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Showing 4 results for Trichomoniasis

Maryam Afrakhteh, Atossa Mahdavi, Hadi Beyhaghi, Afshin Moradi, Sima Gity, Shirin Zafarghandi, Zahra Zonoubi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common causes of illness in the world and have far-reaching health, economic and social consequences for many countries. Failure to diagnose and treat STIs at an early stage may result in serious complications and sequels.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients who remain symptomatic after completion of their first episode of treatment for STI.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 49 patients suffering from symptoms or signs of sexually transmitted infections despite their first complete anti STI treatment. Conducting physical exam and smear preparation from vaginal discharge, diagnosis was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on every patient’s first-voided urine sample.
Results: Among the etiologic factors investigated in this study, Chlamydia was reported in 17 patients. Trichomoniasis, Candidiasis, Gonorrhea and nonspecific germs were next organisms with 11, 9, 6 and 6 patients, respectively. Sixteen specimens were PCR positive (32.65%), while 33 patients had negative PCR results (67.34%) for Chlamydia trachomatis.
Conclusion: Gonorrheal infection was the most prevalent infection in patients with completed treatment (6/10), which must be remembered in patients follow ups, because this prevalence warrants empirical therapy for Gonorrheain similar clinical conditions. Chlamydia trachomatis was the responsible organism in approximately a quarter of patients (17/75) who despite their full compliance on anti-Chlamydial treatment still suffered from signs and symptoms of STI. This rate also recommends empirical therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis in the similar clinical signs and symptoms.
Mohsen Arbabi, Zohreh Fakhrieh, Mahdi Delavari, Amir Abdoli,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans. T.vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan with a predilection for human urogenital tract and causative agent for vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis in females. T.vaginalis infection is associated with risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infectivity and pregnancy complication.
Objective: In this study, the prevalence of T.vaginalis in individuals who referred to public health units in Kashan city, Iran was investigated.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 970 women and 235 men who referred to 5 government health centers in Kashan, Iran during October 2012 to August 2013. Demographic information was collected as per the study protocol. Vaginal discharges and urine samples were obtained and examined by Trypticase-Yeast Extract Maltose (TYM) culture medium and wet-mount methods. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was determined using culture based method and wet-mount examinations.
Results: The overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 2% (95% CI, 2±0.08). The age of infected individual was 33.7±9.4 years. All of those infected, were married housewives and 58.3% of them had primary school education. No statistical correlation was observed between clinical manifestations and parasitological results (p=0.8).
Conclusion: This study showed a relatively low prevalence of T.vaginalis infection in the study population. Since the clinical signs of trichomoniasis are the same of other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), confirmatory laboratory tests are necessary. Due to adverse outcomes of disease, there is a great need for public education regarding implementation of personal hygienic measures and prevention of inappropriate sexual contacts.
Mohsen Arbabi, Mahdi Delavari, Zohre Fakhrieh Kashan, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hossein Hooshyar,
Volume 14, Issue 11 (11-2016)
Abstract

Background: Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis. Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis. Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry.
Results: The IC50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 μg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 μg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%.
Conclusion: Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostam, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Azam Habibi, Razieh Nazari, Masoumeh Dolati,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (7-2017)
Abstract

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae) are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran.
Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran.
Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae) and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis).
Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9%) had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2%) in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1%) in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9%) in wet mount, 64 (15.2%) in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3%) in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29), history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84), and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (p=0.00; OR=21.75). The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34) in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection.
Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.

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