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Ashraf Kazemi, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Nasr-Esfahani, Ali Akbar Saboor Yaraghi, Mehdi Ahmadi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality.
Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality.
Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant.
Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development.
Ashraf Kazemi, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Mohammad Hosein Nasr-Esfahani,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects.
Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes.
Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and Malondialdehyde and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid (FF) in 219 women undergoing ART were assessed. The number of retrieved oocytes, percentages of metaphase II MII) stage oocytes, fertilization rate, and embryo quality were also determined.
Results: No significant association was found between vitamins intake levels and OS biomarkers, but the mean of TAC level in FF among women who received vitamin C greater than 75 mg/d was higher than women with lower intakes (p<0.05). The ART parameters were not related to the vitamin E intake level, but the normal cleaved embryo rate was positively related to vitamin A (p<0.05) and vitamin C (p=0.02) intake levels. Also, the percentage of MII oocytes (p=0.02) and the fertilization rate (p<0.05) were related to the vitamin C intake level. The relation between the TAC level in FF and ART outcomes were not significant.
Conclusion: Current results indicated that high dietary intake of vitamin C would be followed by increasing the TAC level in FF and improving the oocyte competence, but this effect of vitamin C is not dependent of increasing of antioxidant defense in follicular environment.
Mojtaba Kafi, Mahboobeh Ashrafi, Mehdi Azari, Borhan Jandarroodi, Beheshteh Abouhamzeh, Arash Rakhshi ,
Volume 17, Issue 9 (9-2019)

Background: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a broad-spectrum lipid-modifying agent that has potent antioxidant properties and reduces the production of lipid peroxidation.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the maturation, embryo development and cryo-tolerance merit, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status, and total antioxidant capacity following the supplementation of bovine oocytes maturation medium with different concentrations of niacin.
Materials and Methods: Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in tissue culture medium-199 maturation media supplemented with 0, 100, 200, and 400 µM niacin under a standard in vitro culture condition. After 24 hr of culture, the nuclear maturation rate was assessed. Then, two groups of immature cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 either with or without 400 µM niacin and evaluated for embryo development. Also, matured cumulus-oocyte complexes in both groups were frozen using a standard vitrification procedure. After vitrification, oocytes were warmed in two steps and evaluated for embryo development. In addition, the level of total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and MDA were measured.
Results: The results indicated that although the treatment with 400 µM niacin increased in vitro nuclear maturation (87.6±5.3), it did not improved the embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Higher cleavage and blastocyst rates were observed in vitrified oocytes that were cultured with supplemented 400 µM niacin compared to the control group (without niacin) (53.6±2.7 and 10.6±1.6 vs. 46.2±4.1 and 6.3±2.4, respectively). Also, the addition of 400 μM niacin to the maturation media could decrease MDA levels after maturation.
Conclusion: Niacin could improve the quality of in vitro embryo production (IVP) embryos and tolerance of bovine oocytes to vitrification. 

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