Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)                   IJRM 2012, 10(6): 517-522 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Cyrus A, Solhi H, Azizabadi Farahani M, Khoddami Vishteh H R, Goudarzi D, Mosayebi G et al . The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study. IJRM. 2012; 10 (6) :517-522
URL: http://journals.ssu.ac.ir/ijrmnew/article-1-331-en.html
1- Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2- Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran , solhi2@yahoo.com
3- Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak.Iran
4- Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
5- Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
Abstract:   (3396 Views)
Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls.
Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amount of cigarette use, and duration of cigarette use for all the participants as well as daily amount of opium use (grams) and duration of opium use (years) for the case group was completed. Additionally, the dimensions of each testis were measured by a single person using calipers, and the mean of the left and right testes volume was compared between these two groups.
Results: The mean of the testis volumes in the case group was significantly lower than that of the case group (11.2±2.2 and 25.1±2.7cm³, p<0.001). The results of the ANCOVA test showed that even after the omission of the cigarette smoking effect (p=0.454), the testis volume remained lower in the opium dependents (R2=0.884, p<0.001). In the case group, there were significant reverse correlations between testis volume and age (r=-0.404, p<0.001), daily amount of opium use (r=-0/207, p=0.039) and duration of opium use (r=-0.421, p<0.001).
Conclusion: We found that the testis volume in the male opium dependents was lower than that of the healthy controls. We would recommend that future studies into the impact of drugs on the testis dimensions pay heed to possible histological changes in the testes owing to opium dependency.
Full-Text [PDF 135 kb]   (270 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (96 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Article |

References
1. World Drug Report 2007 - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Availabe at: http://www. unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/WDR-2007.ht ml (18 October 2012)
2. Parsells Kelly J, Cook SF, Kaufman DW, Anderson T, Rosenberg L, Mitchell AA. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid use in the U.S. adult population. Pain 2008; 138: 507-513. [DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2008.01.027]
3. Strassels SA. Economic Burden of Prescription Opioid Misuse and Abuse. J Manag Care Pharm 2009; 15: 556-562 [DOI:10.18553/jmcp.2009.15.7.556]
4. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse XIII: Teens and Parents. New York; 2008: 73.
5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS): 2004. Data on Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities, DASIS Series: S-28, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05- 112, Rockville, MD, 2005.
6. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Annual report 2006: the state of the drugs problem in Europe. Available at: http://ar 2006. emcdda.europa.eu/en/home-en.html?CFID=12 236818&CFTOKEN=e095a156aa2692e3-658AA791-EDB3-C1BC-E2C2E38C33F14AD6&jsessionid=9030 5cb554f814d4c7b52b644612d3c3e2bb (18 Cotober 2012)
7. Colameco S. Opioid-induced sexual dysfunction: causes, diagnosis, & treatment. Pain treatment topics. April 2008. Available at: http://pain topics. org/pdf/Colameco-Opioids-SexDysfunction.pdf.
8. Brown RT, Zueldorff M. Opioid substitution with methadone and buprenorphine: sexual dysfunction as a side effect of therapy. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Prob 2007; 9: 35-44.
9. Daniell HW. Opioid-induced androgen deficiency. Discussion in opioid contracts. Am J Med 2007; 120: 21. [DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.05.027]
10. Mazer N, Chapman C, Daniell H, Volinn E. Opioid-induced androgen deficiency in men (OPIAD): an estimate of the potential patient population in the U.S. and Canada. J Pain 2004; 5 (Suppl.): S73. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2004.02.258]
11. Kalyani RR, Gaviine S, Dobs AS. Male hypogonadism in systemic disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2007; 36; 333-348. [DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2007.03.014]
12. Taylor T, Dluhy RG, Williams GH. Beta-endorphin suppresses adrenocorticotropin and cortisol levels in human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57: 592-596. [DOI:10.1210/jcem-57-3-592]
13. Rajagopal A, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Palmer JL, Kaur G, Bruera E. Symptomatic hypogonadism in male survivors of cancer with chronic exposure to opioids. Cancer 2004; 100: 851-858. [DOI:10.1002/cncr.20028]
14. Cicero TJ, Bell RD, Wiest WG, Allison JH, Polakoski K, Robins E. Function of the male sex organs in heroion and methadone users. N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 882-887. [DOI:10.1056/NEJM197504242921703]
15. Macht DI. Action of opium alkaloids on the ducts of the testis. J Pharmacol Exp 1916; 9: 121-127.
16. Information from American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th Ed. Washington DC.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994:175-255.
17. Chipkevitch E, Nishimura RT, Tu DG, Galea-Rojas M. Clinical measurement of testicular volume in adolescents: comparison of the reliability of 5 methods. J Urol 1996; 156: 2050-2053. [DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)65433-8]
18. Handelsman D, Stara S. Testicular size: the effects of aging, malnutrition, and illness. J Androl 1985; 6: 144-151. [DOI:10.1002/j.1939-4640.1985.tb00830.x]
19. Azizi F, Vagenakis AG, Longcope C, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE. Decreased serum testosterone concentration in male heroin and methadone addicts. Steroids 1973; 22: 467-472. [DOI:10.1016/0039-128X(73)90002-0]
20. Daniell HW. DHEAS deficiency during consumption of sustained-action prescribed opioids: evidence for opioid-induced inhibition of adrenal androgen production. J Pain 2006; 7: 901-907. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpain.2006.04.011]
21. Bliesener N, Albrecht S, Schwager A, Weckbecker K, Lichtermann D, Klingmuller D. Plasma testosterone and sexual function in men receiving buprenorphine maintenance for opioid dependence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 203-206. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2004-0929]
22. Sigman M, Jarow JP. Male Infertility. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th Ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Sanders Elsevier; 2007: 609-653.
23. Katz N. Mazer NA. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system. Clin J Pain 2009; 25: 170-175. [DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181850df6]
24. Pfeiffer A, Herz A. Endocrine actions of opioids. Horm Metab Res 1984; 16: 386-397. [DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1014801]
25. Yilmaz B, Konar V, Kutlu S, Sandal S, Canpolat S, Gezen MR, et al. Influence of chronic morphine exposure on serum LH, FSH, testosterone levels, and body and testicular weights in the developing male rat. Arch Androl 1999; 43: 189-196. [DOI:10.1080/014850199262481]
26. Hejazian SH, Dashti MH, Rafati A. The effect of opium on serum LH, FSH and testosterone concentration in addicted men. Iran J Reprod Med 2007; 5: 35-38.
27. Estienne MJ, Harper AF, Knight JW, Rampacek GB, Barb CR. Circulating concentration of LH, testosterone and GH after naloxane treatment in sexually mature boars. Reprod Biol 2002; 2: 133-142.
28. Lucon AM, Pasqualotto FF, Peng BC, Hallak J, Arap S. Do tobacco and caffeine impair semen characteristics in men with fertility proved? J Urol 2002; 167: 351.
29. Pasqualotto FF, Lucon AM, Sobreiro BP, Pasqualotto EB, Arap S. Effects of medical therapy, alcohol, smoking, and endocrine disruptors on male infertility. Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo 2004; 59: 375-382. [DOI:10.1590/S0041-87812004000600011]

Send email to the article author


© 2021 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb