovaries returned to about normal size two months later.
Conclusion: Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome can develop even in the presence of very low levels of hCG in missed abortion
Haleh Soltanghoraee, Soheila Arefi, Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Arman Taheri, Hojat Zeraati, Seyed Behnam Hashemi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: Evidences suggest an association between the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) with recurrent abortions and infertility. Iodine deficiency was once endemic in Iran and little data is available about the prevalence of these antibodies in different groups of fertile or infertile individuals.
Objective: This case control study was designed to compare the presence of anti-TPO and anti-Tg in four groups of women to reveal their role in the etiology of recurrent abortion and infertility.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of euthyroid women referring to Avicenna Infertility Clinic in Tehran were selected; 95 cases as fertile controls and 70, 78 and 137 cases with male and female factor infertility and recurrent abortion respectively. TSH, anti-TPO and anti-Tg were evaluated by chemiluminescent immunoassay.
Results: The prevalence of the above mentioned autoantibodies in euthyroid controls was about 25% and the percentage of people with an anti-Tg >500 was two times bigger in the abortion group compared to the control group (p<0.05) and the proportion of people with an anti-Tg >500 in younger cases in the abortion group was significantly higher than the rest of the cases (p<0.05). Anti-TPO distribution had no significant differences. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences among four groups. It seems that more comprehensive studies are needed to reach a common conclusion about thyroid autoantibodies in women with recurrent abortions in different groups and different parts of Iran. In addition, dividing the recurrent abortion and infertility groups on the basis of their etiologies could be effective.
Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Zahra Borzoei, Soghra Bahmanpour, Jaleh Zolghadr, Sedigheh Dehbashi, Hamid Reza Zareh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility.
Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test.
Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038). The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6%) compare to the control (21.2%); however, it was not significant.
Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility
Neveen Ashaat, Ahmed Husseiny,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Missed abortion (Silent miscarriage) is defined as intrauterine fetal death before twenty weeks gestation. One of the most common causes of early missed abortions (before 10 weeks gestation) is cytogenetic abnormalities.
Objective: To asses if there is a correlation between chromosomal aberrations (especially in chromosome 7) and missed abortion among at least two generations.
Materials and Methods: After exclusion of direct causes of missed abortion, this study included 60 women (the study group) who had first trimestric missed abortion and 30 healthy women who did not suffer from any diseases during their pregnancy and had apparently normal outcome (the control group). All cases were diagnosed; the blood and tissue samples were collected from the mothers and abortuses from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity Hospital, Ain Shams University. Cytogenetic analyses were performed by using conventional technique and G/T banding techniques and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 7 painting probe (WCP7) and a 7q subterminal probe (7q36, qter), prepared by chromosome micro dissection technique was used for confirming the specific chromosomal abnormality.
Results: Chromosomal analysis by G-banding technique was carried out in all families through three generations including the abortuses. We found highly statistical significant difference between maternal and abortal abnormal karyotype (p?0.005), where abnormal maternal karyotype was detected in 20% cases, 8.33% of them had insertional translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7 (46, XX, ins. (1; 7) (p32; q32.35). This insertion has appeared in two families and among two generations, and in one family among three generations.
Conclusion: Chromosome 7 insertional translocation is a possible autosomal dominant inherited trait and may cause missed abortion.
Seddigheh Abdollahi Fard, Parvin Mostafa Gharabaghi, Farnaz Montazeri, Omid Mashrabi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Hysteroscopy is a safe and high efficient procedure so it is changing to a widespread procedure in dealing with many gynecologic and obstetrical conditions.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutical efficiency of hysteroscopy in managing the common conditions including abnormal uterine bleeding, abortion and infertility.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study to compare hysteroscopy as a minimally invasive approach with conventional laparatomy and hysterectomy or repair of mulerian anomalies and watch the uterine cavity for intrauterine pathology in cases of infertility. Overall 277 women underwent hysteroscopy were evaluated in three groups: with AUB 226 cases, with infertility 34 cases and with recurrent abortions with septate uterus17 cases. The overall success rate was recorded and analyzed after six months in order of indication of hysteroscopy
Results: Hysteroscopy as sole diagnostic procedure in 16.5, 8.8 and 14.3%of AUB, infertility and abortion cases, respectively. In AUB cases, curettage, myomectomy, polypectomy and hysterectomy were the main diagnostic-therapeutical approaches along with hysteroscopy. In infertiles, myomectomy, polypectomy were the main diagnostic-therapeutical approaches
In abortion group, laparoscopy guided, septum resection adhessiolysis , curettage and myomectomy were the main aproach. There was not any major complication. The diagnostic-therapeutically measures accompanying with the hysteroscopy were successful in 73.5% of the bleeding group and 33.3% of the infertility group in follow-up period.
Conclusion: Based on our results, hysteroscopy is a safe, accurate and highly-efficient procedure in managing women with abnormal uterine bleeding, recurrent abortion due to septate uterus

Maryam Asgharnia, Roya Faraji, Fariba Mirblouk, Zahra Atrkar Roshan , Ayda Parvizi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Vaginal sonograghy and serial -hCG are the most common diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy but about 50% of cases are initially misdiagnosed. In tubal pregnancy the zygote lies next to the muscular layer, and this invasion causes an increase in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in blood.
Objective: assessment of CPK and its isoenzyme CPK-MB as a diagnostic marker for tubal pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 111 women between 16-40 years in first-trimester pregnancy admitted to emergency ward of Rasht Alzahra hospital with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding were included and according to sonography and βhCG divided into 3 groups (N=37): tubal pregnancy (1), threatened abortion (2) and normal pregnancy (3). Blood samples were taken for totalCPK and CPK-MB before any invasive procedure. Results: Mean total CPK level were 96.27±63.9 u/lit (group 1), 55.37±14.1 u/lit (group 2) and 48.94±19.2 u/lit (group 3) and was significantly higher in tubal pregnancy compared to other groups. Mean CPK-MB levels in 3 groups were 15.62±5.2 u/lit, 17.32±6.9 u/lit, and 15.1±4.7 u/lit, respectively which was not significant.
Conclusion: It seems that determination of total CPK can enhance the diagnostic value of tubal pregnancy.
Shahrzad Zadehmodares, Nafiseh Baheiraei, Afsar Sharafi, Mehdi Hedayati, Mansoureh Mousavi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Progressions in science and technology have generated several methods for delaying preterm delivery and abortion; therefore, discovering an easy, non-invasive, practical, and non-expensive predictive factor can help us to perform preventive methods in healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors.
Objective: To indicate an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 73 pregnant women who had a singleton pregnancy, had no complications or history of abortion or disease, and were referred to Mahdieh and Taleghani Hospitals between 2007-2009, were evaluated. Blood and cervical fluid samples were obtained thrice from all patients: at the first visit, after 1 week, and 1-2 weeks later. They were followed up until the 12th week of gestation.
Results: Using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, 1.62 was obtained as the cut-off point for the cervical fluid: serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration ratio; 14 patients (19.2%) experienced abortion, and 12 women (70.6%) had a ratio ≥1.62. Of the pregnant women with a ratio of <1.62, 3.6% had an abortion.
Conclusion: Pregnant women who do not show any signs of abortion and have a high cervical fluid: serum HCG concentration ratio are at risk of abortion; therefore, the cut-off point might be an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy.
Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Atefeh Asgari, Safieh Ghahremani, Solmaz Saeedi, Ebrahim Kamrani,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: Different studies show that chromosomal balance translocation in the parents can cause recurrent spontaneous abortions. Incidence of chromosomal translocation abnormalities in couples with repeated abortions is from 0% to 31%.
Objective: The purpose of this research was studying the presence or absence of chromosomal abnormalities and heteromorphism in couples with recurrent abortions and also the role of this anomaly in the abortions.
Materials and Methods: This study is a cross sectional descriptive study which have investigated 75 couples who had three abortions or more, and 65 couples who had two abortions that referred by gynecologist to the lab of Beheshti Hospital in Hamedan for cytogenetical investigation. Also 40 healthy individuals without history of abortion investigated as control group.GTG bonding technique (staining banding with gymsa and trypsin) is used in this study.
Results: Frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and heteromorphism among couples with three or more abortions were reported respectively 5.3% and 9.3%. This frequency in couples with two abortions was respectively 3.07%and 6.15%. The frequency of chromosomal heteromorphism in control group was 7.5% and no chromosomal abnormalities were observed in them.
Conclusion: This study shows that chromosomal abnormality can be one reason of recurrent spontaneous abortions and more abortion increases the probability of this anomaly. Also, existence of chromosomal heteromorphism in the general population without clinical abortion symptoms shows that chromosomal heteromorphism cannot be the reason of these spontaneous abortions.
Saeede Soleimanian, Seyyed Mahdi Kalantar, Mohamad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohamad Ali Zaimy, Azam Rasti, Hossein Fazli,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: In human, about 25% of implanted embryos are losing 1-2 week following attachment to the uterus. A subset of this population will have three or more consecutive miscarriages which define as repeated pregnancy loss (RPL). Introducing the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTS) made a chance for infertile couples to solve their childless problem.
Objective:  This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome AZF regionchr('39')s micro-deletions in male partners of couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM).
Materials and Methods:  Thirty male partner of couples with RM and thirty infertile males, who referred to the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were recruited to this study. In addition, 30 healthy men were screened as a control group from the same center. After DNA extraction using salting out method, the multiplex-PCR was done for amplifying 8 known STSs proximal to the AZF region of the Y-chromosome. The results were compared between the groups using Fisherchr('39')s exact t-test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:  Of the 30 infertile males, 5 (16.6%) cases were associated with the AZF region micro-deletions of DYF87S, DYF84S1, DYF83S1 and DYF51S1, STSs. But in the fertile and RM male groups was found no deletions similar to those, of the infertile males (p=1.0). Instead 4 (13.3%) cases of the RM group males had different micro-deletions included DYS220 (AZFb, sY129), DYS262, DYF8551, and DYF8651, STSs. The AZFc locus of Y-chromosome micro-deletions have a significant role in RM (p=0.045).
Conclusion:  It seems that the Y-chromosome AZF regionchr('39')s micro-deletions are associated with RM, and we recommend adding this AZF region STSs into infertility analyzing panels.
Sahar Shekouhi, Fatemeh Baghbani, Mohammad Hasanzadeh Nazar-Abadi, Tayebeh Hamzehloie, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nafiseh Saghafi, Reza Raoofian, Javad Zavar Reza, Shahab Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Majid Mojarrad,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is one of the most common health complications with a strong genetic component. Several genetic disorders were identified as etiological factors of hereditary X linked RSA. However, more genetic factors remain to be identified.
Objective: In this study we performed linkage analysis on a large X linked RSA pedigree to find a novel susceptibility locus for RSA.
Materials and Methods: A linkage scan using 11 microsatellites was performed in 27 members of a large pedigree of hereditary X-linked RSA. Two point parametric Linkage was performed using Superlink v 1.6 program.
Results: Evidence of linkage was observed to markers at Xq23, DXS7133 and at Xq22.1 DXS101, with LOD score of 3.12 and 1.60, respectively.
Conclusion: Identified locus in this study may carry a responsible gene in RSA. Narrowing down of this region may leads to identification of this gene.
Fatemeh Baghbani, Salmeh Mirzaee, Mohammad Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Chromosomal disorders are the most common cause of first trimester spontaneous abortion. Among the human chromosomes, chromosome no.9 was the most common structural chromosomal variant and it is not thought to be of any functional importance, which often considers as a normal variation in structural polymorphisms, nevertheless there are some studies which claim that there is an association between heteromorphism of chromosome no.9 and some pregnancy complication.
Case: To postulate any correlation between chromosome no. 9 heteromorphism and recurrent abortion, chromosomal analysis was performed on the basis of G-banding technique at high resolution for a couple with the history of 4 ultrasound diagnosed blighted ovum and Chromosome constitution appeared with chromosome no.9 heteromorphism in all 30 metaphases screened for both partners (9p11-q13).
Conclusion: Observation of reproductive failure in couples with heteromorohic pattern of chromosome no.9 suggests that, although the heteromorphism of chromosome no.9 is not a rare condition which often consider as a normal variation with no evidence of any phenotypic effect of patient, nevertheless it seems as if the location of heteromorphic region maybe interfere with meiotic events like the phenomenon of crossing over or miotic segregation of fertilized egg that eventually lead to the development of fertilized eggs with chromosomal abnormalities leading to the possibility of anemberyonic pregnancy, therefore chromosomal analysis for detecting of chromosome no.9 heteromorphism for couples with the history of ultrasound diagnosed blighted ovum will be strongly suggested.
Marzieh Mahdavipour, Farah Idali, Saeed Zarei, Saeed Talebi, Ramina Fatemi, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Somayeh Pahlavan, Farzad Rajaei,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. Environmental factors and genetics can affect pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: Conflicting data suggest an association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and RPL. In this study, such association was investigated in Iranian women with RPL.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, blood samples were collected from 244 women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and 104 healthy women with at least two live births. Using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), we studied -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1 gene in case and control subjects.
Results: The genotypic frequencies of -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1were not significantly different between RPL and control groups (p=0.20 and p=0.09, respectively). A significantly negative correlation was observed between -397C/T and -351A/G (r=-0.852, p<0.001) in RPL women and complete linkage disequilibrium between the investigated polymorphisms was found (D’: 0.959; r-square= 0.758, p<0.001).
Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the analyzed polymorphisms on ESR1gene are not associated with an increased risk of RPL in the studied population.
Mohammad Hasanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Fatemeh Baghbani, Iman Namazi, Salmeh Mirzaee,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed.
Case: Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement.
Conclusion: six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.
Zeinab Nematollahi, Hossein Hadinedoushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Gilda Eslami, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been defined as two or more miscarriages before 20 th week of gestation. It seems that IL-27 may reduce inflammatory responses and affect the survival of the embryo during human pregnancy. IL-27 polymorphisms may influence RPL by altering the levels or the activity of gene product.
Objective: We studied for the first time the association of IL-27 -964 A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with RPL in Iranian women.
Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was performed on two groups consisting of 150 healthy women with at least one delivery (control group) and 150 women with two or more primary RPLs history (RPL group). The -964 A>G SNP in IL-27 gene was determined by PCR-RFLP technique. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using c 2 tests between two groups.
Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding age of women (29±4.4 [control] vs. 30.84±5.2 years [case]). In the RPL group, the genotype frequencies of -964 A>G polymorphism were AG (49.3%), AA (40%), and GG (10.7%), and in the control group, they were AG (43.3%), AA (48.7%), and GG (8%). There was no significant difference between the genotypes of AA, AG, and GG in two groups (p=0.23). As the frequency of allele A was 64.7% in the RPL group and 70.3% in the control group, the difference in frequency of allele A in -964 A>G between two groups was not significant (p=0.19).
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that SNP of -964 A>G in IL-27 gene is not a risk factor for RPL in Iranian women.
Fatemeh Atabaki Pasdar, Alireza Khooei, Alireza Fazel, Maryam Rastin, Nafise Tabasi, Tahmineh Peirouvi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management.
Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry.
Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions) and 20 molar (complete and partial moles), formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis.
Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic) yielded diploid histograms.
Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion.
Fatemeh Shakarami, Mohammad Taghi Akbari, Shohreh Zare Karizi,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two) were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I) polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%), and 5 controls (5%) (p=0.006) so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84). In addition, 7 patients (7 %), and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I) for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034), suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL.
Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.

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