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Showing 19 results for اسپرماتوژنز

Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Parvaneh Najafizadeh, Farzaneh Dehghani, Mohammadreza Panjeh Shahin, Sommaye Hamzei Taj,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Olive ( Olea europea ), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenolic compounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects.
Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats.
Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive ( Olea europaea ) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured.
Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone .
Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males.
Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Iman Halvaei, Farzaneh Fesahat, Asghar Fallah, Narges Nikonahad, Mohaddeseh Taherinejad,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Nanoparticles have wide range of application while there are some reports regarding their probable effects on male reproductive system and spermatozoa.
Objective:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (70nm) on acrosome of rat spermatozoa and number of spermatogenic cells.
Materials and Methods:  In this experimental study, in experimental group, 32 male wistar rats (8 rats/group) received oral feeding AgNPs every 12 hr in one spermatogenesis period (48 days) by means of gavages in 25, 50 , 100 and 200 mg/kg concentration (experimental groups 1-4, respectively). The control group (8 rats) was treated on schedule with distilled water. Spermatozoa were stained by triple staining protocol for acrosome reaction. Histological evaluation on testis sections was performed using tissue processing and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining.
Results:  There was significant difference between the control group and the experimental group 1 for acrosome reaction (11.00±0.00 and 24.25±3.68, respectively, p=0.01). There was only significant reduction in spermatogonia cells in experimental group 4. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 showed a significant reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes and spermatids as well as spermatozoa. But there were no significant differences between different groups for Sertoli cell number and seminiferous tubule diameter.
Conclusion:  It seems that Ag NPs have acute and significant effects on spermatogenesis and number of spermatogenic cells and also on acrosome reaction in sperm cells. More experimental investigations are necessary to elucidate better conclusion regarding the safety of nanoparticles on male reproduction system.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Seyyed Mansoor Seyyednejad, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Ayoob Jabari,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: There is growing concern that occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors adversely affect male reproductive health. Fumaria parviflora Lam. is being used traditionally in Persian folk medicine to cure various ailments and has been supposed to have fertility-enhancing properties.
Objective: A dose-response study was designed to assess effects of F. parviflora ethanolic leaves extract on reproductive parameters in adult male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, healthy adult male rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of F. parviflora leaves extract via gavage for 70 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of testosterone, LH and FSH serum levels. Reproductive organs weight, motility, morphology and density of epididymal sperm, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height were evaluated in each experimental group. Results: The body weight was not affected, while the weights of testis and epididymis were significantly enhanced in rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day F. parviflora extract. No significant changes were observed in seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weight between experiment groups. Significant increase was found in epididymal sperm density and percent of morphologically normal sperm in extract-treated rats. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher in rats received 200 and 400 mg/kg/day.
Conclusion: The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves have a potential to improve reproductive parameters and enhance male fertility.
Ozra Nasrolahi, Fereshteh Khaneshi, Fatemeh Rahmani, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties.
Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses.
Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels.
Maryam Shafipour, Marjan Sabbaghian, Maryam Shahhoseini, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Septins are an evolutionary conserved group of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins that have diverse cellular roles. An increasing body of data implicates the septin family in the pathogenesis of diverse states including cancers, neurodegeneration, and male infertility.
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the expression pattern of Septin14 in testis tissue of men with and without spermatogenic failure.
Materials and Methods: The samples retrieved accessible random between infertile men who underwent diagnostic testicular biopsy in Royan institute. 10 infertile men with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis and 20 infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia were recruited for real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis of the testicular tissue. Total RNA was extracted with trizol reagent.
Results: Comparison of the mRNA level of septin14 revealed that in tissues with partial (n=10) or complete spermatogenesis (n=10), the expression of septin 14 was significantly higher than sertoli cell only tissues.
Conclusion: The testicular tissues of men with hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and sertoli cell only had lower levels of septin 14 transcripts than normal men. These data indicates that Septin 14 expression level is critical for human spermatogenesis.

Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Reza Jalili, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Seyed Jalil Hosseini, Mohsen Norouzian, Nahid Ehsani,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: The Wnt/β- The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in many developmental processes in both fetal and adult life; its abnormalities can lead to disorders including several types of cancers and malfunction of specific cells and tissues in both animals and humans. Its role in reproductive processes has been proven.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of the key regulator of this signaling pathway GSK3-β and its presumed role in azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: WNT3a protein concentration and GSK3-β gene expression levels were measured and compared between two groups of infertile men. The test groups consisted of 10 patients with obstructive and 10 non-obstructive azoospermia. The control group was selected among healthy men after vasectomies that were willing to conceive a child using a testicular biopsy technique. Samples were obtained by testicular biopsy and screened for the most common mutations (84, 86 and 255) in the SRY region before analyzing. GSK3-β gene expression was assessed quantitatively by real time-PCR.
Results: The WNT3a protein concentration had no significant difference between the two test groups and controls. Expression of GSK3-β was down-regulated in non-obstructive azoospermia (3.10±0.19) compared with normal (7.12±0.39) and obstructive azoospermia (6.32±0.42) groups (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Down-regulation of GSK-3β may cause to non-obstructive azoospermia. Regulation and modification of GSK-3β gene expression by drugs could be used as a therapeutic solution.
Maryam Shahhoseini, Mahnaz Azad, Marjan Sabbaghian, Maryam Shafipour, Mohammad Reza Akhoond, Reza Salman Yazdi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Hamid Gourabi,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, which affects approximately 10% of couples at childbearing age with substantial clinical and social impact. Genetic factors are associated with the susceptibility to spermatogenic impairment in humans. Recently, SEPT12 is reported as a critical gene for spermatogenesis. This gene encodes a testis specific member of Septin proteins, a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins. SEPT12 in association with other Septins is an essential annulus component in mature sperm. So, it is hypothesized that genetic alterations of SEPT12 may be concerned in male infertility.
Objective: The objective of this research is exploration of new single nucleotide polymorphism G5508A in the SEPT12 gene association with idiopathic male infertility in Iranian men.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 67 infertile men and 100 normal controls were analyzed for genetic alterations in the active site coding region of SEPT12, using polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Genotype analysis indicated that G5508A polymorphic SEPT12 alleles were distributed in three peaks of frequency in both control and diseases groups. Categorization of the alleles into (GG), (GA), (AA) types revealed a significant difference between infertile patients (azoospermic and asthenospermic) and normal controls (p=0.005).
Conclusion: According to our finding we suggest that G5508A polymorphism in SEPT12 gene can affect spermatogenesis in men, the opinion needs more investigation in different populations.
Mona Farhadi, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Abass Shockravi, Mosaeeb Foroozanfar, Kazem Parivar,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: Different investigation showed that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8- methoxypsoralen reduce birth rates in the rats.
Objective: In this study we worked out the effect of methoxsalen together with ultraviolent A (UVA) radiation on mature Balb/C mice spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: The LD50 standard was determined 160 mg/kg and the UVA dose which causes erythema was calculated 0.046 J/cm2. A sub-lethal dose of 80 mg/kg of methoxsalen solution was injected intrapritoneally to mature mice and after one hour they were exposed to UVA radiation for 20 minutes. Experiments applied included methoxsalen alone, methoxsalen with UVA, UVA alone, sham group (a group received Tween 80), and control group (N=6). In all experimental groups except UVA alone group, injections were carried out, during two consecutive weeks. Serial cross sections (5 µm thickness) were prepared for morphological and histological studies. Tunica albuginea diameter, and number of type A and type B spermatogonia and histological investigation of the testes were measured.
Results: Microscopical and statistical analyses showed significant anomalies among the experimental groups compared to control and sham group. These anomalies included decrease the body weight; increase the relative testis weight; and decrease the number of spermapogonia (type A and B), primary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms in experimental groups I and II compared to control group. Our results showed the number of spermatozoa in experimental group I was 22.6±2.12, in experimental group II was 33.6±2.05 and in control group was 44.3±2.77 (p<0.05). Moreover in some experimental groups (I and II) shrinkage of seminiferous tubules and release of primary spermatocyte and spermatids were observed to the lumen of them.
Conclusion: It is concluded from the results of this work that treatment with methoxsalen with UVA can damage and disorganize seminiferous tubules and decrease spermatogenic cells.
Nasrin Takzare, Esmaeil Samizadeh, Saeed Shoar, Masoumeh Majidi Zolbin, Mohammad Naderan, Ali Lashkari, Azam Bakhtiarian,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: There are numerous investigations on wide range of issues that disrupt regulatory spermatogenesis, individuals who are exposed to drug abuse faced infertility and immature spermatogenesis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addiction effects of morphine and its derivatives on rats spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups, which were exposed either with intravenous morphine, naloxone, naloxone and morphine, sham (with normal saline injection) and a control group without infusion. Spermatogenesis was assessed after three months via histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin staining, using a light microscope based on measurement of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa.
Results: Those rats that received opioids had changes in spermatogenesis function. The population of spermatogenesis cycle cells at spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa stages was significantly decreased in those rats that received opioid in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Histological studies revealed that changes in different groups of opioid application might affect sperm formation. Sperm count in morphine group was (0±0) and in naloxone group, naloxone+morphine, sham and control were 235±3.77, 220±3.81, 247.12±6.10 and 250±6.54, respectively (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Morphine could affect all spermatogenesis stages.
Maryam Nezhad Sistani, Anahid Maleki, Maryam Salimi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Hamid Nazarian,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (9-2017)

Background: common use of sevoflurane in congenital defects during repeated surgeries may have detrimental effects on spermatogenesis after puberty.
Objective: This study investigated sevoflurane effects on spermatogenesis process in male mature mice after exposure in prepubertal time.
Materials and Methods: 24 neonatal NMRI male mice were randomly classified in three groups. Experimental 1 and 2 groups (exposure to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and 2 MAC sevoflurane, respectively in 2 lit/min oxygen (O2) for 7 days (30 min, daily) and control. All groups were sacrificed after 2 months. Histological assessment, immunohistochemistry and apoptosis process was done. Bax and Bcl2 expression was evaluated in the testicular tissue by real time Poly Chain Reaction.
Results: Our results showed that the integrity of testicular tissue was preserved in both experimental groups. Count of spermatogonial cells had significant decrease in group 2 compared to others. The rate of apoptosis in spermatogonial cells was 15±3% and 9±2% in the group 2 and 1, respectively. Also, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was 0.2615, 1.0070 and 9.3657 in control, experimental group 1 and 2, respectively. This result was significant (p≤0.002) between groups 2 with other groups.
Conclusion: Continuous exposure of 2 MAC sevoflurane in 2 lit/min O2 simultaneous during prepubertal may create more testicular tissue damage in terms of cellular and molecular function compared to continuous exposure to lower level of sevoflurane by increase in ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and apoptosis in germ cells after puberty.
Masoumeh Fani, Abbas Mohammadipour, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan,
Volume 16, Issue 8 (8-2018)

Background: Atrazine as a herbicide may affect the human’s health. Crocin may protect atrazine-induced damages.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atrazine on mice testicular tissue and sperm parameters and protective effects of Crocin on probably atrazine-induced damages.
Materials and Methods: in this experimental study, 24 pregnant Balb/c mice were randomly divided to 4 groups: I: Atrazine (10 mg/kg), II: Atrazine-Crocin, III: Crocin (10 mg/kg) and IV: Normal saline. Administrations were done daily by gavage during pregnancy and lactation. In the end, two male offspring were randomly selected from every mother and sacrificed respectively on 23 and 75 postnatal days. Then, their epididymides were removed for sperm parameters investigation and their testes were prepared to evaluate apoptosis by means of TUNEL technique.
Results: The mean number of sperms in the atrazine group was lower compared to other groups and increased in the atrazine-crocin group compared with atrazine group significantly (p=0.001). Sperm abnormality was increased in the atrazine group compared with the normal saline group and decreased in the atrazine-crocin group compared with atrazine group significantly (p≤0.001). TUNEL-positive spermatogonia in 23 days old offspring increased significantly in the atrazine group compared with other groups (p=0.03). TUNEL-positive spermatogenic cells in 75 days old offspring was significantly increased in the atrazine group compared with the saline group (p≤0.001).
Conclusion: Atrazine exposure may lead to decrease the number of sperms, increase sperms abnormality, spermatogenic cell apoptosis and height of germinal epithelium. These complications may improve by crocin administration.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad, Marzieh Noroozi Tabrizi Nejad,
Volume 17, Issue 6 (6-2019)

Background: During recent years, increasing concern has been raised about the declining sperm count and human male infertility. Cichorium intybus L. (C. intybus) has traditionally been used in Iranian folk medicine as hepato protective and blood purifier and for its presumed fertility-enhancing properties.
Objective: A dose-response study was performed to determine the effect of C. intybus ethanolic leave extract on the reproductive parameters in adult Wistar male rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 healthy adult male Wistar rats (8 wk old, 200-210 gr body weight) were randomly divided (n=10/each) as control and groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of C. intybus extract via gavage for 70 days. Serum hormonal assay, epididymal sperm evaluation, and analysis of morphometrical parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation levels of testis were done in each experimental group.
Results: Weights of testis and epididymis increase significantly in male rats treated with 200 mg/kg C. intybus extract. Sperm density and percent of morphologically normal sperm were significantly increased in a dose-related manner with C. intybus treatment.Serum testosterone was higher at 100 and 200 mg/kg C. intybus extracttreated groups. C. intybus significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and also increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in testicular tissue of rats.
Conclusion: It is concluded that C. intybus leave extract improves reproductive parameters in male rats which might be a consequence of both its antioxidant and androgenic properties.
Masoud Najafi, Mohsen Cheki, Peyman Amini, Abdolreza Javadi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Testis is one of the most sensitive organs against the toxic effect of ionizing radiation. Exposure to even a low dose of radiation during radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, or a radiological event could pose a threat to spermatogenesis. This may lead to temporary or permanent infertility or even transfer of genomic instability to the next generations.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of treatment with three natural antioxidants; resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid, and coenzyme Q10 on radiation-induced spermatogenesis injury.
Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI mice (6-8 wk, 30 ± 5 gr) were randomly divided into six groups (n=5/each) as 1) control; 2) radiation; 3) radiation + resveratrol; 4) radiation + alpha lipoic acid; 5) radiation + resveratrol + alpha lipoic acid; and 6) radiation+ Q10. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg resveratrol or 200 mg/kg alpha lipoic acid or a combination of these drugs. Also, Q10 was administered at 200 mg/kg. All treatments were performed daily from two days before to 30 min before irradiation. Afterward, mice were exposed to 2 Gy 60Co gamma rays; 37 days after irradiation, the testicular samples were collected and evaluated for histopathological parameters.
Results: Results showed that these agents are able to alleviate some toxicological parameters such as basal lamina and epididymis decreased sperm density. Also, all agents were able to increase Johnsen score. However, they could not protect against radiation-induced edema, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and hyperplasia in Leydig cells.
Conclusion: This study indicates that resveratrol, alpha-lipoic acid, and Q10 have the potential to reduce some of the side effects of radiation on mice spermatogenesis. However, they cannot protect Leydig cells as a source of testosterone and seminiferous tubules as the location of sperm maturation.
Firouzeh Sadeghzadeh, Azizeh Sadeghzadeh, Saeed Changizi-Ashtiyani, Sepideh Bakhshi, Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Mehry Mashayekhi, Hossein Poorcheraghi, Ali Zarei, Mostafa Jafari,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (4-2020)

Background: Ceratonia silique (Ceratonia) is a medicinal herb with antioxidant properties that reduces oxidative stress.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of Ceratonia extract on improving the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) on spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: 54 male Wistar rats (4 months old) weighing 200-250 gr were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 9/each): “group 1 (control) underwent the normal diet and water; group 2 (sham) received 2 ml/day normal saline; group 3 (positive control) received 300 mg/kg/day Ceratonia extract; group 4 (Ceratonia + CP) received Ceratonia extract (300 mg/kg/day) + 5 mg/kg/day CP (Endoxan, baxter oncology gmbh, Germany) after 4 hr; group 5 (CP) received 5 mg/kg/day CP + normal saline 4 hr after it; and group 6 (CP + Ceratonia) received Ceratonia extract (300 mg/kg/day) 4 hr after 5 mg/kg/day CP.” 24 hr after the last gavage, heart blood sampling was performed to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. The left caudal epididymis was cut in the Ham’s F10 and the released spermatozoa were used to analyze sperm parameters. The histology of the right testes was studied using stereological techniques and the left testes were used to measure the level of tissue MDA and ferric reducing antioxidant power.
Results: A significant increase in the mean level of MDA (p = 0.013) was seen in the CP compared to the control group. Sperm motility (p = 0.001) and count (p = 0.002), serum and tissue total antioxidant (p ≤ 0.001) and serum testosterone levels (p = 0.019) decreased in the CP compared to the control group. Ceratonia extract could significantly prevent the adverse effects of CP on sperm motility (p < 0.001), the mean levels of tissue MDA (p = 0.018), serum total antioxidant (p = 0.045), and testosterone (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The Ceratonia extract can modify the reproductive toxicity of CP in rat due to the presence of antioxidant compounds.
Behrooz Ghasemi, Alimohammad Mosadegh Mehrjardi, Carolyn Jones, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 18, Issue 7 (7-2020)

Background: Infertility is a common problem in testicular cancer. Affected men often decide to undergo sperm banking before chemo/radiotherapy. The cumulative effects of therapy can considerably reduce fertility.
Objective: Testicular cancers impair fertilizing ability, even before diagnosis. This study tries to verify individual traits and semen quality in patients with testicular cancer.
Materials and Methods: This observational study analyzed 190 semen of patients with testicular cancer (16 to 47 yr old) referred to the sub-fertility laboratory at the St. Mary hospital for semen banking prior to treatment carcinoma. Several aspects of their semen analyses were examined. The cases were divided into four different categories: seminoma, teratoma, mixed germ cell tumors and others.
Results: The results showed that 23 cases were azoospermic, and 13 of the patients who were not azoospermic, their sperm of “normal” morphology were too few to count. Among patients that could produce spermatozoa, 59.4% had a sperm concentration of < 20 × 106/ml. The mean of “motility excellent” and “sluggish” taken together in all the cases was 47.2%. More than 92% of the patients had an abnormal morphology. The morphology of sperm is the most sensitive semen parameter that is affected by testicular carcinoma.
Conclusion: Abnormal spermatogenesis is seen in most patients with testicular cancer before treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. The causes of poor semen quality in cancer patients are not well-understood, but the patients with impaired spermatogenesis should have precise examination to find out the correct diagnosis of problem and preserve the fertility before any treatment.

Lubna Hamid Tahtamouni, Mahmoud Nael Hamdan, Zainab Ali Al-Mazaydeh, Randa Mahmoud Bawadi, Majdoleen Sobhi Rammaha, Ahmad Mohammad Zghoul, Mamoun Ahmad Ahram, Salem Yasin,
Volume 18, Issue 8 (8-2020)

Background: Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a protein involved in the fibrinolytic system that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into the active plasmin. The activity of t-PA is controlled by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. t-PA has crucial functions during spermatogenesis. One polymorphism was reported for t-PA gene, either the presence of a 300-bp Alu-repeat (Alu+) or its absence (Alu-).
Objective: The current work aimed at studying the association between Alu polymorphism in the t-PA gene and male infertility.
Materials and Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA isolated from the blood of 79 participants, a region polymorphic for Alu element insertion in t-PA gene was amplified. In addition, total t-PA concentration, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 /t-PA complex concentration, and t-PA activity in seminal plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The results indicate that the percentage of infertile participants (n = 50) who were homozygous for t-PA Alu insertion (Alu+/+), heterozygous Alu+/- or homozygous for t-PA Alu deletion (Alu-/-) did not change significantly (p = 0.43, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively) when compared with the control participants (n = 29). On the other hand, a significant decrease (p = 0.0001) of t-PA total concentration in seminal plasma was observed in the infertile group in comparison with the control group. However, the results indicate that there is no association between the t-PA Alu different genotypes and the total t-PA seminal concentration in the infertile group when compared to the control group (p = 0.63).
Conclusion: Data obtained from the current study does not support an association between t-PA Alu polymorphism and t-PA seminal concentration or male infertility.
Hengameh Mehdikhani, Heydar Agababa, Ladan Sadeghi,
Volume 18, Issue 9 (9-2020)

Background: Zirconium nanoparticles are used as health agents, pharmaceutical carriers, and in dental and orthopedic implants.
Objective: This studyaimed to investigate the effects of Zirconium oxide nanoparticles on the process of spermatogenesis in rat.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats (150-200 gr), with range of age 2.5 to 3 months were used and divided into four groups of eight per each. The control group received 0.5 ml of distilled water and the three experimental groups received 50, 200, and 400 ppm doses of Zirconium oxide nanoparticles solution over a 30-day period, respectively. At the end of the experiment, tissue sections were taken from the testis and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Serum concentration of testosterone was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: In the experimental group receiving 400 ppm Zirconium oxide nanoparticles, the number of Spermatogonia cells (p ≤ 0.01), Spermatocytes (p ≤ 0.01), Spermatids (p ≤ 0.001), and sertoli and Leydig cells (p ≤ 0.05) showed a significant decrease compared to the control group. Serum testosterone concentration did not change significantly in all experimental groups receiving Zirconium oxide nanoparticles compared to the control group. Experimental group received 400 ppm Zirconium oxide nanoparticles shrinkage of seminal tubules and reduced lumen space compared to control group.
Conclusion: Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are likely to damage the testes by increasing Reactive oxygen species production and free radicals.

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