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Showing 61 results for اسپرماتوژنز

Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Elham Aliabadi, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani , Zahra Borzoei, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Hossein Mirkhani, Hamed Tabesh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE) have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality.
Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC) and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC), which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF), which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures.
Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control) or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF), then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference.
Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC.
Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.
Mahmoudreza Moradi, Mohsen Alemi, Asaad Moradi, Babak Izadi, Farajollah Parhodah, Fatemeh Torkaman Asadi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In the recent years, the use of laboratory blood factors such as FSH and inhibin-B for the assessment of spermatogenesis in different studies has increased; of course, the conflicting results have also been achieved.
Objective: To investigate if the measurement of inhibin-B can help surgeon to reduce unnecessary diagnostic testicular biopsies in males with azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during July 2006 to September 2007 on 41 patients with azoospermia. FSH and inhibin-B were measured and bilateral open testicular biopsy was performed for all patients.
Results: Sperm was seen in 29% of biopsies that in 100% of these samples inhibin-B was more than 100 pg/mL and FSH was less than twice the normal (p=0.001). Inhibin-B had significant correlation inversely with testicular fibrosis and Sertoli cell only syndrome (p=0.043 and p=0.011, respectively) and directly with incomplete spermatocytic maturation arrest and obstructive azoospermia (p=0.027 and p=0.013, respectively). FSH was only correlated with obstructive azoospermia (p=0.001).
Conclusion: We suggest that if FSH is less than twice the normal, inhibin-B should be measured and if its level is less than 100 pg/mL, we can cancel about the half of unnecessary diagnostic testicular biopsies.

Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Mazdak Razi, Rajab Ali Sadrkhanloo, Hassan Malekinejad, Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: The exact pathophysiology of testicular degeneration, following varicocele has not been completely understood yet.  
Objective: The current study was designed to determine the effect of varicocele on germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasmic biohistochmical alterations.   Materials and Methods: To follow-up this study, left varicocele was induced in test groups. Non-varicocelized rats were served as control-sham (n=6). Following 4, 6 and 8 months, right and left testes were dissected out and the blood serum sample was taken. The GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, lipase and alkaline-phosphates (ALP) ratios were analyzed. Serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured.
Results: Observations demonstrated that in varicocele-induced rats, the spermatogenesis cell lineage exhibited lower number of cells with periodic acid shift positive cytoplasm, higher number of cells with lipid and ALP positive stained cytoplasm in comparison to control animals. Lipase enzyme decreased by the time in the test animals. In varicocelized groups the number of Leydig cells decreased in to 2.25±0.41 and 1.16±0.75 per one mm 2 in left and right testicles respectively after 8 months, and these cells demonstrated an ALP positive feature. In test groups, the serum levels of LH and FSH reduced into 1.12±0.01 and 2.03±0.05 ng/ml respectively after 8 months. Although testosterone level diminished by the time in the test animals, and this decreasing was significant (p=0.031) after 8 months (3.08±0.10 ng/ml).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that following varicocele induction major alterations occur in GE, which may lead to loss of GE cells physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems.
Elham Siasi, Ahmad Aleyasin, Javad Mowla, Hamid Sahebkashaf,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Histones are replaced by protamines to condensate and package DNA into the sperm head during mammalian spermatogenesis. Protamine genes defects have been reported to cause sperm DNA damage and male infertility.
Objective: In this study relationship among some protamines genes family SNPs include PRM1 (C321A), PRM2 (C248T) and TNP2 (T1019C), (G1272C), (G del in 1036 and 1046 bp) were studied in 96 idiopathic infertile men with azoospermia or oligospermia and 100 normal control men.
Materials and Methods: Analysis of SNPs was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR sequencing.
Results: No polymorphisms were found for tested SNPs except for PRM1 (C321A) and TNP2 (G1272C) in which frequency of altered AA and GG genotypes were slightly higher in infertile case group. Statistical analysis showed no significant association related to PRM1 (C321A) p=0.805 and TNP2 (G1272C) loci p=0.654.
Conclusion: These results are consistent with previous studies and indicating that all tested SNPs was not associated with oligospermia and azospermia and idiopatic male infertility in Iranian population.
Mohammad Ali Amirzargar, Mahnaz Yavangi, Abbass Basiri, Sayyed Mahdi Hosseini Moghaddam, Hooshang Babbolhavaeji, Nasibeh Amirzargar, Hossein Amirzargar, Leila Moadabshoar,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: The most frequent physical finding in infertile men is varicocele, in which one of the mechanisms that can affect seminal parameters is oxidative stress.
Objective: Our study aimed, for the first time, to compare the efficacy of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on sperm parameters and fertility after varicocelectomy.
Materials and Methods: 113 infertile men with varicocele were divided into four groups. Group A received HCG 5000 IU weekly, group B received HMG 75 IU three times a week, group C received rhFSH 75 IU three times a week and group D received no medical treatment after varicocelectomy.
Results: After three months, in group A sperm morphology improved (p=0.007), causing a 32% pregnancy rate. In group B, sperm motility (p=0.023) and morphology (p=0.014) improved, causing a 57% pregnancy rate. In group C, all of the investigated semen parameters increased (p<0.05), causing a 62.5% pregnancy rate. Only rhFSH improved sperm concentrations to >20×106 mL (p=0.027). In group D, sperm morphology increased (p=0.038), but other parameters remained unchanged and no pregnancies occurred.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that drugs can reduce induction time for spermatogenesis and fertility in comparison with varicocelectomy alone. For these purposes, rhFSH is more effective than other drugs.
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Saeede Soleimanian, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Azam Rasti, Maryam Golzade, Hamid Hoseini Fahraji,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: It has been hypothesized that Y-q microdeletion can account for significant proportion of infertility in men. There are three nonoverlapping regions referred to as the "azoozpermia factors" AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc from proximal to distal part of Y-q. These have been defined as spermatogenesis loci, this region deletions have been shown to be involved in male azoospermic or severe oligoozospermic infertility.
Objective: Evaluation the rate of Y-chromosome microdeletions in infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 25 azoospermic infertile men candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were selected as case group. For control group, 25 normoozoospemric men were selected. All cases and controls had normal 46XY karyotype. DNA extraction and molecular analysis were done on blood samples. Multiplex-PCR method was done to identify the presence of microdeletion in AZFa, AZFb or AZFc loci. Eight STS primers that include two controls were selected to determine Y-chromosome microdeletions.
Results: 20% (5/25) of all patients have at least one microdeletion in more than one region of AZF loci. Totally 17 microdeletions was observed, one case had deletions in three AZF regions, and 4 cases had deletions in two AZF regions. The rate of deletions was 42% (7/17) for AZFc, 35% (6/17) for AZFa and 23% (4/17) for AZFb.
Conclusion: The molecular DNA analysis could help us to know the real cause of infertility and can give good information for good decision for example in men whit microdeletions who want to undertake ICSI procedure the deletions will be passed to their son.
Parvaneh Najafizadeh, Farzaneh Dehghani, Mohammadreza Panjeh Shahin, Sommaye Hamzei Taj,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Olive ( Olea europea ), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenolic compounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects.
Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats.
Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive ( Olea europaea ) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured.
Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone .
Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males.
Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Iman Halvaei, Farzaneh Fesahat, Asghar Fallah, Narges Nikonahad, Mohaddeseh Taherinejad,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Nanoparticles have wide range of application while there are some reports regarding their probable effects on male reproductive system and spermatozoa.
Objective:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (70nm) on acrosome of rat spermatozoa and number of spermatogenic cells.
Materials and Methods:  In this experimental study, in experimental group, 32 male wistar rats (8 rats/group) received oral feeding AgNPs every 12 hr in one spermatogenesis period (48 days) by means of gavages in 25, 50 , 100 and 200 mg/kg concentration (experimental groups 1-4, respectively). The control group (8 rats) was treated on schedule with distilled water. Spermatozoa were stained by triple staining protocol for acrosome reaction. Histological evaluation on testis sections was performed using tissue processing and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining.
Results:  There was significant difference between the control group and the experimental group 1 for acrosome reaction (11.00±0.00 and 24.25±3.68, respectively, p=0.01). There was only significant reduction in spermatogonia cells in experimental group 4. Experimental groups 2, 3 and 4 showed a significant reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes and spermatids as well as spermatozoa. But there were no significant differences between different groups for Sertoli cell number and seminiferous tubule diameter.
Conclusion:  It seems that Ag NPs have acute and significant effects on spermatogenesis and number of spermatogenic cells and also on acrosome reaction in sperm cells. More experimental investigations are necessary to elucidate better conclusion regarding the safety of nanoparticles on male reproduction system.
Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Tahere Jahaninejad, Hossein Pashaiefar, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Mahnaz Zahraei,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: About 15% of couples have infertility problems which 40% of them are related to the male factors. Genetic factors are candidate for about 10% of male infertility conditions. Among these, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions on the Yq are considered most important for spermatogenesis. Microdeletions of these regions are thought to be involved in some cases of azoospermic or oligospermic infertile men.
Objective: We studied the prevalence of AZF microdeletions among Iranian infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligospermia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men were selected for case group and 50 men with normal spermogram as control group. The molecular study of Y chromosome microdeletions was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method by using of 13 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from AZF region.
Results: Four (8%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions among case group, deletion in AZFc region was the most frequent (80%) followed by AZFb (20%), in AZFa and AZFd region we did not detect any deletions. No deletion was detected in control group; the ratio of Y chromosome microdeletion in azoospermic men was higher than this ratio in oligospermic men [19% (3/16) among azoospermic men and 3% (1/34) among oligospermics]. Serum FSH level in men with microdeletions was higher than this level in men with no deletions (p=0.034).
Conclusion: Because of relatively high prevalence of microdeletions on the long arm of Y chromosome among Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic patients, screening of this microdeletion may be advised to infertile men particularly azoospermic and oligospermic men before using assisted reproductive treatments.
Malihezaman Monsefi, Bentolhoda Fereydouni, Leili Rohani, Tahereh Talaei,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are undifferentiated cells that can differentiate and divide to other cell types. Transplantation of these cells to the different organs is used for curing various diseases.
Objective: The aim of this research was whether MSCs transplantation could treat the sterile testes.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Donor MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of Wistar rats. The recipients were received 40 mg/kg of busulfan to stop endogenous spermatogenesis. The MSCs were injected into the left testes. Cell tracing was done by labeling the MSCs by 5-Bromo-2- Deoxy Uridine (BrdU). The immunohistochemical and morphometrical studies were performed to analysis the curing criteria.
Results: The number of spermatogonia (25.38±1.57), primary spermatocytes (55.41±1.62) and spermatozoids (4.95±1.30)×106 in busulfan treated animals were decreased significantly as compared to the control group (33.35±1.78, 64.44±2.00) and (10.50±1.82)×106 respectively but stem cells therapy help the spermatogenesis begin more effective in these animals (32.78±1.99, 63.59±2.01) and (9.81±1.33)×106 respectively than the control group. The injected BrdU labeled mesenchymal stem cells differentiated to spermatogonia and spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules of the infertile testis and also to the interstitial cells between tubules.
Conclusion: We concluded that testis of host infertile rats accepted transplanted MSCs. The transplanted MSCs could differentiate into germinal cells in testicular seminiferous tubules.
Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Arash Mohazzab, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Akram Eidi, Abbas Khodadadi, Zeinab Piravar,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a subset of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia, are the foundation of complex process of spermatogenesis and could be propagated in vitro culture conditions for long time for germ cell transplantation and fertility preservation.
Objective: The aim of this study was in vitro propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and improvement of presence of human Germ Stem Cells (hGSCs) were assessed by specific markers POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), also known as Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) and PLZF (Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger protein).
Materials and Methods: Human testicular cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion (Collagenase IV and Trypsin). Germ cells were cultured in Stem-Pro 34 media supplemented by growth factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor to support self-renewal divisions. Germline stem cell clusters were passaged and expanded every week. Immunofluorecent study was accomplished by Anti-Oct4 antibody through the culture. The spermatogonial stem cells genes expression, PLZF, was studied in testis tissue and germ stem cells entire the culture.
Results: hGSCs clusters from a brain dead patient developed in testicular cell culture and then cultured and propagated up to 6 weeks. During the culture Oct4 were a specific marker for identification of hGSCs in testis tissue. Expression of PLZF was applied on RNA level in germ stem cells.
Conclusion: hGSCs indicated by SSCs specific marker can be cultured and propagated for long-term in vitro conditions.
Afsaneh Niakani, Farah Farrokhi, Shapour Hasanzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a reproductive key hormone. The GnRH analogues are widely used in in vitro fertilization and treatment of sex hormone-depended cancers induced by the materials used in chemotherapeutic agents.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of cyclophosphamide and decapeptyl (analogues of GnRH) on histomorphometry and stereology of testicular tissue as well as gonadotropic and gonadal hormones indices in mice.
Materials and Methods: For this study, 24 adult male Balb/C strain mice were divided in four groups; first, cyclophosphamide (65 mg/kg/body weight (BW)), second, decapeptyl (0.05 mg/kg/BW), third, decapeptyl at first, and after 10 days of cyclophosphamide injection, and control group was received same volume of sterile saline. In order to evaluate the tissue changes in testes of the mice, sections were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosine, Periodic Acid Schief's (PAS) and Oil-Red-O staining techniques.
Results: The cyclophosphamide causes histomorphologic changes in the testicular tissue; whereas such changes by decapeptyl were comparatively mild. The morphometric results revealed significant reduction in diameters of seminiferous tubules (p=0.02), and the stereological results confirmed significant differences in spermatogenesis (SI) as well as rate of tubal differentiation (TDI) indices between experimental and control groups (p=0.001). In addition, the morphometric findings proved that, there are significant decrease (p=0.001) in thicknesses of epithelia and stereologic result revealed reduction in number of cell layers in both decapeptyl and chemotherapy groups, but the decrements of these parameters were significant (p=0.02) in later group. In groups that had received cyclophosphamide, and decapeptyl alone, the LH and testosterone levels were decreased significantly (p=0.03), whereas in those that had received decapeptyl along with cyclophosphamide, the LH and FSH levels showed a decline but the level of testosterone increased.
Conclusion: These results demonstrated that, analogue of GnRH i.e., decapeptyl protect morphologic, morphometric, and stereologic alterations of the testes tissue, as well as gonadotropic and gonadal hormonal changes preceding cyclophosphamide treatment in male mice.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Seyyed Mansoor Seyyednejad, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Ayoob Jabari,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: There is growing concern that occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors adversely affect male reproductive health. Fumaria parviflora Lam. is being used traditionally in Persian folk medicine to cure various ailments and has been supposed to have fertility-enhancing properties.
Objective: A dose-response study was designed to assess effects of F. parviflora ethanolic leaves extract on reproductive parameters in adult male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, healthy adult male rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of F. parviflora leaves extract via gavage for 70 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of testosterone, LH and FSH serum levels. Reproductive organs weight, motility, morphology and density of epididymal sperm, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height were evaluated in each experimental group. Results: The body weight was not affected, while the weights of testis and epididymis were significantly enhanced in rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day F. parviflora extract. No significant changes were observed in seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weight between experiment groups. Significant increase was found in epididymal sperm density and percent of morphologically normal sperm in extract-treated rats. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher in rats received 200 and 400 mg/kg/day.
Conclusion: The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves have a potential to improve reproductive parameters and enhance male fertility.
Ozra Nasrolahi, Fereshteh Khaneshi, Fatemeh Rahmani, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties.
Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses.
Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels.
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Maryam Radan,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability.
Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased .Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups.
Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent.
Mohammad Ebrahim Baki, Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaili, Majid Pourentezari, Esmail Amraii, Vahid Yousefi, Hamid Reza Spenani, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Mohammad Fazilati, Ali Asghar Fallah, Esmat Mangoli,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background: Nano-particles are extensively employed in most industries. Several studies have been started to explore the probable detrimental effects of nano-particles on human reproduction. However, there is insufficient and controversially evident of effects of silver nano-particles on sperm parameters and other reproductive indices.
Objective: Investigation of the effects of silver nano-particles on sperm parameters, sex hormones and Leydig cells in rat as an experimental model.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 75 male prepubertal Wistar rats were categorized in five groups including control group and 4 experimental groups (n=15 in each group). The rats in the experimental groups were fed silver nano-particles (60 nm in dimension) with concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day. After 45 days (about one duration of spermatogenesis in rat), samples of blood were taken from the rats for testosterone, leuteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) assessments. Afterwards, the epididymis and the testis of each rat were dissected for analyzing sperm parameters and Leydig cells.
Results: The results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in number of Leydig cells in experimental groups compared to control one. In addition, the data showed a reduction in testosterone and a rise in LH level which was more obvious in high doses (p<0.05); however, FSH level showed a reduction but it was not statistically significant. A significant decrease was also found in sperm motility and normal sperm morphology in the experimental groups compared to the control one.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that silver nano-particles, in addition to interruption in functions of sex hormones, can diminish the number of Leydig cells and sperm parameter indices. It should be noted that the effects of nano-particles on reproductive indices are dose-dependent.

Maryam Shafipour, Marjan Sabbaghian, Maryam Shahhoseini, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Septins are an evolutionary conserved group of GTP-binding and filament-forming proteins that have diverse cellular roles. An increasing body of data implicates the septin family in the pathogenesis of diverse states including cancers, neurodegeneration, and male infertility.
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the expression pattern of Septin14 in testis tissue of men with and without spermatogenic failure.
Materials and Methods: The samples retrieved accessible random between infertile men who underwent diagnostic testicular biopsy in Royan institute. 10 infertile men with obstructive azoospermia and normal spermatogenesis and 20 infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia were recruited for real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis of the testicular tissue. Total RNA was extracted with trizol reagent.
Results: Comparison of the mRNA level of septin14 revealed that in tissues with partial (n=10) or complete spermatogenesis (n=10), the expression of septin 14 was significantly higher than sertoli cell only tissues.
Conclusion: The testicular tissues of men with hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and sertoli cell only had lower levels of septin 14 transcripts than normal men. These data indicates that Septin 14 expression level is critical for human spermatogenesis.

Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Reza Jalili, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Seyed Jalil Hosseini, Mohsen Norouzian, Nahid Ehsani,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: The Wnt/β- The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in many developmental processes in both fetal and adult life; its abnormalities can lead to disorders including several types of cancers and malfunction of specific cells and tissues in both animals and humans. Its role in reproductive processes has been proven.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of the key regulator of this signaling pathway GSK3-β and its presumed role in azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: WNT3a protein concentration and GSK3-β gene expression levels were measured and compared between two groups of infertile men. The test groups consisted of 10 patients with obstructive and 10 non-obstructive azoospermia. The control group was selected among healthy men after vasectomies that were willing to conceive a child using a testicular biopsy technique. Samples were obtained by testicular biopsy and screened for the most common mutations (84, 86 and 255) in the SRY region before analyzing. GSK3-β gene expression was assessed quantitatively by real time-PCR.
Results: The WNT3a protein concentration had no significant difference between the two test groups and controls. Expression of GSK3-β was down-regulated in non-obstructive azoospermia (3.10±0.19) compared with normal (7.12±0.39) and obstructive azoospermia (6.32±0.42) groups (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Down-regulation of GSK-3β may cause to non-obstructive azoospermia. Regulation and modification of GSK-3β gene expression by drugs could be used as a therapeutic solution.

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