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Semra Kahraman, Nacati Findikli,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Since its first clinical application in early 90s, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has became a powerful diagnostic procedure in clinical practice for avoiding the birth of an affected child as well as increasing the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcome . The technique involves the screening of preimplantation embryos for chromosomal abnormalities in certain indications such as advanced maternal age, repeated abortions and translocations, or for single gene defects, the majority of which are cystic fibrosis and thalassaemias. In this context, it becomes an alternative option for traditional prenatal diagnosis. So far, more than 1000 unaffected babies have been born after PGD, indicating that the procedure is safe and effective in prevention of genetic defects as well as increasing the ART outcome. Besides its diagnostic value and expanding indications such as cancer predisposition, dynamic mutations and late onset disorders, a new feature, namely preimplantation human leuckocyte antigen (HLA) typing also demonstrates its novel therapeutic role in contemporary medicine. This article summarizes the recent status of PGD and discusses the current limitations and future perspectives associated with PGD techniques . Key Words:   PGD, ART,FISH
Alireza Vahidi, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mehrdad Soleimani, Mohammad Hossein Amir Arjmand, Abbas Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Afsaneh Kermaninejhad,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Backgrownd: Studies in regions with seasonal climatic variations have revealed a correlation between human natural conception and birth rates. Holidays and other cultural activities probably have influence on conception, but the ambient temperature and emotional influences on the female hormones related to fertility may play an important part in the seasonal variation in conception. Objectives: The aim of study was to determine the relationship between the success rate of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) treatment cycles and temperature in different seasons. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on all individuals undergoing assisted ART at our institution was performed during June 2000 to June 2001. The study population represented 258 IVF-ET cycles and 821 ICSI treatment cycles. Different variables were analyzed using ?2 test. Results: In IVF treatment cycles, conception was more common from early spring (March to June). This decreased from spring, with the minimum in fall, 22% and 14%, respectably. A significant seasonal variability in the number of eggs, embryo transferred and sperm motility was not demonstrated (p>0.05), but sperm count was significantly higher in spring than any other season (72+4 x106 and 52+7x106, respectively). Conclusion: The seasonal changes should be taken into account together with other factors when evaluating infertility data. Article
Robab Davar, Sedighe Ghandi, Naeimeh Tayebi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Recent reports have suggested that ultrasound-guided embryo transfer (UG-ET) might improve pregnancy rates.
Objective: To determine whether transabdominal UG-ET is a useful tool for increasing pregnancy and implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF or ICSI.
Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in 180 patients in order to compare embryo transfer under abdominal ultrasound-guidance (n=90) with embryo transfer by clinical touch method (n=90).
Results: The Clinical pregnancy rate was 21.1 % in the ultrasound-guided group and 15.5 % in the clinical touch group (p =0.3). The implantation rate in the ultrasound guided group was 11.1% while this was 7.2% in the clinical touch group (p =0.12). The percentage of difficult transfer was not significantly different in both groups, this was 8.9% in the ultrasound-guided group and 13.3% in the clinical touch group (p =0.47).
Conclusions: Although the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate are higher in UG-ET group than the clinical touch group, but this difference was not statistically significant.
Mohamed Youssry, Batuhan Ozmen, Yasser Orief, Khaled Zohni, Safaa Al-Hasani,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Fertilization involves direct interaction of the sperm and oocyte, fusion of the cell membranes and :::::union::::: of male and female gamete genomes. The completion of this process and subsequent embryo development depend in part on the inherent integrity of the sperm DNA. Sperm genome quality has been emphasized for several years as playing a major role in early embryogenesis. There is clinical evidence showing that human sperm DNA damage may adversely affect reproductive outcomes and that spermatozoa of infertile men possess substantially more DNA damage than do spermatozoa of fertile men. Testing DNA integrity may help selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA or with the least amount of DNA damage for use in assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). This review will focus on how sperm DNA is organized, what causes sperm DNA damage and what impact this damage may have on reproductive outcome.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Sedigheh Ghandi, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: One of the major and life-threatening side effects of Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART) is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The available data however, have been showed that both Cabergoline (anti VEGF) and coasting reduce the severity of OHSS.
Objective: We aimed to compare coasting and Cabergoline administration in prevention of severe OHSS.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 IVF/ICSI cycles were selected. Patients at risk of developing OHSS were divided into two groups as patientchr('39')s convenience. For 30 patients in coasting group, exogenous gonadotropins were withheld to allow E2 to decrease while GnRH-a was maintained. Then 10,000 unit hCG was administrated and oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours later. In Cabergoline group, 30 patients were administered with 0.5mg Cabergoline tablet on day of hCG injection, continued for 8 days.
Results: The mean number of retrieved, good quality, mature oocytes and the mean number of embryos were significantly different in two groups (p<0.05). The clinical pregnancy rate was 13.3% in coasting and 26.7% in Cabergoline group that was not significantly different (p>0.05). The incidence of severe OHSS was similar in two groups.
Conclusion: The Cabergoline was as effective as coasting in the prevention of early severe OHSS in high risk patients, but yielded more retrieved oocytes.
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Sedigheh Ghandi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Female age and basal FSH level are independently associated with IVF outcome. They are both related to the same phenomenon, namely ovarian reserve.
Objective: To evaluate the effective role of serum FSH concentration at the start of treatment cycle on ART outcome.
Materials and Methods: A total of 207 women undergoing IVF and ICSI cycles were included in this study. Basal FSH concentrations were measured and the womenchr('39')s ages were calculated before they were undergoing pituitary desensitization and its correlation with ART outcome was evaluated.
Results: Increasing FSH was associated significantly with reduced number of follicles > 15mm, oocytes retrieved, and embryos obtained.
Conclusion: Age is the most important prognostic factor but basal serum FSH can be used to identify women who are very likely to perform poorly in ART, probably because of diminished ovarian reserve.
Farnaz Sohrabvand, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Masoomeh Maasomi, Leila Asgarpoor, Mamak Shariat, Mahtab Hamedani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: In spite of the great progress in assisted reproductive techniques ( ART), and although good quality embryos are transferred,  pregnancy rates have remained around 30%-35% due to low implantation rates.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effects of administrating indomethacin or hyoscine suppositories prior to embryo transfer on the pregnancy rate in ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was performed in Vali-e-Asr Hospital as a pilot study from August 2005 through December 2006 on 66 infertile women in ART cycles. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation  was done using recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) with a long GnRH analogue protocol. After obtaining written consent, the subjects were randomly allocated into three  equal groups (n=22). Groups A and B received  indomethacin and hyoscine rectal suppositories, respectively 30 minutes  before embryo transfer and group C was the control group. Data were analyzed by χ2 , t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskall Wallis tests.
Results: Overall pregnancy rate was 31% (n=21) with 13.6% (n=3) in  group A,  45.5% (n=10), and 36% (n=8) in groups B and C respectively, which shows that pregnancy rate is significantly higher in the group using hyoscine compared to  the other two groups (p=0.04). Uterine muscle cramps were experienced by 3 women (13.6%) in group C while none were reported by women in groups A or B, which shows a significant difference (p<0.04).
Conclusion: It seems that  compared to indomethacin, hyoscine administration 30 minutes prior to embryo transfer can significantly increase pregnancy rates  by reducing uterine and cervical muscle spasm.
Mazdak Razi, Kaveh Akhtari, Ali Reza Najafpour, Keyvan Abdi, Rasoul Shahrooz, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Sajad Feyzi, Hadi Cheragi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Nowadays it is proofed that the uterine artery plays essential role in follicular growth and/or post parturition hemorrhagic.
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation (BUAL) on follicular fate and the probable histochemical changes of the carbohydrate and lipids in the ovaries of rabbits.
Materials and Methods: 24 mature female rabbits randomized into two test and control-sham groups. Test group subdivided to three groups based on time. Animals in the test group under went to BUAL. The ovaries were processed to histochemical and histomorphometric analyses to evaluate the ratio of lipid carbohydrate and lipase enzyme in follicular cells.
Results: The ovaries from test groups exhibited many atretic follicles in various sizes. BUAL significantly (p≤0.05) increased the rate of atresia in the test groups in comparison to the control-sham cases. This situation was progressed by the time. In the test groups lipid reactions were observed more remarkable in the small atretic follicles in comparison to the large atretic follicles. BUAL elevated the reaction sites for lipase enzyme in the early stages of the atresia in the test group.
Conclusion: Referring to our results BUAL caused significant (p≤0.05) hypo-ovulation by increasing the atresia. Also increasing lipid foci in the first stages of the apoptotic process caused cytoplasmic lipase enzyme evaluation while the lipase enzyme level was decreased by the advancement of the atresia and decreasing of the biological activities in follicular cells.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Roya Nasiri, Mina Jafarabadi, Mohammad Sarafraz Yazdi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Ovulation induction and ART may be a newly recognized cause of vascular thrombosis in unusual sites in otherwise healthy women. Objective: To report a case of thrombosis in right carotid artery 2.5 months after ovarian stimulation for IVF-ET.
Case report: A non pregnant 39-year-old woman without coagulation disorder and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The patient underwent two consecutive cycles of IVF-ET with administration of recombinant FSH and chorionic gonadotropin (10000 IU) in each cycle. The patient case had thrombosis of the carotid artery with clinical signs 2.5 months later while fasting in Ramadan. Thorough laboratory and imaging investigation revealed no causative factor.
Conclusion: Fasting may trigger thromboembolic complication weeks after ovarian stimulation.
Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Shahin Narooi, Babak Mojtabaean, Nouzar Nakhaee,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: Doppler indices of umbilical artery are used as indicator of fetal well being.
Objective: To compare Doppler parameters of umbilical artery including pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in patients with preeclampsia with those of normal pregnancies and to evaluate the diagnostic characteristics of these parameters in preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: In a case control study, umbilical artery pulsatility and resistance indices were calculated at a free loop of umbilical cord in 25 preeclamptic patients and 75 uneventful pregnancies. Measurements were compared and diagnostic characteristics of the indices were determined. Results: Mean of pulsatility and resistance index were significantly higher in preeclampsia patients than the control group. Besides, patients with severe preeclampsia showed significantly higher values of PI and RI in comparison to those with mild preeclampsia. For PI, the cut-off of ≥0.98 yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity. Also, RI of 0.64 acquired a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 44%.
Conclusion: Umbilical artery pulsatility index and resistance index increase in preeclampsia and these changes tend to be greater in severe preeclampsia. Umbilical artery PI and RI seem to be more appropriate in excluding preeclampsia rather than confirming it, and we propose the cut-off values of 0.98 for PI and/or 0.64 for RI, to rule-out the disease.
Leili Safdarian, Shohre Movahedi, Ashraf Aleyasine, Marzie Aghahosaini, Parvin Fallah, Zahra Rezaiian,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Despite numerous developments in the field of assisted reproduction the implantation rate remains low .Recent studies suggested that local injury to endometrium in controlled ovarian hyper stimulation cycle improves implantation rate. Studies have attempted to intervene in the development of endometrium.
Objective: The aim of the present study was the exploration of the possibility that local injury of the endometrium increases implantation rate.
Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 100 good responders to hormone stimulation patients were divided into control group (n=50) and experimental group (n=50) which undergo endometrial biopsy by biopsy catheter )piplle) on day 21 of their previous menstrual cycle with use of contraceptive pills before the IVF-ET treatment. In total, 26 patients were removed from the study because the number of stimulated follicles were below 3, or there was no embryo or there was the risk of OHSS. The remaining patients were 33 in experimental group and 41 in the control group.
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the age of the patients, duration of infertility and BMI, base line FSH level and responses to hormone stimulation. The rates of embryo implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy in the experimental group were 4.9%, 18.2% and 12.1% with no significant differences with the control group (6.7%, 19.5%, 17.1%). Cancellation rate was 26%.
Conclusion: In our study, endometrial biopsy didn’t increase the chances to conceive at the following cycle of treatment.
Lii-Shung Huang, Chi-Hwa Yen, Shu-Hsin Lee, Bih-Ching Shu, For-Wey Lung, Ching-Pyng Kuo, Wei-Ya Wu, Angel Yen-Chiao Lu, Yen-Ju Lin, Hui-Sheng Lin, Ming-Chih Chou, Meng-Chih Lee,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: There is an upward trend for parents to resort to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment due to delayed childbirth or birth difficulties.
Objective: This study investigates the pregnancy health and birth outcomes of women who underwent ART and analyzes the factors that influence birth weight to become<10 percentile when undergoing ART.
Materials and Methods: This study analyzed results of the first wave of the Taiwan Birth Cohort study. Through stratified systematic sampling, 24,200 mother-and-child sampling pairs were obtained from a total of 206,741 live births in Taiwan in 2005; 366 of the babies were born with the use of ART.
Results: During pregnancy, mothers who used ART suffered from higher risks of complication than the natural conception counterparts, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and placenta previa. Additionally, babies born through ART had poorer outcomes than the natural conception groups: the low birth weight (<2500g) was 33.1% compared to 6.4% for babies born naturally.
Conclusion: Pregnancy health and birth outcomes of women who underwent ART were worse than those who got natural conception. Types of maternal complication among ART women included GDM, PIH, and placenta previa. Having multiple births was the most important factor that causes low birth weight in babies. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the health and care of mothers and babies who use ART.
Bibi Seema, Saima Ghaffar, Shazia Memon, Shaneela Memon,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Postpartum period is the critically important part of obstetric care but most neglected period for majority of Pakistani women. Only life threatening complications compel them to seek for tertiary hospital care. We describe the nature of these obstetric morbidities in order to help policymakers in improving prevailing situation.
Objective: To find out the frequency and causes of severe post-partum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care and to identify the demographic and obstetrical risk factors and adverse fetal outcome in women suffering from obstetric morbidities.
Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad, between April 2008-July 2009. The subjects comprised of all those women who required admission and treatment for various obstetrical reasons during their postpartum period. Women admitted for non-obstetrical reasons were excluded. A structured proforma was used to collect data including demographics, clinical diagnosis, obstetrical history and feto-maternal outcome of index pregnancy, which was then entered and analyzed with SPSS version 11.
Results: The frequency of severe postpartum maternal morbidity requiring tertiary hospital care was 4% (125/3292 obstetrical admissions). The majority of them were young, illiterate, multiparous and half of them were referred from rural areas. Nearly two third of the study population had antenatal visits from health care providers and delivered vaginally at hospital facility by skilled birth attendants. The most common conditions responsible for life threatening complications were postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (50%), preeclampsia and eclampsia (30%) and puerperal pyrexia 14%. Anemia was associated problem in 100% of cases. Perinatal death rate was 27.2% (34) and maternal mortality rate was 4.8%.
Conclusion: PPH, Preeclampsia, sepsis and anemia were important causes of maternal ill health in our population. Perinatal mortality was high.
Ateş Karateke, Mehmet Küçükbaş, Hamdullah Sozen, Ahmed Namazov, Seda Çakır, Yesim Akdemir,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Abnormal placental invasion has increased parallel with persistent rise in Caesarean delivery. Management relies on accurate diagnosis and delivery should be planned at an institution with appropriate expertise and resources for managing this condition.
Case: We present a case of a placenta invasion anomaly which is the major risk factors of peripartum deaths. In this case we try to explain our approach which reduces unnecessary hysterectomy rates.
Conclusion: In order to avoid postpartum hemorrhage and hysterectomy protocols, our approach which consists bilateral hypogastric arterial ligation, Bakri balloon tamponade and ıf necessary methotrexate therapy can be applied succesfully.

Farnaz Sohrabvand, Shahrzad Sheikhhassani, Maryam Bagheri, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Maryam Shabihkhani, Mamak Shariat, Manijeh Nasr Esfahani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory disorders and infertility with high LH to FSH ratio. In order to prevent further increase of LH and follicle atresia, different regimens for ovulation induction have been recommended using FSH alone.  
Objective: This study was performed in PCOS patients to compare ART outcomes in cycles induced by FSH alone, using either recombinant or urinary products.  
Materials and Methods: In a randomized trial, from 623 patients who underwent down regulation with GnRH analogue in a long protocol, 160 PCOS patients were randomly divided into two groups of 80. Group A received 150 IU/d recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) and group B 150 IU/d urinary FSH (Fostimon).
Results: 33 cases (41.2%) in group A and 36 (45%) in group B achieved clinical pregnancy, which was not significantly different (p=0.67). Total number of oocytes retrieved (13.03±5.56 vs. 14.17±4.89, p=0.17), quality and number of embryos (7.42±3.35 vs. 7.63±3.28, p=0.68) and OHSS rate were similar in group A compared to group B. Endometrial thickness which was 9.66±1.67 mm in group A and 10.36±1.35 mm in group B, showed a significant difference (p=0.004).
Conclusion: It seems that in PCOS patients, both pure FSH products used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation have similar effects on ART outcome and can be used according to availability and patient acceptance without significant difference.
Seyed Khalil Forouzannia, Mohammad Hassan Abdollahi, Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Sadegh Ali Hassan Sayegh,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Sexual dysfunction is one of the most common problems in men after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Etiology of sexual dysfunction in these patients may be psychological or organic due to hormonal changes.
Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the incidence and type of sexual dysfunction and changes in serum concentration of sex hormones in male patients undergoing on-pump CABG.
Materials and Methods: In this before and after study we enrolled 40 men aged less than 70 years who were candidate for on-pump CABG. Interviews were done by a physician before and 12 weeks after the operation in regard to the impact of surgery on their sexual activities. The serum levels of 6 sex hormones were also determined. The statistical tests used for data analysis included analysis of variance, McNemarchr('39')s test and chi-square analysis. Results: The mean±SD age of the patients was 51.27±7.86 years. Incidence of sexual dysfunction was 22.5% (9 cases) before and 47.7% (19 cases) after operation. Types of sexual dysfunction were premature ejaculation (5% before, 2.5% after), impotence (7.5% before, 12.5% after) and loss of libido (10% before, 32% after). The level of sex hormones were generally decreased after operation but it was statistically significant only for estrogen (p-value=0.02).
Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction and reduction in serum level of sex hormones are common in patients before on-pump CABG and mostly get worse after surgery. Complementary studies are suggested for prevention and treatment of sexual dysfunction.
Seyyed Mojtaba Yassini, Mohsen Taghavi Shavazi, Naeimeh Taghavi Shavazi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Nowadays artificially assisted reproductive techniques are used to cure infertility. These methods are highly expensive, time-consuming and have low success rates which are usually around 20-40%. One of the best alternate methods for infertility treatment that can be considered is adoption that often decreases the treatment costs and the psychological impact within an infertile couple.
Objective: This study has been done with the aim of determining adoption acceptance rates and the effective factors of adoption in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between October 2009-2010 on 200 infertile couples who had been referred to Infertility Center of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Information gathered through face-to-face interview and questionnaires. The data analyzed through a SPSS software program using ANOVA test.
Results: There was a significant statistical relationship between adoption acceptance value scores and marriage duration of a couple (p=0.002 in men, p=0.004 in women) and presence of adoption backgrounds in male relatives (p=0.004). There was no statistically significant relationship between age, gender, education level, and onus of infertility, the number of previous referrals for an infertility solution and presence of adoption backgrounds in female relatives.
Conclusion: Adoption as an alternative option to infertility treatment need to be more considered as a medical, social and cultural issue.
Zahra Fardiazar, Simin Atashkhouei, Yousef Yosefzad, Mohamad Goldust, Reza Torab,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Fetal color Doppler is important for evaluation of hypoxia in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetus.
Objective: In this study we compare fetal and maternal color Doppler with blood gas analysis to detect fetal acidosis.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated 100 hospitalized patients with IUGR for comparison of color Doppler results with arterial blood gas analysis. Results of Doppler sonography of fetus middle cerebral arteries, umbilical and uterine artery and umbilical artery ABG were studied in these neonates.
Results: Mean maternal age was 28±7 years, mean gestational age was 31.79±2.59 weeks and mean growth restriction was 3±2 weeks. Resistance increasing was observed in right uterine arteries of 37 mothers. It was normal in 60 mothers. Resistance increasing was observed in left uterine arteries of 36 mothers and nuch was seen in four cases. PCO2, PO2, and pH mean were 48.41±9.50 mmHg, 26.00±12.34 mmHg, and 7.28±0.10 in the neonates respectively.
Conclusion: In this study abnormal color Doppler in IUGR fetuses have no significant correlation with umbilical cord blood gas.
Yan Chen, Guoyun Wang, Fubo Xie, Bo Wang, Guowei Tao, Beihua Kong,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Uterine arteriovenous malformation is a rare but potential life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can be lead to massive hemorrhage.
Case: We describe here a case of uterine arteriovenous malformation. A 32-year-old woman presented abnormal vaginal bleeding following the induced abortion. A diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation made on the basis of Doppler ultrasonraphy was confirmed through pelvic angiography. The embolization of bilateral uterine arteries was performed successfully.
Conclusion: Uterine arteriovenous malformation should be suspected in patient with abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially who had the past medical history incluing cesarean section, induced abortion, or Dillation and Curethage and so on. Although angiography remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is also a good noninvasive technique. The transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective treatment.
Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Iman Halvaei, Farzaneh Fesahat, Asghar Fallah, Narges Nikonahad, Mohaddeseh Taherinejad,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Nanoparticles have wide range of application while there are some reports regarding their probable effects on male reproductive system and spermatozoa.
Objective:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (70nm) on acrosome of rat spermatozoa and number of spermatogenic cells.
Materials and Methods:  In this experimental study, in experimental group, 32 male wistar rats (8 rats/group) received oral feeding AgNPs every 12 hr in one spermatogenesis period (48 days) by means of gavages in 25, 50 , 100 and 200 mg/kg concentration (experimental groups 1-4, respectively). The control group (8 rats) was treated on schedule with distilled water. Spermatozoa were stained by triple staining protocol for acrosome reaction. Histological evaluation on testis sections was performed using tissue processing and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining.
Results:  There was significant difference between the control group and the experimental group 1 for acrosome reaction (11.00±0.00 and 24.25±3.68, respectively, p=0.01). There was only significant reduction in spermatogonia cells in experimental group 4. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 showed a significant reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes and spermatids as well as spermatozoa. But there were no significant differences between different groups for Sertoli cell number and seminiferous tubule diameter.
Conclusion:  It seems that Ag NPs have acute and significant effects on spermatogenesis and number of spermatogenic cells and also on acrosome reaction in sperm cells. More experimental investigations are necessary to elucidate better conclusion regarding the safety of nanoparticles on male reproduction system.

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