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Showing 42 results for Ahmadi

Fatemeh Mostajeran, Hosna Gharavi, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: Spontaneous occurrences of multifetal pregnancies always have been a medical problem. The risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and maternal morbidity increase with enhancement of the number of fetuses. In our prospective experimental study, the outcome of twin pregnancy after Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) with and without Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction (MFPR) is compared relating to perinatal and maternal complications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the gestational age at delivery, birth weight, and other complications of surviving twins following MFPR to those in a control group of non-reduced twins.
Materials and methods: In this prospective experimental study, from infertile couples who were referred to Isfahan Fertility- Infertility Center (IFIC) and were candidate for ART (Invitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection), 30 couples who have had twin (control group) and 35 couples with quadruplet or higher order pregnancies (experimental group) were selected. In cases with experimental group MFPR was done, and pregnancy outcome-miscarriage, premature labor, Premature Preterm Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)-were compared between two groups.
Results: Distribution of complications in experimental vs. control groups was as follows: miscarriage: 23.3 vs. 16 .7%, premature labor: 15.7% vs. 13.3 %, pregnancy induced hypertension: 13.3% vs. 16.7%, abruption: 6.7% vs. 6.7%, and premature preterm rupture of membranes: 23.3% vs. 26.7 %. Mean neonatal weight at birth (2239 vs. 2240 gr) and mean gestational age at delivery (33.5 vs. 34.1 w) were similar. The differences between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05).
Conclusion: MFPR during early pregnancy is a safe, effective and simple operative for the purpose of reducing perinatal and maternal complications.
Mir Mehrdad Farsi, Ali Jorsaraei, Mahmood Hajiahmadi, Sedigheh Esmaelzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Multiple factors have been suggested for prediction of pregnancy in Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles such as the number of injected oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo morphology and quality of transferred embryos. Predictive value of these factors is important in ICSI outcome.
Objectives: To evaluate the role of embryo morphology for prediction of pregnancy in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done on 97 patients who were treated by ICSI in Fatemeh Zahra Fertility and Infertility Centre from April 2004 to March 2005.  Number of retrieved oocytes, number of injected oocytes, fertilization rate, zygote morphology, rate of cytoplasmic fragmentation, number of four cell transferred embryos, and quality of embryo transfer, as predictors of pregnancy in ICSI cycles were evaluated. The results analysed by T-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was used to estimate the significance of variables in the prediction of pregnancy probability.
Results: Out of 97 patients, 42 cases of pregnancy were detected (Pregnancy rate: 43.3%). The number of four cell transferred embryos was 112 (53.84%) in pregnant group. Pregnancy occurred in 33 (58.9%) patients with at least one good quality zygote.  The mean number of four cell transferred embryos and the quality of zygotes had significant difference between pregnant and not pregnant groups (p=0.006 and p=0.000 respectively). In logistic regression analysis, the number of four-cell transferred embryos (p=0.007) and the quality of zygotes (p=0.003) were significant predictors of the pregnancy outcome.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the number of four-cell transferred embryos with ≤ 15% cytoplasmic fragmentation and zygotes with centralized, apposed and polarized pronuclei in women <38 years old are significant predictors for pregnancy in ICSI cycles.
Monir Pashmi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabaie, Seyed Ahmad Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Using the method “surrogacy” in which a woman accepts to bear and deliver a child for a married couple is considered as a subsidiary method in infertility therapy. This method is relatively new in Iran.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the experiences of the women involved in surrogacy and to reveal some issues related to this method.
Materials and Methods: The method of research was analytic–deh1ive and causative – comparative type. The 5-item neo - questionnaire and structured interview were used simultaneously. The sample consisted of 15 surrogate mothers 15 intended mothers and 30 normal mothers (each with one or more children). The studied data was gathered in the fall and winter of 2009 in Isfahan by the researcher (Monir Pashmi) and data analysis was executed through the use of deh1ive data (such as the median standard deviation) and interpretive data (T- test).
Results: The research revealed that in terms of social – cultural status the surrogate and intended mothers were completely different but their psychological characteristics were not significantly varied. Results indicate the satisfaction and consent of both sides involved in the surrogacy. They had a good relationship during the pregnancy period but after delivery the intended mother wanted no further relationship they found out this method an altruistic experience.
Conclusion: Most surrogate and intended mothers do not consider surrogacy a problematic issue. A number of mothers however did mention that they had not been given the appropriate counseling beforehand. It seems plausible therefore to endeavour a general rise in the socio – cultural awareness of surrogacy in Iranian society.
Soghra Rabiee, Marziyyeh Farimani, Maryam Ahmadi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Pregnancy rate with IVF cycle is almost 22%. Many investigations perform to increase this rate in IVF. Various factors affect the result of IVF cycles. One of these factors could be uterine contractions that expel transferred embryo. Ritodrine is a beta mimetic agent that can block and decrease uterine contractions.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine ritodrine effectiveness for increasing the implantation rate in IVF cycles, and its probable mechanisms in decreasing uterine contractions as well.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients of IVF-ET cycles were divided randomly in two groups in a university hospital, Hamadan, Iran. The case group were prescribed ritodrine 10 mg / bid orally after oocyte retrieval until 10 days. The control group didn’t received ridotrine.
Results: In ritodrine group 14% of patients and in control group 16% had positive β-hCG test (p-value>0.5).
Conclusion: Ritodrine did not improve the implantation rate in IVF-ET cycles.
Sedigheh Ghandi, Raheleh Ahmadi, Mahmoud Fazel,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious.
Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported.
Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality.
Mehri Makki, Elham Saboori, Mohammad Ali Sabbaghi, Raheleh Aram, Mohammad Hasan Fallahian, Fatemeh Peyghambari, Hessam Roustaei, Abbas Ahmadi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an emerging procedure quickly incorporated into the world of assisted reproductive technologies. As an effective method of in vitro maturation, several studies have reported the critical role of differentions on activating the complex process involved in both gamete maturation and fertilization.
Objective: In this study, we supplemented a chemically defined medium with different combinations of selenium, calcium and calcium ionophore concentrations to obtain the best rate of human oocytes maturation, survival, and fertilization.
Materials and Methods: As an experimental study, Three combinations of [selenium (5 μg/ml), calcium (5 μg/ml) and calcium ionophore (1 μg/ml)], [selenium (10 μg/ml), calcium (7 μg/ml) and calcium ionophore (2 μg/ml)] and [selenium (15 μg/ml), calcium (10 μg/ml) and calcium ionophore (5 μg/ml)] added to the chemically defined medium and the morphology of oocytes assessed after 22-24 hours in vitro maturation of the oocytes.
Results: The highest percentage of MII (meiosis II) oocytes (68%), developing beyond the morula (20.1%) and the blastocyst formation (11.1%) observed in oocytes treated with 15µg/ml selenium, 10µg/ml calcium and 5µg/ml calcium ionophore. Moreover, we showed the significant rate of survival in each three combinations after 36, 72 and 96 hours.
Conclusion: Maturation and activation of oocytes may be triggered by changes in intracellular ion concentrations as second messengers in signal transduction pathways. Here, we received the highest percentage of in vitro maturation and fertilization among three combinations of selenium, calcium and calcium ionophore treatments. Using this combination of ions beside other factors might be useful for the enrichment of the human oocytes IVM medium.

Firoozeh Ahmadi, Hadieh Haghighi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

  A 27 year old patient presented with primary infertility of 3 years' duration and also a history of myomectomy (5 years ago) was referred to our infertility clinic for investigation of infertility. The latest Hysterosalpingography (HSG) revealed an obstructed left fallopian tube with apparently a unicornuate uterus with luminal contour irregularity and normal left fallopian tube (Figure 1). Significant information in her past medical history revealed that she had another HSG two years before and her first hysterosalpingography (HSG) showed a apparently unicornuate uterus. Additional significant information in comparison with second HSG revealed that both fallopian tubes were opacified (Figure 2). In this case medical history also included hysteroscopic diagnosis of adhesion following open myomectomy at the age of 22. Comparison of previous graphies and hysteroscpic findings lead to a suggestion of pseudounicornuate uterus. Intrauterine adhesions develop after trauma to the basal layer of the endometrium. Unilateral excessive scarring of the uterus may lead to an obliteration of the uterine lumen resulting in an image that can mimic a unicornuate uterus (pseudounicornuate uterus) (1). A true unicornuate uterus should be excluded from pseudounicornuate uterus by a) horizontally oriented in its long axis due to deficient development of mullerian ducts b) smooth or regular contour c) with one tube. While pseudounicornuate uterus look like acquired lesion and cicatrisation leads to a usually irregular contour and uterus is more vertical in its long axis (2). Obtaining an accurate history, comparison of previous sonographic or laparoscopic findings, and awareness about this image of synechiae are the critical steps in differentiating a pseudounicornuate uterus from true unicornuate uterus.
Elham Movahed, Vahid Nejati, Rajabali Sadrkhanlou, Abbas Ahmadi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads.
Objective: The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated.
Results: Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). ACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). In addition ACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (p<0.05). As well ACV decreased potential fertility in male rats.
Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.
Fatemeh Kheradmand, Issa Nourmohammadi, Mohamad Amin Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohsen Firoozrai, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd.
Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells.
Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 μM ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 μM CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 μM CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively.
Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG.
Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd.
Nargess Afzali, Firoozeh Ahmadi, Farnaz Akhbari,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients.
Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG).
Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis.
Firoozeh Ahmadi, Hadieh Haghighi,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Adenomyosis is an idiopathic and benign disease in which ectopic endometrial glands embedded deeply in myometrial smooth muscle with the compensatory hypertrophy of the myometrium surrounding the ectopic endometrium (1, 2). There is a correlation between depth of the infiltration and initial too high stage of adenomyosis. Lesions may characterize as a diffuse or focal lesions. The highest prevalence occurs in parous women 30-50 years old and in half of the cases remains asymptomatic (2, 3). By now, there are no definitive detection methods for adenomyosis and the condition still remains a diagnostic challenge. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is the primary imaging modality for preoperative diagnosis of diffuse adenomyosis. There is a broad spectrum of ultrasound features in adenomyosis. Typical adenomyosis on two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-TVS) is characterized by the presence of focal or diffuse myometrial heterogeneity (4, 5). Diffuse adenomyosis represents as asymmetric myometrial thickening and/or enlarged and globular uterus. Other findings in adenomyosis include echogenic nodules or linear striations extending from the endometrium into the myometrium results from presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma and also dilated cystic glands result in small myometrial cysts(1). In a recent review Reinhold and colleagues reported that TVS had a sensitivity of 80-86%, specificity of 50-96%, and overall accuracy of 68-86%for diagnosing diffuse adenomyosis (1). However, TVS can yield equivocal result in the case of focal adenomyosis and if there are co-existent fibroids (6). Furthermore, the 2D-TVS findings are more likely appears in advanced stage of disease. With the advent of real time three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-TVS) the diagnostic potential of ultrasound examination of adenomyosis has improved significantly. The coronal section of the uterus and post processing arrangement provided by 3D-TVS has led to substantial improvement in the diagnosis of adenomyosis on early stage (7, 8). Recent studies showed that the irregular endometrial-myometrial junction (junctional zone, JZ) with increased thickness depicted on coronal view of 3D-TVS as a sonographic criteria has a high diagnostic accuracy particularly for diagnosis of initial adenomyosis based on the reasonable hypothesis that adenomyosis is caused by infiltration of endometrial tissue across the junctional zone and into myometrium(7, 9). Ahmed et al found the positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy of 3D-TVS in the diagnosis of adenomyois to be 95% and 80%, respectively, based on detection of irregular junctional zone on coronal plane. This picture of month aims to illustrate a typical feature of adenomyosis on three-dimensional ultrasound (Figure 1 a, b). 3D-TVS provide the most comprehensive and detailed view of the uterus and improves the evaluation of adenomyosis in the office as a first line diagnostic tool.
Firoozeh Ahmadi, Zohreh Rashidy, Hadieh Haghighi, Mohamadreza Akhoond, Maryam Niknejadi, Mandana Hemat, Mansour Shamsipour,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Assessment of uterine abnormalities is a core part in infertility evaluation.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three-dimensional hysterosonography (3-DHS) in the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities in infertile women.
Materials and Methods: The infertile women who visited Royan Institute and referred to 3-DHS consecutively, prior to in vitro fertilization, from 2010-2011 included in this cross-sectional study. For patients who underwent hysteroscopy in addition to 3-DHS (214/977), the verification bias adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS which were calculated by global sensitivity analysis method. Hysteroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Histological diagnosis of resected endometrial tissues by hysteroscopy was assessed and the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detection of polyp or hyperplasia were determined. Histopathologic results were considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of polyp or hyperplasia.
Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity for 3-DHS in diagnosis of uterine anomalies considering hysteroscopy as the gold standard were 68.4% and 96.3% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of hysteroscopy in diagnose of polyp or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.3% and 81.4% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS in diagnosis polyps or hyperplasia was calculated at 91.4% and 80.2 % respectively.
Conclusion: The results of present study proved that, compared to hysteroscopy; 3-DHS has a reliable specificity for diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-DHS and hysteroscopy in detecting polyp or hyperplasia regarding histopathology as the gold standard was the same.
Ashraf Kazemi, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Nasr-Esfahani, Ali Akbar Saboor Yaraghi, Mehdi Ahmadi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality.
Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality.
Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant.
Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development.
Rahele Alijahan, Sadegh Hazrati, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi, Farhad Pourfarzi, Peymaneh Ahmadi Hadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity as well as the long-term health consequences and cognitive outcomes.
Objective: Present study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with preterm birth in Ardabil, Iran.
Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted between Nov 2010 and July 2011 in all three maternal hospitals in Ardabil. All the live newborns during the study period were investigated. Of 6705 live births during the study period 346 births occurred in <37 weeks were taken as a case and 589 term neonates were taken as a control group. Data were obtained through review of prenatal and hospital delivery records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to obtain magnitude of association between independent variables and preterm birth.
Results: The prevalence rate of preterm birth was 5.1%. History of previous preterm birth (OR=12.7,CI: 3.9-40.4, p<0.001), hypertension (OR=7.3, CI:2.1-25.4, p=0.002), Oligohydramnios (OR=3.9, CI:1.6-9.5, p=0.002), spouse abuse (OR=3.7, CI:1.1-11.8, p=0.024), preeclampsia (OR=3.6, CI:1.3-10.3, p=0.014), premature rupture of membrane (OR=3.1, CI:1.9-4.9, p=0.000), bleeding or spotting during pregnancy (OR=2.0, CI:1.0-3.8, p=0.037), Hyperemesis Gravid arum (OR=2.0, CI: 1.1-3.8, p=0.015), urinary tract infection in 26-30 weeks , (OR=1. 8 CI:1.0-3.2, p=0.04), diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmg (OR=1.5, CI: 0.99-2.2, p=0.049) were determined as significant risk factors for preterm birth.
Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of diseases or disorders among pregnant women especially hypertension, Oligohydramnios, preeclampsia, bleeding or spotting, Hyperemesis Gravid arum, urinary tract infection, and low diastolic blood pressure as well as the improving health care quality delivered to pregnant women may reduce preterm prevalence rate. 
Fatemeh Bazarganipour, Seyed Abdolvahab Taghavi, Ali Montazeri, Fazlollah Ahmadi, Reza Chaman, Ahmad Khosravi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been shown to cause a reduction in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, the relative degree of impairment in each domain differed among samples, and it was not clear which aspect of disease-specific HRQOL (modified polycystic ovary syndrome health-related quality of life questionnaire) was most negatively affected.
Objective: To systematically review the effects of PCOS on specific domains of HRQOL.
Materials and Methods: Literature search using search engine of database (PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Scopus) between 1998 to December 2013 yields 6 relevant publications. Pairs of raters used structural tools to analyze these articles, through critical appraisal and data extraction. The scores of each domain of polycystic ovarian syndrome questionnaire (PCOSQ) or modified version (MPCOSQ) of 1140 women with PCOS were used in meta-analysis.
Results: The combine mean of emotional (4.40; 95% CI 3.77-5.04), infertility (4.13; 95% CI 3.81-4.45) and weight (3.88; 95% CI 2.33-5.42) dimensions were better, but menstruation (3.84; 95% CI 3.63-4.04) and hirsutism (3.81; 95% CI 3.26-4.35) domains were lower than the mean score of PCOSQ/MPCOSQ in related dimension.
Conclusion: The meta-analysis showed that the most affected domains in specific HRQOL were hirsutism and menstruation. Based on these findings, we recommend healthcare providers to be made aware that HRQOL impairment of PCOS is mainly caused by their hirsutism and menstruation, which requires appropriate management.
Zahra Bakhtiary, Rasoul Shahrooz, Abbas Ahmadi, Leila Zarei,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: One of the affecting factors in disturbance process of spermatogenesis is chemotherapeutic-induced oxidative stress resulted from cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment which leads to diminished sperm quality via interference in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in reducing the CP-induced side effects on reproductive system.
Materials and Methods: 24 mature male mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and were undergone therapy for 35 days. Control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day, IP). CP group were injected CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) as well as CP. In the end of the treatment period, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Then, the epididymis was incubated with CO2 in a human tubal fluid medium (1 ml) for half an hour in order to float sperm. Then, the number, motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), DNA breakage (acridine orange staining), nucleus maturity, and sperm morphology (aniline blue staining) were analyzed.
Results: The average (15.87±1.28), motility (35.77±2.75), viability (40±3.03), nucleus maturity (36±2.79) and sperm morphology (61.75±0.85) were decreased significantly in CP group in comparison with control and EP groups, whereas EP caused significant increase of these parameters. Also, the percentage of DNA damage was increased significantly in CP group (41.75±3.75) in comparison with control (2±0.71) and EP groups (22.5±4.13).
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed ameliorating effects of EP on sperm quality of CP treated animals.
Shohreh Irani, Firoozeh Ahmadi, Maryam Javam, Ahmad Vosoughtaghi Dizaj, Fatemeh Niknejad,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)

Background: Several studies have assessed the correlation of fetal choroid plexus cyst (CPC) and the risk of congenital anomalies, but few ones have discussed isolated CPC (with no other abnormal sonographic finding).
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of isolated fetal choroid plexus cyst and to specify its clinical significance.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran, between April 2009 and December 2012. All prenatal sonographies in this period of time were assessed using a computerized database and fetuses who had isolated CPC were recruited in the study. Sonography reports, mother serum screening test results, fetal echocardiography and amniocentesis were evaluated until birth. A follow-up phone call was made to all individuals to learn about the neonatal outcomes.
Results: Overall, 6240 prenatal sonographies were performed in this setting during this period. Isolated CPC was detected in 64 fetuses. The results of double test (N=30), triple test (N=5) and fetal echocardiography (N =24) were normal. Quadruple test result showed 3 abnormal out of 29 cases that all had normal karyotypes. Four samples were dropped out due to premature rupture of membranes (N=3) and intrauterine fetal death (N=1). It was found that the outcomes of all remaining fetuses (N=60) were normal and no anomaly ones were seen until birth.
Conclusion: Isolated CPC is a benign regressive condition with no clinical significance.
Cyrus Jalili, Sharareh Ahmadi, Shiva Roshankhah, Mohammadreza Salahshoor,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background: The predominant phytoestrogen in soy and derived products is the isoflavone Genistein. Genistein has antioxidant properties. Morphine is a main psychoactive chemical in opium that can increase the generation of free radicals and therefore it could adversely affects the spermatogenesis.
Objective: The main goal was to investigate whether the Genistein could protect morphine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone and nitric oxide in blood serum.
Materials and Methods: In this study, various doses of Genistein (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) and Genistein plus morphine (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg) were administered interaperitoneally to 48 male mice for 30 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=6) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility and morphology), testis weight and histology, testosterone hormone (ELISA method), FSH and LH hormones (immunoradiometry) and serum nitric oxide (griess assay) were analyzed and compared.
Results: The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone (0.03 ng/mg) LH and FSH level, histological parameters, count, viability (55.3%), morphology and motility of sperm cells (1%), testis weight (0.08 gr) and increase nitric oxide compared to saline group (p=0.00). However, administration of Genistein and Genistein plus morphine significantly boosted motility, morphology, count, viability of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal thickness, testosterone, LH and FSH while decrease nitric oxide level in all groups compared to morphine group (p<0.025).
Conclusion: It seems that Genistein administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevent morphine- induced adverse effects on sperm parameters
Amir Afshin Khaki, Arash Khaki, Seyed Shahin Ahmadi,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background: Recently, there are increasing concerns and interests about the potential effects of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) on both human and animal health.
Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the harmful effects of 50 Hz non-ionizing EMF on rat oocytes.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 30 rats were randomly taken from laboratory animals and their ags and weights were determined. These 3 month's old rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without receiving any treatment and kept under normal conditions. Experimental group 1 (10 rats) received EMF for 8 weeks (3 weeks intrauterine +5 weeks after births) and experimental group 2 (10 rats) received EMF for 13 weeks (3 weeks intrauterine +10 weeks after birth). After removing the ovaries and isolating follicles, granulosa cells were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the traumatic effects of EMF on follicles.
Results: In control group nucleus membrane and mitochondria in follicle’s cytoplasm seemed normal in appearance. Theca layer of primary follicles in experimental group was separated clearly, zona layer demonstrated trot with irregular thickness and ovarian stroma seemed isolated with dilated vessels showing infiltration.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that EMF has harmful effects on the ovarian follicles
Fariba Farhadifar, Mazaher Khodabandehloo, Rashid Ramazanzadeh, Samaneh Rouhi, Amjad Ahmadi, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Daem Roshani, Nasrin Soofizadeh, Masoomeh Rezzaii,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Mycoplasma infections are suggested as etiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study that was conducted from August 2012 to January 2013, totally, 109 women were included with spontaneous abortion with gestational ages of 10-20 weeks (Cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestational ages between 20-37 weeks (Controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. Using specific primers and extracted DNA from endocervical swabs, a PCR test was conducted for detection of M. hominis infection in women. For comparison of qualitative and quantitative variables, independent Fisher tests were used and          p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The total frequency of M. hominis infection was 6 (2.75%) in women. The frequency of M. hominis infection was 2 (1.83%) in the case group (spontaneous abortion) and 4 (3.66%) in the control group, respectively. In both case and control groups, no association was seen between M.hominis infection and spontaneous abortion (OR=0. 49, CI 95%: 0.08-2.73, p=0. 683).
Conclusion: M. hominis was positive in the genital tract of some pregnant women, but it was not associated with spontaneous abortion. However, to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in women, foetus and neonate, routine screening and treatment for the genital Mycoplasma is recommended.

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