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Showing 19 results for Hashemi

Mahmoud Hashemitabar, Babak Ghavamizadeh, Fatemea Javadnia, Esmaiel Sadain,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: The luteal phase defect is a common event following the ovarian stimulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of human chorionic gonadotropine (hCG) and progesterone hormones to improve the luteal phase defect. Materials and Methods: 60 mice were superovulated routinely with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) (7.5U) and hCG (10U). The mice were mated and divided into 3 groups: 1- control (n=20) 2- hCG treatment (n= 20), and 3-Progesterone treatment (n=20). Each group was divided again into two subgroups. The mice (10 from each group) had no injection in group one and were injected intraperiteneal (IP) by hCG (5U/day) and progesterone (1mg/day) subcutaneously (sc) in groups 2 and 3, respectively for four days. On the day 5, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the uterus were flushed to count the number of blastocyst and their quality. The above treatment were carried out for 12 days in the other 10 mice in each group. Similarly group one had no injection and groups 2 and 3 were injected by hCG and progesterone for 12 days respectively by the same manner as mention above. The animals were killed on day 13 and the implanted embryos were counted. The uterus and ovary were processed on days 5 and 13 of pregnancy for histological studies. Results: The mean number of blastocysts per mouse were: 12.2%, 2.6% and 3% in group 1 to 3, respectively. The nomber of implanted embryos were 29 as: 13 living fetus in one mouse and 16 resorption fetus in the other. The morphology of uterus on day 5 was as follow: no development in the stroma and endometrial gland in control group, the stroma and endometrial gland so developed to form the saw teeth appearance which indicated on receptivity of uterus in hCG treated group similar to progesterone treated group, but without the saw teeth appearance. The continuation of hCG injection maintained the receptivity of uterus; while, the continuation in progesterone caused metaplesia of epithelium. The morphology of ovaries in all three groups showed no changes in corpus luteum size on day 5, and showed the following changes on day 13: increasing the number of primary and secondary follicles in control group; while, reducing the size of corpus luteum in hCG group. Conclusion: Progesterone did not improve the uterus and implantation rate. The prolonged usage of progesterone can change the morphology of uterus to more abnormal state in conterast to the prolonged usage of hCG.
Mahmoud Hashemi-Tabar, Fatemeh Javadnia, Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Maryam Baazm,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Recently, embryonic stem (ES) cells have become very important resources in basic medical researches. These cells can differetiate into derivatives of all primary germ layers. Objectives: In order to isolate embryonic stem cells in vitro, the blastocyst were cultured and the morphological aspects, population doubling time, alkalin phosphatse and differentiation properties of the cells were investigated. Materials and Methods: The balstocysts from NMRI mice were cultured for 3 days up to time that inner cell mass (ICM) reach to the outgrowth stage. The cells were disaggregated and trypsinized every 3 days until the appearance of the colonies of ES cells. The colony positive cells were fixed and stained for alkaline phosphatase. The ES cells were cultured in suspension state for 5 days, at the same time Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) was removed from media to form embryoid bodies(EBs). The EBs were cultured for 8 - 20 days on collagen coated dish to induce the spontaneouse differentiation. Results: During the 6-9 days after the disaggregation of ICM in the expansion stage, the colony of ES cells appeared as a flat monolayer mass with strike boundaries and nondistinguish cytoplasm including a few nuclei. In colony formation stage, the morphology changed from flat monolayer to round multilayer with strike define boundaries. Undifferentiated cells were seen as intensely small cells attached together compactly with high nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio. The cells of colonies tend to differetiate by separation from each other and became larger and diffused on substrate by attaching to dish. The positive alkaline phosphatase cells were seen in typical morphology of ES colonies. The EBs cells were seen in culture after 5 days in suspension and began to spontaneously differentiate into various types of cells such as nerve and hematopoitic lineages. Conclusion: Despite strike morphology of ES colonies, it is difficult to distinguish the differentiated from undifferentiated cell colonies in the colony formation stage. New ES cells are capable to give rise into EBs and are susceptible of spontaneously differentiation in various type of cells.
Mahmoud Hashemi-Tabar, Fatemeh Javadnia, Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Ghasem Sakei, Maryam Baazm,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Since embryonic stem (ES) cells have the dual ability to proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into multiple tissue types, ES cells could potentially provide an unlimited cell supply for human transplantation.
Objective: In order to study the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells, they were cultured in suspension by using ES media without Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) to induce spontaneous differentiation. Cellular morphology of differentiated derivatives was then evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Undifferentiated mES from our laboratory were cultured in three different settings by using ES media containing 0.1% / 1mM trypsin/EDTA and removing LIF; in the absence of murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells (group 1), in the presence of MEF feeder cells with a density of 0.5×105 cells/ml (group 2), and 0.5×106 cells/ml (group 3). Five days after the initiation of cell culture, and inducing mES cells to form embryoid bodies (EBs), they were removed from dish by centrifugation, and then they were cultured on collagen coated dishes for 20 days. The dishes were fixed and stained by Wright-Gimsa method at the end of the study period.
Results: In group 1, mES cells showed spontaneous differentiation to all derivatives of three germ cells, including: epithelia like, fibroblast like and neron-like cells. In group 2, almost all ES cells were found to be differentiated into granular progenitor cells including hematopoietic cell lineages. In group 3, various morphologies including nerve cell lineages and fibroblast-like cells were detected.
Conclusion: Differentiation of mES cells can be a dose response process, depending on the factors that may be released from MEF feeder layer to ES media in a coculture system. Our results indicated that in the presence of low numbers of MEF cells, mES cells can spontaneously differentiate into hematopoeitic cell lineages.
Robabeh Taheripanah, Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Mohamad Hashemi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the pathologic entities that it destroys the fallopian tube and impairs the future pregnancy. There are different medical and surgical therapies in order the treatment and reserve of fertility. The aim of this report is discuss a case of successful intrauterine after management of ectopic pregnancy with local injection of KCL in an infertile PCOD patient.
Case: The patient was a PCOD woman with gestational age of 8.5 weeks. One gestational sac and alive fetus with normal heart beat was seen in the right adnexa. Hemodynamic situation was stable. 0.5cc KCL 10% was injected to the fetal heart and the extracted tissue sent for pathology. We evaluated the effects of this treatment by measuring serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) titers. Moreover, we used hysterosalpingogrphy to diagnose and to evaluate the patency of the tubes. Induction ovulation and intrauterine insemination was done and pregnancy occurred. Patient passed the pregnancy very good and she delivered by cesarean section due to breech presentation at 39 weeks of gestational age. There was no sign of pathologic finding in the tubes or adhesion or sequel of ectopic pregnancy.
Conclusion: The beneficial outcomes of this kind of treatment suggest that local injection of KCL as a low invasive treatment can be the choice treatment for alive and progressed ectopic pregnancy or heterotopic pregnancy. Because of rarity of this management and successful intrauterine we reported the usefulness of local KCL injection for the successful conservative treatment of alive ectopic pregnancy in Iran.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Najmeh Zare-Zadeh, Hamideh Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms non-sperm cells and various types of lipids and glucose.
Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL in serum samples of infertile men with abnormal SA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 infertile men (aged 23-49 years) with abnormal SA were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Sperm concentration and motility was evaluated using Makler chamber. While normal morphology was done after Geimsa staining. Following 12 h of fasting the blood samples were obtained for evaluation of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL levels. The lipid profiles were compared with the rates of normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Chi-square and fisher exact tests were used for data evaluation.
Results: 75.5% and 98% of the subjects with normal levels of triglyceride had abnormal sperm morphology and progressive motility respectively. Also abnormal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were related with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. The levels of LDL and HDL were normal in 80% and 89.3% of the cases respectively. The majority of the patients with normal LDL had abnormal sperm parameters.
Conclusion: The results showed that the concentrations of serum lipids were not generally related with the quality of semen parameters. Further studies on the role of lipid profiles of infertile men with sperm fertilizing potentials are necessary.
Haleh Soltanghoraee, Soheila Arefi, Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Arman Taheri, Hojat Zeraati, Seyed Behnam Hashemi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: Evidences suggest an association between the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) with recurrent abortions and infertility. Iodine deficiency was once endemic in Iran and little data is available about the prevalence of these antibodies in different groups of fertile or infertile individuals.
Objective: This case control study was designed to compare the presence of anti-TPO and anti-Tg in four groups of women to reveal their role in the etiology of recurrent abortion and infertility.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of euthyroid women referring to Avicenna Infertility Clinic in Tehran were selected; 95 cases as fertile controls and 70, 78 and 137 cases with male and female factor infertility and recurrent abortion respectively. TSH, anti-TPO and anti-Tg were evaluated by chemiluminescent immunoassay.
Results: The prevalence of the above mentioned autoantibodies in euthyroid controls was about 25% and the percentage of people with an anti-Tg >500 was two times bigger in the abortion group compared to the control group (p<0.05) and the proportion of people with an anti-Tg >500 in younger cases in the abortion group was significantly higher than the rest of the cases (p<0.05). Anti-TPO distribution had no significant differences. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences among four groups. It seems that more comprehensive studies are needed to reach a common conclusion about thyroid autoantibodies in women with recurrent abortions in different groups and different parts of Iran. In addition, dividing the recurrent abortion and infertility groups on the basis of their etiologies could be effective.
Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Maryam Daneshpour, Somayeh Hashemi, Maryam Zarkesh, Feridoun Azizi,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease having both genetic and environmental components and candidate genes on obesity and insulin metabolism have been hypothesized to be involved in its etiology.
Objective: We examined the possible association of adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: A total of 186 women with PCOS using NIH criteria and 156 healthy women were recruited. Their samples were genotyped for the polymorphism in exon 17 and 8 of the insulin receptor gene or exon and intron 2 of the adiponectin gene.
Results: The distributions of genotypes and alleles of both polymorphisms were not different in women with PCOS and controls. There was no significant differences on the anthropometric and hormonal profiles of various adiponectin and insulin receptor genes polymorphisms among both groups.
Conclusion: Adiponectin and insulin receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with PCOS in a sample of Iranian population.
Somayeh Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani-Tehrani, Masumeh Simbar, Mehrandokht Abedini, Majid Bahrainian, Roya Gholami,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Menopause and its physical, hormonal and psychosocial changes could affect women’s sexual function. There are controversial results regarding relationship between sexual attitudes and function.
Objective: We aimed to evaluate sexual attitudes and sexual function among Iranian menopausal age women.
Materials and Methods: This population based cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 menopausal women, aged 45-65 years. Based on a self-made questionnaire data were collected about women’s socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. Data were analyzed using SPSS and sexual function was compared between three groups of women who had positive, medium and negative attitudes regarding sexuality.
Results: The mean age of women was 53.11±4.56 years. Seventy percent of them had at least one sexual problem. Feeling of dyspareunia was significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality (p=0.03). Comparing data obtained on their attitudes, sexual desire, orgasm and dyspareunia demonstrated significant differences (p=0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 respectively).
Conclusion: Attitude regarding sexual function has a great impact on sexual activity of postmenopausal women that need to be considered in their health care programming.
Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani, Zaynab Hamoush, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Leila Hashemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of the non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. It ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. One of the important risk factors for ovarian pregnancy is in the use of Intra uterine devices (IUD).
Case:  We report here one such uncommon case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Our patient is a 30 years old multiparous woman with two previous cesarean sections with severe hypogastric abdominal pain. During laparotomy, ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed, and wedge resection of the ovary was only done. Histopathological examination confirmed it to be an ovarian ectopic pregnancy.
Conclusion:  IUD is one of contraceptive methods which prevents intra-uterine implantation in 99.5%, if implant occurs with IUD, it is tubal implantation in 95% of cases, and it is very rare in other places such as ovary. The most important risk factor of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is IUD as in this study it was showed
Mohammadreza Dehghani, Elena Rossi, Annalisa Vetro, Gianni Russo, Zahra Hashemian, Orsetta Zuffardi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females.
Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated.
Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity.
Sara Masihi, Mojgan Barati, Razieh Mohamadjafari, Marzieh Hashemi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Fetal nasal bone assessment is a non-invasive procedure that helps provide even greater assurance to patients undergoing their first trimester risk assessment for aneuploidies. Absence or presence of this factor is different in some races.
Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate nasal bone in the first trimester of pregnancy in the indigenous population of Khuzestan Province, and to monitor its value in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 2314 pregnant women between 17-43 years old who referred for first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Gestational age was between 11-13w + 6 days. Nuchal translucency (NT), fetal heart rate (FHR), crown rump length (CRL), and maternal age and maternal blood serum factors (Free βHCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and nasal bone were assessed. Finally the risk of trisomies was calculated. The statistical tests are based on the relationship between chromosomal abnormality and the presence or absence of the nasal bone.
Results: In 114 cases we could not examine the nasal bone. Also, in 20 cases missed abortion happened without knowing the karyotype. 2173 cases were delivered normal baby, and in seven cases chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed. Nasal bone was absent in all three cases with trisomy 21 and six of 2173 cases with normal phenotype (0.3%). With use of the Fisher exact test (p=0.0001), a significant correlation was found between the absence of the nasal bone and the risk of chromosomal abnormality.
Conclusion: Inclusion of the nasal bone in first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies achieves greater detection rate especially in Down syndrome
Marzieh Rostami Dovom, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mehrandokht Abedini, Golshan Amirshekari, Somayeh Hashemi, Mahsa Noroozzadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women.
Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran.
Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”.
Results: The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing.
Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Dalili, Seyed Amin Hashemi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)

Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease.
Objective: In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones.
Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling.
Results: The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997).
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia.
Nadia Arabkhazaeli, Kasra Ghanaat, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is caused by different factors, including genetics and thrombophilia. Beside Factor V Leiden, another nucleotide change in a factor V (FV) gene (A4070G; His1299Arg) has been identified linking to hereditary thrombophilia. Also, two proposed MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C (Glu429A) are linked with RPL.
Objective: In this study, the effect of two factors, A4070G in FV and A1298C in MTHFR are evaluated in RPL patients from Mazandaran province, Iran.
Materials and methods: Sample population of 100 women with RPL and 100 controls with Mazandarani ethnics from northern Iran were consist. The factor V (A4070G) and MTHFR (A1298C) polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Molecular study showed 5 women from patients and 9 women from control group were heterozygous AG for A4070G. Frequency of "A" allele in patient and control groups was 97.5% (0.975) and 95.5% (0.955) respectively, and "G" allele frequency was 2.5% (0.025) and 4.5% (0.045) respectively. No significant association (p≤0.05) between FV A4070G genotype and RPL with an OR=1.88, CI 95%=0.6-5.82, was observed (p=0.4). Also, for A1298C, all patients and control individuals were AA genotype. "A" allele frequency in patients and control was 100% and "C" allele frequency was zero. There was no significant difference for A1298C between groups.
Conclusion: Our finding showed that A4070G and A1298C polymorphisms cannot be considered as a cause of PRL in women from Mazandaran province, northern Iran.
Shokoufeh Fazelnia, Touraj Farazmandfar, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: Spontaneous abortion is considered as the most complex problem during pregnancy. Thrombophilia is resumed as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) gene is involved in thrombosis and abortion. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and is involved in thrombosis. The most common polymorphism in this gene is the insertion/deletion (I/D).
Objective: In this study, we analyzed the association between ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C >T polymorphisms in women with unexplained RPL from the north of Iran.
Materials and Methods: Sample population consisted of 100 women with unexplained RPL and 100 controls. The ACE I/D and GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphisms were genotyped by TETRA-ARMS PCR. The association between genotypes frequency and RPL were analyzed using χ2 and exact fisher tests. Associated risk with double genotype combinations was also investigated by binary logistic regression.
Results: There was significant association between ACE DD genotype and RPL (OR=2.04; 95% CI=0.94-4.44; p=0.036). ACE D Allele was also significantly associated with the RPL (OR=1.59; 95% CI=1.05-2.41; p=0.013). No significant association was observed between GPIIIa c.98C>T polymorphism and RPL.
Conclusion: ACE I/D polymorphism may probably be a prognostic factor in female family members of women with the history of recurrent abortion.
Sepideh Khodaverdi, Soheila Amini-Moghaddam, Fariba Almassi Nokiani , Neda Hashemi , Robabeh Mohammad Beigi ,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (Jun 2018)

Background: It has been shown that Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125 and CA 19-9 tumor markers are useful for diagnosis and follow up of ovarian carcinoma.
Case: In this case, we reported the high level of CA-125 and CA 19-9 with large right ovarian intact endometrioma and extensive involvement of omentum. Conclusion: Human Epididymis protein (HE4) and Risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) can be useful in differentiation between malignancies and benign pathologies with a good sensitivity and specificity value
Nazila Najdi, Fatemeh Safi, Shahrzad Hashemi-Dizaji, Ghazal Sahraian, Yahya Jand,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (January 2019 2019)

Background: In some patients with a family history of the gender-linked disease, determination of the fetal gender in the first trimester of pregnancy is of importance. In X-linked recessive inherited diseases, only the male embryos are involved, while in some conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, female embryos are affected; hence early determination of fetal gender is important.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to predict the gender of the fetus based on the accurate measurement of the fetal anogenital distance (AGD) by ultrasound in the first trimester.
Materials and Methods: To determine the AGD and crown-rump length in this cross-sectional study, 316 women with singleton pregnancies were exposed to ultrasonography. The results were then compared with definitive gender of the embryos after birth.
Results: The best cut-off for 11 wk to 11 wk, 6 days of pregnancy was 4.5 mm, for 12 wk to 12 wk, 6 days was 4.9 mm, and for 13 wk to 13 wk, 6 days was 4.8 mm.
Conclusion: AGD is helpful as an ultrasonographic marker that can determine fetal gender in the first trimester, especially after 12 wks.
Mohammad Baqer Hashemi-Soteh, Ali Vali Nejad, Golamreza Ataei, Alireza Tafazoli, Dariush Ghasemi, Rita Siamy,
Volume 17, Issue 8 (August 2019)

Background: Genetic testing has been widely introduced for many hereditary disorders. While the attitudes towards these facilities have been evaluated in many countries, there are only a few reports on the knowledge of and the orientation among Iranians.
Objective: The current study assesses the attitudes and knowledge of pre-marriage individuals toward the availability and use of genetic tests.
Materials and Methods: A comprehensive questionnaire was distributed among 408 marrying individuals. The questions addressed the demographic characteristics along the registration of participantchr('39')s knowledge, education, and attitude toward genetic testing. The individuals were divided into three groups based on their knowledge: 1) Scored above 80 to 100 were defined as "good" 2) 60 to 80 as "average" 3) less than 60 as "poor" knowledge.
Result: Most participants (86%) believed consanguineous marriages increase the risk of genetic diseases; 82.3% knew that thalassemia is a type of genetic disease, only 33.3% could distinguish prenatal diagnosis (PND) from other laboratory tests. The relationship between the participantschr('39') knowledge and their level of education was significant (r= 0.78, p< 0.001), age (r= -0.16, p< 0.01), and urbanity (p< 0.01). A prominent relationship was observed between the knowledge (r= 0.64, p< 0.001) or education (r= 0.62, p< 0.001) and people’s desire to use the genetic tests before the wedding ceremony. No significant correlations were found between the participant’s attitude and their ages/urbanity. Most of the individuals agreed to arrange a genetic counseling before marriage (0.94%).

Conclusion: This study revealed that most individuals were interested in using genetic counseling services and genetic tests before marriage.
Elham Askary, Tahereh Poordast, Zahra Shiravani, Mohammad Ali Ashraf, Atefeh Hashemi, Razieh Naseri, Shaghayegh Moradialamdarloo, Zinat Karimi, Elham Izanloo, Fatemeh Sadat Najib,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (February 2021)

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns about the susceptibility amongst different groups of the population. Pregnant women are one such group. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on pregnancy and maternal/neonatal outcomes.
Case presentation: This case series was conducted on 16 pregnant women with COVID-19 from March 21 to May 11, 2020. Clinical characteristics, pregnancy complications, medication used, maternal/neonatal outcomes, and fatality rate were investigated through this study. The mean age of the patients was 30.06 yrs. Patients from all three trimesters were included (1 in first, 5 in second, and 10 in the third trimesters). The most common clinical symptoms were shortness of breath (n = 10), dry cough (n = 10), myalgia (n = 8), and chills (n = 7). Also, three cases had papulosquamous skin lesions with fissuring. The most common laboratory results were leukocytosis (n = 8), increased liver enzymes (n = 6), elevated CRP (n = 5), and thrombocytopenia (n = 4). There was one case of maternal mortality, five of premature labor pain (PLP), two of preeclampsia, and two of placenta accreta. Twelve pregnancies were terminated (nine cesarean sections, three vaginal deliveries). Among neonates, we had 6 cases of preterm labor. All neonates had negative PCR results.

Conclusion: Clinical manifestations and paraclinical results were similar to non-pregnant patients. There was no evidence of vertical transmission. PLP and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) were the most common complications in the second and third trimesters of pregnant COVID-19 women, which can lead to rupture of the uterus. Termination and delivery should be planned individually.

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