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Showing 30 results for قاسمی

Mahbod Ebrahimi , Firoozeh Akbari Asbagh, Azizeh Ghaseminejad,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

 Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle is an ideal protocol for some subfertile patients. So, we decided to try this therapeutic protocol for the patients with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by hysterosalpingography (HSG).       
Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG on cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) of the stimulated IUI cycles.          
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed between October 2006 and October 2009 in an academic reproductive endocrinology and infertility center. Two groups of patients undergoing stimulated IUI cycles were compared. Sixty-four infertile couples with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG as the sole cause of infertility in the group (І), and two hundred couples with unexplained infertility in the group (II). The patients underwent 3 consecutive ovarian hyperstimulation (Clomiphen citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin) and IUI cycles. The main outcome measurements were the CPRs per patients for 3 consecutive stimulated IUI cycles.                                            
Results: Cycle characteristics were found to be homogenous between the both groups. CPRs were similar in group І (26.6%) and group II (28%) (p=0.87; OR=1.075; 95% CI: 0.57 -2.28).
Conclusion: Unilateral tubal blockage (diagnosed on HSG) has no effect on success rate of stimulated IUI cycles, so COH and IUI could be recommended as the initial therapeutic protocol in these patients.
Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Amir Hosein Aminian, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Najmeh Seighal, Hosein Falahzadeh, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction.
Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software.
Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.
Ataollah Ghahiri, Aida Najafian, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Alireza Najafian,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: About 75% of the symptomatic patients who involved with endometriosis have pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Pentoxifyllin is one of the drugs that according to its mechanism could be effective for pain relief of endometriosis which has been used for endometriosis treatment recently.
Objective: We conducted a comparative study for detecting the effect of pentoxifylin (as an immonomodelator) in preventing recurrence endometriotic pain with pentoxifylin plus a combined contraceptive pill with low dose estrogen (LD) and also the LD pill alone.
Materials and Methods: This was a comparative clinical trial on 83 patients with the chief complaint (CC) of pain (dysmenorrheal /or pelvic pain) and with the end diagnosis of endometriosis, in an operative laparoscopy. Patients, dividing to 3 groups, were treated with pentoxifylin, pentoxifylin+LD and LD alone for 10 months. The severity of pain (dismenorhea and/or pelvic pain) was detected by visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. The severity of endometriosis in the patients was: I in class I and II in class II and III in class III. The groups were matched for the pain. The number of the patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 28, 28 and 27 respectively.
Results: The pain was reduced in the groups of pentoxifylin+LD (p<0.001) and LD alone (p=0.00). The pain relief was not significant in the group of pentoxifylin alone (p=0.136). After treatment, the severity of pain was not significantly different between the LD group and the LD+penthoxyfillin group, but there was difference between these two groups and the group of penthoxyfillin alone.
Conclusion: This study showed that penthoxyfillin actually could not have any effect on the pain relief of endometriosis. It also made it clear that penthoxyfillin could not increase the efficacy of LD when used with this medication.

Azizeh Ghaseminejad, Zahra Rezaee, Mitra Forootan, Taraneh Hosseinipoor, Forough Forghani, Pooneh Nikuei,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reason of infertility due to anovulation and recurrent abortions. Progesterone has been shown to have an important role in fertilization of oocyte and fetal implantation.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of progesterone level on IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or PCOS.
Materials and Methods: In a stratified cohort study, we assigned 76 infertile women of 20-38 years old who referred to women hospital into two equal groups with fallopian tube factor infertility and PCOS. We measured the plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol on the day of HCG administration. The patients were divided into two groups based on progesterone level cut off point of 1.2ng/ml. Thereafter the incidence of pregnancy (chemical by β-HCG measurement and clinical by ultrasonography up to the 6 weeks after fetal transfer) was compared in these groups.
Results: Total pregnancy rates were 15.8% in patients with tubal factor infertility and 26.3% in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the pregnancy rate was less in patients with progesterone level <1.2 ng/ml. However this difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, we did not observe any significant differences in pregnancy rate in patients with fallopian tube factor infertility.
Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration is not well predictive of the IVF success in infertile women due to fallopian tube factor or PCOS. To obtain more uniform results, we recommend use of larger samples while the bias variable is taken into account and the ROC curve is used for determination of the unique serum progesterone level.

Mohammad Hosein Mosaddegh, Nasrin Ghasemi, Tahere Jahaninejad, Fatemeh Mohsenifar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more consecutive pregnancy losses before twenty weeks of gestation. It is caused by a variety of genetics and non-genetics factors. Thyroid autoimmunity could associate with pregnancy loss.
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Levothyroxine in treatment of RPL in women with high auto-thyroid antibodies.
Materials and Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, 900 women who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss were studied. All women with high anti-TPO antibody without any other problems entered in this study. Levothyroxine was given to them two months before pregnancy till the end of pregnancy. The doses of levothyroxine were depended on the anti-TPO levels, which were decided by endocrinologist. Women followed for the results of pregnancies.
Results: The success rate of pregnancy in women with abnormal anti-TPO with Levothyroxine therapy was 82.85%. Mean of anti-TPO in women with treatment before taking medication was 488.35 and after that it was 123.35 UI/ml. This difference was significant (p<0.05). The mean of the antibodies was not significantly different in women without treatment.
Conclusion: This study showed that Levothyroxine reduces the incidence of spontaneous abortions in women with high Anti-TPO antibody.  It decreased anti-TPO antibody levels after 2-3 months treatment.

Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Hossein Pashaiefar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Tahereh Jahaninejad, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Meiotic genes are very important candidates for genes contributing to female and male infertility. Mammalian MutL homologues have dual roles in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) after replication errors and meiotic reciprocal recombination. The MutL homologs, MLH1 and MLH3 , are crucial for meiotic reciprocal recombination and human fertility. In this study the functional polymorphisms of MLH3 C2531T was investigated in Iranian women with unexplained infertility.
Objective: Investigating the association between a common SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) C2531T in the MLH3 gene and female infertility.
Materials and Methods: In total, 105 women with unexplained infertility as case group and 100 women with at least one child and no history of infertility or abortion as controls were recruited for this association study. The MLH3 C2531T polymorphism was tested by tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (4P-ARMS-PCR) method.
Results: The MLH3 2531C and T alleles frequencies were 43.33% and 56.67% among infertile patients, and 61.5% and 38.5% among normal controls, respectively. In the patient and control subjects the CC (Pro 844 Pro) genotype frequency of MLH3 C2531T was 4.76% and 25%, the CT (Pro 844 Leu) genotype was 77.15% and 73%, and the TT (Leu 844 Leu) genotype was 19% and 2%, respectively (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: The presence of the polymorphic allele T leads to an increased risk of 2.09 times (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.38-3.16; p=0.0001) for developing infertility in relation to the control group. Therefore, our data suggest that the MLH3 C2531T polymorphism can be associated with the risk of unexplained infertility in Iranian women.
Mohammad Hadi Bahadori, Fatemeh Ghasemian, Mina Ramezani, Zakieh Asgari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: It is important to protect oocytes and embryos from oxidative stress in the culture medium. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger.
Objective: Effect of melatonin during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development of mouse oocytes was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Oocytes from supper-ovulated mouse were divided to two groups: cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, group I) and denuded COC (d-COCs, group II). The oocytes were cultured in maturation medium with different doses of melatonin (1×101-105 nM). The cumulus expansion and nuclear status were evaluated after 24 h of in-vitro maturation. The oocytes were used for in-vitro fertilization. The fertilized oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with different doses of melatonin.
Results: The expansion (86.79%) and maturation (80.55%) rate of COCs increased in supplemented medium with 10 nM of melatonin vs. control group (73.33%), p=0.006 and p=0.026 respectively), but oocytes without cumulus cells indicated higher maturation rate at higher melatonin doses (10 and 100 M, 84.34% and 79.5% respectively( vs. 69.33% in control group (p=0.002). Fertilization rate was higher in treated medium with 1 μM of melatonin (93.75%, p=0.007). The rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation was promoted in medium supplemented with 10 and 100 nM of melatonin (92.37% and 89.36% vs. 81.25% in control group, p=0.002). We observed a dose dependent response to melatonin treatment in this experiment.
Conclusion: Exogenous melatonin can promote cumulus cell expansion, in vitro oocyte maturation, and embryo development. However we investigated a dose-dependent response in different stages of maturation and development. It may reflect sensitive rate of oocytes and embryos to culture conditions.
Mohammad Hosein Baghianimoghadam, Amir Hossein Aminian, Behnam Baghianimoghadam, Nasrin Ghasemi, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Najmeh Seighal Ardakani, Hosein Fallahzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed.
Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment.
Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially.
Fatemeh Ghasemian, Roya Faraji, Maryam Asgharnia, Ziba Zahiri, Mohammad Hadi Bahadori,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Abnormal oocyte morphology has been associated with the hormonal environment to which the gametes are exposed.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the oocytes morphology, fertilization rate, embryos quality, and implantation rate resulted of retrieved oocytes in different times after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration.
Materials and Methods: A total of 985 metaphase II oocytes were retrieved 35, 36, 37 and 38 h after the injection of HCG as groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Oocyte morphology was divided into (I) normal morphology, (II) extracytoplasmic abnormalities, (III) cytoplasmic abnormalities and (IV) intracytoplasmic vacuoles and in each group, oocytes were evaluated according to this classification.
Results: Extracytoplasmic abnormalities were encountered in 17.76% and 31.1% of these oocytes (groups 3 and 4 respectively, p=0.007) in comparison with 12.23% group 2. Cytoplasmic abnormalities in group 4 were higher than other groups. 23.88% (p=0.039) and 43.25% (p=0.089) of resulted 2PN (two pronucleus) from groups 3 and 4 showed grade Z3 respectively in comparison to group 2 (16.44%). Normal and various categories of abnormal oocytes did not differ regarding fertilization and cleavage rates (p=0.061). However, group 4 showed significant difference in the rate of embryos fragmentation (grade III and IV embryo) in comparison with group 2 (40.96% vs. 24.93%, p=0.078). The pregnancy rate was higher in G2 and G3 groups (28.5 and 24.13% respectively).
Conclusion: Oocyte retrieval time following HCG priming affected on oocyte morphology, 2PN pattern and embryos qualities subsequently. Both good quality embryo formation and pregnancy outcomes were noticeably higher when oocytes were retrieved 36 h after HCG priming in ART program.
Nasrin Ghasemi, Tahereh Jahaninejad, Mahdia-Sadat Mostafavi, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Using aspirin, heparin, or both in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage could be useful, because this problem might be initiated by thrombosis in decidual vessels.
Objective: To investigate the association between thrombophilia and unexplained recurrent miscarriage and to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulant treatment.
Materials and Methods: In this quasi experimental, we enrolled 520 women, who had a history of recurrent miscarriage. Two hundred fifty two women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage were assigned to receive aspirin (80 mg daily) for two month before pregnancy and after confirmation of a viable pregnancy until 36 weeks of gestation or receive aspirin, as the same, plus heparin (5000 unit twice a day) subcutaneously after confirmation of viable pregnancy until 4 weeks after delivery. Type of medication was chosen for each woman according to number of abortion and age.
Results: Live-birth rates did not different significantly among the two study groups. The proportions of women who gave birth to a live normal infant were 74.5% in the group receiving aspirin plus heparin (combination-therapy group) and 79.8% in the aspirin group.
Conclusion: Live-birth rates did not different significantly among the two study groups. So, using aspirin or aspirin plus heparin did not change pregnancy rate in these patients. Using aspirin is easier than injecting heparin which should be chosen case by case.
Zahra Pourmovahed, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Ali Nabi, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Farzaneh Fesahat,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards.
Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology.
Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test.
Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center
Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness.

Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani, Zaynab Hamoush, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Leila Hashemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of the non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. It ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. One of the important risk factors for ovarian pregnancy is in the use of Intra uterine devices (IUD).
Case:  We report here one such uncommon case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Our patient is a 30 years old multiparous woman with two previous cesarean sections with severe hypogastric abdominal pain. During laparotomy, ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed, and wedge resection of the ovary was only done. Histopathological examination confirmed it to be an ovarian ectopic pregnancy.
Conclusion:  IUD is one of contraceptive methods which prevents intra-uterine implantation in 99.5%, if implant occurs with IUD, it is tubal implantation in 95% of cases, and it is very rare in other places such as ovary. The most important risk factor of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is IUD as in this study it was showed
Ataollah Ghahiri, Amin Firozmand, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Fahime Nasiri, Maryam Sharifi, Mehry Abdollahi,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Background: One of the most important points concerning the patients who undergo assisted reproductive techniques (ART) for getting pregnant can be the possible neonatal chromosomal abnormalities as a result of these methods. Objective: This study was conducted to help answering a part of this question. Materials and Methods: This is a historical cohort study from April 2006 to April 2007. Data were collected from women admitted in Mehregan Hospital and Esfahan Infertility Center. 225 of 2000 infertile women who had taken ART methods and 225 of 1800 women undergoing no ART treatment were included in our study. All of the cases were aged 35 or more. Data were obtained from patient files from 2 infertility centers of Isfahan, Iran. Results: Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed for all clinically suspicious infants for trisobmy 21. As a result, 4 cases of trisomy 21 in ART group and 7 in non-ART group were found. Two cases from IUI, 1 case of IVF and 1 of ICSI were found to have trisomy 21 in infants. There was no statistically difference in occurring trisomy 21 in our two groups of study and this was also the same for women undergoing IVF and ICSI. Conclusion: ART methods did not increase the rate of Trisomy 21 according to our study although we found less in ART group, it was not statistically significant
Nasrin Ghasemi, Fatemehsadat Amjadi, Ensieh Salehi, Mojgan Shakeri, Abbas Aflatoonian, Reza Aflatoonian,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Background: The human female reproductive tract (FRT) is constantly deal with the invading pathogens. Recognition of these pathogens is attributed to the family of Toll like receptors (TLR) as a major part of the innate immune system. We and others have previously revealed that TLRs1-6 express in the female reproductive tract. However, more studies should be done to detect TLRs 7-10 in the female reproductive tract, especially in the fallopian tubes.
Objective: To examine the expression of TLRs7-10 in human fallopian tube tissue.
Materials and Methods: Using immunostaining techniques, distribution of TLR7-10 was studied in surgical sections from the uterine tubes, obtained from patients undergoing tubal ligation and hysterectomy for benign gynecological conditions. RT-PCR was used to show the existence of TLR7-10 genes in fallopian tube tissue.
Results: TLR7-10 proteins were detected in the fallopian tube epithelium, although the intensity of staining was not equal in cases. TLR7-10 genes were expressed in human fallopian tube tissue.
Conclusion: This study indicates that TLR7-10 is expressed in fallopian tubes tissues, and may play an important role in microbial recognition, and in host defense against ascending infection.
Zeinab Nematollahi, Hossein Hadinedoushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Gilda Eslami, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been defined as two or more miscarriages before 20 th week of gestation. It seems that IL-27 may reduce inflammatory responses and affect the survival of the embryo during human pregnancy. IL-27 polymorphisms may influence RPL by altering the levels or the activity of gene product.
Objective: We studied for the first time the association of IL-27 -964 A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with RPL in Iranian women.
Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was performed on two groups consisting of 150 healthy women with at least one delivery (control group) and 150 women with two or more primary RPLs history (RPL group). The -964 A>G SNP in IL-27 gene was determined by PCR-RFLP technique. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared using c 2 tests between two groups.
Results: There was no difference between the two groups regarding age of women (29±4.4 [control] vs. 30.84±5.2 years [case]). In the RPL group, the genotype frequencies of -964 A>G polymorphism were AG (49.3%), AA (40%), and GG (10.7%), and in the control group, they were AG (43.3%), AA (48.7%), and GG (8%). There was no significant difference between the genotypes of AA, AG, and GG in two groups (p=0.23). As the frequency of allele A was 64.7% in the RPL group and 70.3% in the control group, the difference in frequency of allele A in -964 A>G between two groups was not significant (p=0.19).
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that SNP of -964 A>G in IL-27 gene is not a risk factor for RPL in Iranian women.
Eskandar Taghizadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Reza Mahdian, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Ehsan Farashahi-Yazd, Saeed Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Zahra Shahbazi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)

Background: Sulfatase 1 ( SULF1 ) function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics.
Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique.
Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05) regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls.
Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001).
Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1 genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.
Rezvaneh Ghasemnezhad, Fahime Mohammadghasemi, Masoumeh Faghani, Mohammad Hadi Bahadori,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: Ischemia reperfusion (IR) is the main pathology of torsion of testis and it is a common urologic emergency. There is some evidence that shows oxytocin (OT) plays role in ischemia reperfusion.
Objective: To evaluate this hypothesis that OT can decrease germ cell apoptotic index in testis under acute ischemia reperfusion in a rat model.
Materials and Methods: 20 adult rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, IR, OT and IR+ OT (OTA). Testicular ischemia was achieved by 720° torsion of the left testis for 2 hr. Then, torsion was removed and reperfusion was performed. Immediately after induction of reperfusion 0.03 µg/kg OT were administered intraperitoneally to the IR+ OT. Three hours after surgery left testis was removed and evaluations were made by Johnson’s score, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry for study of maturity of spermatogenesis, endocrine profiles, apoptosis and quantitative studies, respectively.
Results: The results showed in addition tissue edema and congestion, a significant reduced in Johnson’s score were detected in IR group in comparison with controls (p=0.01), and apoptotic index increased significantly (p=0.001). Administration of OT in OT+IR group, increased Johnson’s score but it was not statistically significant. Germinal epithelium thickness was increased significantly (p=0.03), although apoptotic index decreased significantly in comparison with the IR group (p=0.04). However there was not significant difference in serum levels of testosterone, FSH and LH in none of groups (p=0.07).
Conclusion: These results suggested that OT can decrease apoptotic index and improves complication of acute ischemic reperfusion in testis in a rat model.
Pooneh Nikuei, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, Minoo Rajaei, Azim Nejatizadeh, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy disorder with serious maternal and fetal complications which its etiology has not been completely understood yet. Early diagnosis and management of disease could reduce its potential side effects. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family including VEGF-A is the most potent endothelial growth factor which induces angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and has basic role in vasculogenesis. VEGF and its tyrosine kinase receptors (Flt1 and KDR) are major factors for fetal and placental angiogenic development. Finding mechanisms involved in expression of angiogenic factors may lead to new prognostic and therapeutic points in management of preeclampsia. Recent researches, has shown capability of some anti-angiogenic factors as potential candidate to be used as early predictors for preeclampsia. Soluble fms-like tyrosin kinase-1 (sFlt1) is a truncated splice variant of the membrane-bound VEGF receptor Flt1, that is produced by the placenta and it can bind to angiogenic growth factors and neutraliz, their effects. It is also observed that the ratio of sFlt1 to placental growth factor is valuable as prognostic marker. In this review, VEGF family member’s role in angiogenesis is evaluated as biomarkers to be used for prediction of preeclampsia.
Behrouz Gharesi-Fard, Zahra Ghasemi, Saeed Shakeri, Shabnam Behdin, Fatemeh Aghaei, Zahra Malek-Hosseini,
Volume 13, Issue 11 (12-2015)

Background: Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that plays an important role in human reproduction because of its essential role in normal spermatogenesis. Various Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within FSH receptor (FSHR) gene that may affect the receptor function. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between two FSHR SNPs at positions A919G, A2039G, and susceptibility to azoospermia in a group of Iranian azoospermic men. The association between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 212 men with azoospermia (126 non-obstructive and 86 obstructive) and 200 healthy Iranian men. Two FSHR gene SNPs were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The relationship between FSH levels within the sera and A919G and A2039G alleles and genotypes were also investigated. Results: Statistical analysis indicated that at A919G position, AA genotype and A allele were more frequent in obstructive azoospermia cases compared to non- obstructive or normal men (p=0.001). Regarding A2039G polymorphisms, no significant difference was observed between both azoospermia groups and the controls. The mean level of serum FSH was higher in the non-obstructive men compared to the obstructive patients (23.8 versus 13.8, respectively, p= 0.04). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the FSHR gene might increase the susceptibility to azoospermia in Iranian men. 

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