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Showing 43 results for Subject: Reproductive Biology

Mohammad Rafiei, Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz, Malihe Akbari, Faezeh Kiani, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Koroush Sayehmiri, Reza Vafaee,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Uncontrolled increase of C-section is one of the major problems in Iranian health system, such that C-section is the most common surgical procedure in the entire country’s hospitals in Obstetrics and Gynecology sections. A variety of complications also come along with cesarean.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, causes, and complications of cesarean in Iran.
Materials and Methods: forty-one articles were considered with respect to certain criteria and were included in a systematic review to perform a meta-analysis study. The systematic review’s search was conducted on SID, Iranmedx, Magiran, Medlib, PubMed, and Science Direct databases published between1999-2016. The weight of each included study was calculated according to its sample size and the reported prevalence of binomial distribution. A random-effects model using R and STATA (Version 11.2) software was utilized for analyzing data
Results: The total number of the sample was 197514 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.72 yr. The prevalence of cesarean in Iran was estimated at 48%. The main reasons for the prevalence of cesarean in this study were mothers’ higher education, previous cesarean, and doctor recommendation. The most frequent complication in women undergoing cesarean was the muscular pain, and the most common fetal complications in newborns by caesarean delivery was transient tachypnea.
Conclusion: The prevalence of C-section in Iran is much higher than what WHO recommends. It is essential, to decrease such a phenomenon, making the mothers aware of the risks of cesarean delivery, and establishing counselling sessions as well to eliminate the mothers’ fear of vaginal delivery.
Apichakan Sampannang, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Wannisa Sukhorum, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model is widely used to evaluate the adverse effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis. However, the actual mechanism of sub/infertility in DM males needs to be elucidated.
Objective: To conduct a detailed examination of the testicular histopathology, sperm acrosome reaction (AR) status, and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein expression in the testis of male mice induced with STZ.
Materials and Methods: Ten ICR mice were divided into two groups (n=5/each): control and diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ). The control mice were intraperitoneally injected with citrate buffer, whereas MLD-STZ mice were injected with STZ at 40 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days. At the end of the experiment (day 40), reproductive parameters, AR status, and the histopathology of the testis and epididymis were evaluated. The expression of testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins was examined.
Results: Blood glucose levels, AR percentages, and sperm abnormality of STZ group were significantly higher (p=0.003, 0.001, 0.000), while sperm concentration was significantly lower (p=0.001) compared to control. Histopathology of the seminiferous tubule was classified into 7 types. Additionally, abundant round cells were found in the epididymal lumen of the MLD-STZ mice. Moreover, the intensities of testicular phosphorylated proteins (170, 70, 36, 30, and 25 kDas) were markedly higher and a 120 kDa protein band was noticeably lower in the MLD-STZ mice.
Conclusion: MLD-STZ-induced DM causes many testicular histopathologies, precocious sperm AR, and increased expression of testicular phosphorylated proteins. These findings may clarify some mechanisms of sub/infertility in DM males.
Matem Tunçdemir, Güven Yenmiş, Kübra Tombultürk, Hülya Arkan, Tuğba Soydaş, Rasit Burak Tek, Özlem Altıntaş, Hamdi Özkara, Gönül Kanıgür-Sultuybek,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: A notable proportion of idiopathic male infertility cases is accompanied by oligozoospermia; and yet, the molecular mechanisms of fertilization problem underlying this defect are still unclear. Epithelial cadherin has been involved in several calcium-dependent cell-to-cell adhesion events; however, its participation in gamete interaction has also not been fully investigated.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the changes in the expression of E-cadherin, based on the frequency of Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Nuclear Factor Kappa-B 1 and pre-mir-146a in oligospermic men.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, semen and blood samples of 131 oligospermic men as the case group and 239 fertile healthy men as the control group were analyzed. Variants single nucleotide polymorphisms rs28362491 and rs2910164 were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and E-cadherin expression were determined by immunoprecipitation studies.
Results: ins/ins genotype of rs28362491 was determined as a risk factor for idiopathic oligospermia by 1.73 times (p=0.0218), whereas no significant differences were found between the groups concerning pre-mir-146a rs2910164 polymorphism (p=0.2274 in case of GC genotype and p=0.9052 in case of GG genotype). Combined genotype analysis results did not show any notable differences between the multiple comparisons of 28362491-rs2910164 in oligospermic men and control groups. In addition, E-cadherin expression of oligospermic men with ins/ins genotype was significantly lower than patients with del/ins genotype (p=0.0221). E-cadherin expression level was low in oligospermic men with respect to the control group in presence of ins/ins genotype of NFKB1 gene.
Conclusion: These results suggest that ins allele prevents binding of surface proteins to spermatozoa, leading to a low affinity of sperm-oocyte interaction in oligospermic men.
Robab Davar, Nosrat Neghab, Elham Naghshineh,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Over the years, many article on different aspects of pathogenesis and management of poor ovarian responders have been published but there is no clear guideline for treating themyet.
Objective: This study was designated to compare the effectiveness of a delayed start protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and microdose flare-up GnRH agonist protocol in poor ovarian responders.
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial consisted of 100 poor ovarian responder women in assisted reproductive technologies cycles. They were divided randomly in delayed-start antagonist protocol (with estrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for 7 days before ovarian stimulation) and microdose flare-up GnRH agonist protocol. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and second outcome was the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, 2PN number, fertilization rate, and implantation rate.
Results: Fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and ongoing pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the two studied protocols. Number of retrieved oocytes (5.10±3.41 vs. 3.08±2.51) with p=0.002, mature oocytes (4.32±2.69 vs. 2.34±1.80) with p=0.003, number of 2PN (3.94±1.80 vs. 2.20±1.01) with p=0.001 and implantation rate (19.40% vs. 10.30%) with p=0.022 were significantly higher in delayed antagonist group.
Conclusion: The delayed-start protocol can improve ovarian response in poor responders by stimulating and synchronizing follicle development.
Heresh Moridi, Seyed Abdolhakim Hosseini, Hossein Shateri, Nejat Kheiripour, Arastoo Kaki, Mahdi Hatami, Akram Ranjbaran,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Malathion is an organophosphorus pesticide that commonly used in many agricultural and non-agricultural processes. Previous studies have reported the effects of melatonin on the reproductive system. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) due to their antioxidative properties are promising to impact on the development of male infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CeNPs on oxidative stress and sperm parameters after malathion exposure of male rats.
Materials and Methods: 36 adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/each): Control, CeNPs -treated control (15 and 30 mg/kg/day), malathion (100 mg/ kg/day), and CeNPs -treated malathion groups (15 and 30 mg/ kg/day). At the end of the study (4 wk), the sperm counts, motility, and viability in the testis of rats were measured, also lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, and total thiol groups in homogenate testis were investigated.
Results: Malathion significantly reduced sperm count, viability, and motility than the control rats (p<0.001). Co-treatment of malathion with CeNPs 30 mg/kg had a protective effect on sperm counts (p=0.03), motility (p=0.01), and viability (p<0.001) compare to malathion group. Also, the results showed that malathion reduced testis total anti-oxidant capacity, the total thiol group, and increased testis malondialdehyde than the control rats (p<0.001). CeNPs 30 mg/kg are increased total antioxidant capacity (p<0.001) and total thiol group (p=0.03) compared to malathion group. CeNPs at both doses (15 and 30 mg/kg) improved malondialdehyde than the malathion group (p<0.001 and p=0.01 respectively).
Conclusion: CeNPs 30 mg/kg administered considerably restored testicular changes induced by malathion. The improvement of oxidative stress by CeNPs may be associated with increased sperm counts, motility and viability in the testis.
Zahra Kalhori, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Mehri Azadbakht, Mohammad Ali Shariaatzadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder featured by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Testosterone enanthate can induce PCOS in mice models.
Objective: We investigated the ovary stereological features along with the oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in mice following PCOS induction using testosterone enanthate.
Materials and Methods: Twelve female NMRI mice (3 wk old) were divided into 2 groups (n=6/each): Control and PCOS. PCOS was induced through daily injections of testosterone enanthate (1 mg/100g subcutaneous s.c for 5 wk). Finally, ovaries were studied stereologically. The serum levels of the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured using ELISA kit. Serum levels of Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant capacity were measured relatively using thiobarbituric acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay.
Results: The mean total volume of ovary and the mean volume of cortex (p<0.001), volume of oocyte in the preantral (p=0.011) and antral follicle (p=0.015), thickness of zona pellucida (p=0.016), the number of antral follicles (p=0.012), the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (p<0.001) and the antioxidant capacity (p=0.020) reduced significantly in the PCOS group compared to the control. The number of primary (p=0.017) and preantral (p=0.006) follicles and the serum levels of testosterone (p<0.001), Luteinizing hormone (p=0.002), Malondialdehyde, Interleukin 6 and Tumor necrosis factor-α (p<0.001) showed a significant increase in the PCOS group compared to the control.
Conclusion: Testosterone enanthate induced PCOS causes stereological features in the ovary, increases the oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in mice.
Sima Taghvaee Javanshir, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Zahra Hajebrahimi,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common form of the endocrine disease which is associated with metabolic dysfunction. PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus are related in multiple aspects and are similar in many pathological features. Anti-diabetic effects of Nigella sativa and protective effects of it on reproductive system have been suggested in some reports.
Objective: The aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of thymoquinone, the main components of Nigella sativa, on PCOS model of rats.
Materials and Methods: Intraperitoneal injection of estradiol valerate for 25 days was used to induce PCOS in Wistar rats, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 8 and 16 mg/kg thymoquinone for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups; control, sham or PCOS, experiment-1 (PCOS and 8 mg/kg thymoquinone), experiment-2 (PCOS and 16 mg/kg thymoquinone), and metformin (PCOS and metformin administration, 100 mg/kg) groups. All of the animals were subjected to serum biochemical analysis of blood and histopathological study of ovaries.
Results: Estradiol valerate induced PCOS while administration of thymoquinone recovered it. The body weight, ovarian morphology, and ovulation had been improved and the serum biochemical parameters including glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were reversed after thymoquinone intervention.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that thymoquinone has improvement effects on an ovarian function and ovulation in the PCOS rat model. Therefore, thymoquinone and Nagilla sativa could be used as a protective agent and as an adjunct treatment in PCOS patients.
Obose Rufus, Osaikhuwuomwan James, Aziken Michael,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (4-2018)

Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men.
Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI) on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2): normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2). The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology.
Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4%) while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%). Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2%) were overweight and 44 (21.4%) were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese) (p=0.813).
Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.
Noorodin Karami, Seyed Hamidreza Mirabutalebi, Fatemeh Montazeri, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 16, Issue 10 (10-2018)

Background: Recurrent miscarriage, as the occurrence of two or more of pregnancy loss before the 20th wk, can occur for multiple causes. One of the causes of miscarriage may be a defect in the process of angiogenesis because the delivery of nutrients to the fetus is decreased and it may lead to miscarriage. Also, micro ribonucleic acids play an important role in the development of diseases. The microRNAs 16 and 21 are the most well-known angiogenesis-related miRNAs, which their gene targets are vascular endothelial growth factor-A and phosphatase and tensin homolog, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the changes in expression of microRNAs 16 and 21 and their association with the gene targets in women with unexplained RM. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, blood samples were taken from 25 women with unexplained RM and 25 controls. After extraction of RNA, the relative expression of microRNAs and their gene targets was measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method.
Results: Our findings showed that miR-21 expression was significantly decreased in both plasma and peripheral mononuclear cells (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively) and could be associated with the PTEN expression (p=0.03), however, there is no significant correlation between miR-16 and VEGF-A. Conclusion: One of the most remarkable results of this study is that miR-21 showed significant changes in both plasma and peripheral mononuclear cells, which can be related to the etiology and progression of RM.
Sina Mojaverrostami, Narjes Asghari, Mahsa Khamisabadi, Heidar Heidari Khoei,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread endocrine disorder, affecting approximately 20% of women within reproductive age. It is associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity, menstrual irregularity, and anovulatory infertility. Melatonin is the main pineal gland hormone involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm. In recent years, it has been observed that a reduction in melatonin levels of follicular fluid exists in PCOS patients. Melatonin receptors in the ovary and intra-follicular fluid adjust sex steroid secretion at different phases of ovarian follicular maturation. Moreover, melatonin is a strong antioxidant and an effective free radical scavenger, which protects ovarian follicles during follicular maturation.
Objective: In this paper, we conducted a literature review and the summary of the current research on the role of melatonin in PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Reaxys were searched from their inception to October 2018 using the keywords ″Melatonin″ AND ″Polycystic ovary syndrome" OR "PCOS.″
Results: Based on the data included in our review, it was found that the administration of melatonin can improve the oocyte and embryo quality in PCOS patients. It may also have beneficial effects in correcting the hormonal alterations in PCOS patients.
Conclusion: Since metabolic dysfunction is the major finding contributing to the initiation of PCOS, melatonin can hinder this process via its improving effects on metabolic functions.
Bishista Bagchi, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Rajib Gon Chowdhury,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Latent Female Genital tuberculosis (FGTB) or tubercular infestation is prevalent in Southeast Asia and even the presence of tubercular bacilli in the genital tract is becoming an important factor for reproductive failure. An immature endometrium becomes non-receptive, preventing implantation or rejection of implanted embryo in early months, resulting in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in association with other factors.
Objective: To detect the underlying causes of RPL in addition to the proven causes like uterine cavity defects, thrombophilia, chromosomal abnormalities, etc.
Materials and Methods: 317 women with RPL, enrolled over a period of 60 months (January 2014 to December 2018) conducted at Calcutta Fertility Mission in the present study. They were grouped in A, B, and C and undergone routine tests for the same along with the PCR test with an endometrial aspirate.
Results: Patients with only latent FGTB (Group A), patients with FGTB and associated factors (Group B), and patients with other causes of RPL (other than latent FGTB) (Group C) were34.4%, 42.3%, and 23.3% respectively. About 29.36%, 47.01%, and 21.62%of the patients had achieved pregnancy in Group A, B, and C, respectively. The rate of miscarriage was high in both Groups A and B, affected with latent FGTB, and live-birth was higher (75%) in Group C that did not have tubercular involvement of the genital tract.
Conclusion: The tubercular infestation or latent FGTB as per our study appears to be a very important cause of RPL in patients with recurrent “unexplained” miscarriage. It should be treated adequately at an early stage to prevent permanent damage to pelvic organs and restore reproductive health in women.

Somayyeh Sadat Tahajjodi, Ehsan Farashahi Yazd, Azam Agha-Rahimi, Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Mahnaz Mohammadi, Behrouz Aflatoonian,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (1-2020)

Background: Cumulus cells, as oocyte nurse cells, provide a suitable microenvironment with growth factors and cellular interactions required for oocyte maturation. Thus, these cells may serve as a natural niche for in vitro studies of female germ cell development. Cumulus cells may help attain a better understanding of the causes of infertility in women and eventually improve the outcomes of cases that respond poorly to standard infertility treatment.
Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate, culture, and investigate the biological characteristics of human cumulus cells.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, cumulus cells were isolated, cultured, and characterized using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of specific genes including FOXL2, CYP19A1, FSHR, AMHR, and LHR. The presence of vimentin, a structural protein, was examined via immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, levels of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and progesterone secretion by cumulus cells were measured with ELISA after 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hr of culture.
Results: In adherent culture, human cumulus cells expressed specific genes and markers as well as secreted AMH and progesterone into the medium.
Conclusion: Cumulus cells secrete AMH and progesterone in an adherent culture and might be applicable for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro gametogenesis (IVG) studies.

Nazanin Alavi, Mahbod Ebrahimi, Firoozeh Akbari-Asbagh,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (2-2020)

Background: Vitamin D deficiency and infertility are two important health problems in Iran. Some studies suggest that vitamin D may influence Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) as an ovarian reserve.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of vitamin D on AMH serum concentrations/AFC.
Materials and Methods: three hundred and five infertile women referred to the IVF Unit of Yas hospital, between July and December 2017, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The demographic characteristics of the participants, as well as the serum levels of vitamin D, AMH, and ultrasonic examination of AFC were recorded.
Results: Finally, 287 infertile women were included in the analysis with a mean age of 29.95 ± 4.73 yr (18-45 yr) and a mean Body mass indexof 25.11 ± 4.41 kg/m2. The median AMH and vitamin D levels were 3.20 and 22.82 ng/ml, respectively. Considering the cut-off level of 20 ng/ml, 58.7% were vitamin D deficient. Regression analysis showed no association between AMH and vitamin D levels (p = 0.161), even after adjusting for baseline variables (p = 0.182). A total of 120 patients had an AFC < 6 and 164 ≥ 6, which was not statistically different between the groups with normal level or deficient vitamin D (p = 0.133).
Conclusion: The present cross-sectional study showed no significant association between serum levels of vitamin D and AMH or AFC in infertile women, even after adjusting for baseline variables.
Seyed Alireza Afshani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Ghaem Mohammadi, Parisa Khani , Anahita Khosravi,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (3-2020)

Background: Divorce is a social issue, which challenges not only the structure of family but also of a society. Studies have shown that infertility affects the marital boredom. In addition, resilience training and emphasizing on increasing piety (religiousness) can help to decrease this boredom.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the resilience training effects on the compromising of infertile coupleschr('39') applicant for divorce.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 infertile couples who had requested for divorce and referred to the Center for consolidation of the family foundation were enrolled. Participants were randomly divided in two categories (n= 50/each): the case group received some consultation classes on social services as well as resilience training by a consultant in 5 sessions lasting 2 hr. In total, 10 hr of treatment; while the control group just received the consultation and social services. Canner and Davidson questionnaires were utilized as pre- and posttest in both groups. Groups answered the resiliencechr('39')s criterion of Canner and Davidson.
Results: The resilience training significantly increased the compromises made by couples in the case group compared to the control (p < 0.01). The results showed that 26% of members of the case group relinquished divorce, while 10% of control group members did the same; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: The resilience training leads to increased psychological well-being elements and compromises in infertile couples.
Risikat Eniola Kadir, Risikat Eniola Kadir, Balkis Abimbola Ibrahim, Sadiya Musa Gwadabe, Rukayat Jaji-Sulaimon, Munirat Foyeke Adigun, Adeoye Oyetunji Oyewopo,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (3-2020)

Background: Synthetic prednisolone (PRED) is a widely used over-the-counter glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids have inhibitory effects on the immune system and are often used as immunosuppressive agents. Suppressed immunity may impact fertility via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Bitter leaf (BL) has been shown to improve sperm parameters, but its effects on immunosuppression-associated infertility have not yet been documented.
Objective: To determine the fertility effects of bitter leaf on immunosuppressed Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups(n= 5/each). Group A served as a control and were given distilled water in addition to normal feeds, group B received 2 mg/kg PRED for 14 days and served as the standard immunosuppressed group, and groups C-F were immunosuppressed as in B but in addition received 50 mg/kg levamisole, low-dose (250 mg/kg) BL, high-dose (375 mg/kg) BL, and low-dose BL + levamisole, respectively. The CD4 counts, hematological parameters, and sperm parameters were analyzed and compared.
Results: There were significant decreases in sperm motility, progressive motility, morphology, and life/death ratio in the animals given PRED only compared to the controls (p = 0.002, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.01, respectively). These were significantly increased in the treated groups, and animals given levamisole and 250 mg/kg BL showed significantly increased sperm counts compared to the controls (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively).
Conclusion: Low-dose BL (250 mg/kg) restored the sperm parameters altered by prednisolone administration.
Roshan Nikbakht, Elham Karimi Moghadam, Zeinab Nasirkhani,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (3-2020)

Background: A considerable evidence suggests that maternal inflammation dysregulation may play as a risk factor for both maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Objective: The studychr('39')s objectives were designed to evaluate the correlation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as an inflammation factor, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age (SGA) births.
Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 120 singleton pregnant women with gestational age less than 20 wk. Maternal CRP serum concentration was measured before 20 wk gestation. Patients were followed-up until the delivery and final outcomes of pregnancy were recorded in terms of preterm delivery and SGA births.
Results: Serum CRP levels in participants with normal fetuses and SGA births were 4.09 ± 1.35 mg/l and 6.04 ± 3.29 mg/l, respectively (p =0.19), while in cases of preterm delivery, it was 9.63 ± 5.78 mg/l (p <0.001). By using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, serum CRP levels (cut-off point 5.27 mg/l, area 0.836) had acceptable diagnostic accuracy value in distinguishing preterm delivery (sensitivity (75%), specificity (86.1%), positive predictive value (37.5%), negative predictive value (96.87%), accuracy (85 %)) and serum CRP levels (cut-off point 6.67 mg/l, area 0.673) in distinguishing SGA births (sensitivity (50%), specificity (91.2%), positive predictive value (23.07%), and negative predictive value (97.19%), and accuracy (89.16 %)).
Conclusion: Higher maternal serum CRP levels measured early in pregnancy may associate with higher risk of preterm delivery and SGA. 
Zaima Ali, Saba Khaliq, Saima Zaki, Hafiz Usman Ahmad, Khalid Pervaiz Lone,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (4-2020)

Background: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy affecting about 2-10% pregnancies worldwide. mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-𝛼), Fas, and FasL have been reported to be altered in placental bed in preeclamptic pregnancies. We hypothesized that the expression of these genes is also altered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in preeclampsia.
Objectives: To compare the expression of Fas receptor and related genes in PBMCs of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study comprising of 18 cases and 18 controls was designed. 5 ml of venous blood was drawn and collected considering aseptic measures. Buffy coat was separated by centrifugation and stored at -20°C. Favor Prep total RNA Isolation Kit (Favorgen, Taiwan) was used for RNA extraction. The mRNA expression of TNF-𝛼, Fas, and FasL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in PBMCs in preeclamptic and normal pregnancies.
Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression of TNF-𝛼, Fas, and FasL (p ≤ 0.001) was observed in PBMCs of preeclamptic pregnancies compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the TNF-𝛼 mRNA expression and Fas and FasL (p ≤ 0.001).
Conclusion: The results lead to the conclusion that mRNA expression of TNF-𝛼, Fas, and FasL in the maternal PBMCs is altered in preeclamptic pregnancies and might contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.
Mahdieh Zare, Tahereh Haghpanah, Majid Asadi Shekari, Seyed Hassan Eftekhar-Vaghefi,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (4-2020)

Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most widely used materials in industries and in sciences. Prolonged contact with FA might have harmful effects on fertility due to the increase in the reactive oxygen species level. On the other hand, date palm (Phoenix Dactilifera L.) fruit extract (DPFE) contains a high concentration of natural antioxidants that could scavenge free radicals.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the prophylactic effects of DPFE, with strong antioxidant properties, on FA-induced testicular toxicity in male mice.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult NMRI male mice with a weight range of 25-35 gr (9-10 wk old) were randomly divided into four groups: control group (distilled water, orally for 35 days), FA group (FA; 0.25 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 20 days), treatment group (Date (DT) + FA; DPFE, 4 mg/kg for 35 days followed by FA administration, 0.25 mg/kg, i.p., for 20 days), date fruit extract group (DT; DPFE, 4 mg/kg, orally for 35 days). After this, blood was collected and left epididymis and testis tissues were isolated to evaluate the sperm parameters and histological examination, respectively.
Results: The FA administration increased the sperm morphological anomalies and reduced the sperm count, viability and motility, and also testosterone compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). In addition, histological studies of the testes showed that FA causes changes in the testis seminiferous tubules such as destruction of germinal epithelium and vacuolization of the tubules. The DPFE consumption before FA administration could partially ameliorate the reduced testosterone, sperm, and testicular parameters due to FA.
Conclusion: The DPFE use might have discount effects on FA-induced testicular toxicity.
Mohammad Raeisi, Kurosh Kalantar, Bahia Namavar Jahromi, Behrouz Gharesi-Fard,
Volume 18, Issue 5 (5-2020)

Wannisa Sukhorum, Jariya Umka Welbat, Suchada Ktutsri, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 18, Issue 5 (5-2020)

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) has been shown to affect the testes adversely, especially the seminiferous epithelium. As melatonin, an endocrine hormone, has been shown to normalize testicular function, its ability to prevent MTX-induced testicular damage should be considered.
Objective: Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities of melatonin, this study aimed to investigate its protective effect against testicular damage induced by MTX.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats (200-230 g) were divided into five groups (n = 8/each). The rats in group I were injected with vehicle as a control. In group II, the rats were received intraperitoneal injections of melatonin (8 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The rats in group III were intravenously injected with MTX (75 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. The remaining two groups received melatonin (8 mg/kgBW) for 15 (group IV) and 30 (group V) consecutive days, intraperitoneally, and then intravenously received MTX (75 mg/kgBW) on days 8 and 15 of the experimental period. Reproductive parameters, including epididymal sperm concentration, testicular tyrosine-phosphorylated protein expression, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression, and caspase-3 and malondialdehyde levels, were examined.
Results: The sperm concentrations (×106/ml) of groups IV (58.75 ± 1.28) and V (55.93 ± 2.57) were improved significantly (p = 0.032) compared with that of group II (32.92 ± 2.14). The seminiferous epithelium in groups IV and V also increased, while caspase-3 expression decreased. In the melatonin-treated groups, the expression of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at 32 kDa was decreased and that of proteins at 47 kDa was increased compared with the MTX group. StAR protein expression was not altered in any of the groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that melatonin improves the epididymal sperm concentration by decreasing the expression of caspase-3 and increasing that of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in MTX-treated testes.

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