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Showing 19 results for Sperm Chromatin

Elham Aliabadi, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani , Zahra Borzoei, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Hossein Mirkhani, Hamed Tabesh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE) have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality.
Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC) and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC), which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF), which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures.
Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control) or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF), then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference.
Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC.
Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.
Hamid Reza Momeni, Najmeh Eskandari,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Arsenic as an environmental toxicant is able to exert malformations in male reproductive system by inducing oxidative stress. Vitamin E (Vit.E) is known as antioxidant vitamin.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters and the antioxidant effects of Vit.E on sperm anomalies in sodium arsenite treated rats.
Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups: control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), Vit.E (100 mg/kg/day) and sodium arsenite+Vit.E. Oral treatments were performed till 8 weeks. Body and left testis weight were recorded and then left caudal epididymis was cut in Ham's F10. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze number, motility, viability and abnormalities of the sperm. Sperm chromatin quality was assessed by nuclear staining using acridine orange and aniline blue.
Results: Body and testis weight showed no significant change in 4 groups (p>0.05). A significant decrease in the number, motility, viability and normal sperm morphology was found in sodium arsenite-treated rats compared to the control (p<0.001). Sodium arsenite had no effect on sperm DNA integrity and histon-protamine replacement (p>0.05). In sodium arsenite+Vit.E group, Vit.E could significantly compensate the harmful effects of sodium arsenite on sperm number, motility, viability and morphology compared to sodium arsenite group. In addition, sperm viability and motility was significantly increased in rats treated with Vit.E alone compared to the control and sodium arsenite+Vit.E group.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on sperm parameters in adult rats.

Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Leila Elyasi, Soghra Bahmanpour, Alireza Ghannadi, Ahmad Monabbati, Farzaneh Dehghani, Marjaneh Kazerooni,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: It has been claimed that by using different washing methods, the sperms can be separated according to size, motility, density, chromosomal content and surface markings and charge. These methods also reduce sperm chromatin deficiencies and screen the sperms before applying in assisted reproduction techniques.
Objective: This study compared simple density gradient methods and a combined method with albumin density gradient and PureSperm separation (alb/PureSperm) for sex preselection by double fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) versus chromomycin A3 staining to determine chromatin integrity. Materials and Methods: 30 normal semen samples were prepared with PureSperm, albumin gradients and alb/PureSperm. All samples were then stained by FISH and chromomycin A3. The results were compared with SPSS 11.5 and the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Results: The proportion of X-bearing spermatozoa by PureSperm separation (47.58±5.67) and Y-bearing spermatozoa by albumin gradient (46.13±3.83) methods were slightly higher than in putative normal sperm samples (1:1), but there were no significant differences in the X- or Y- bearing spermatozoa counts among the three methods. Albumin gradient separation tended to underestimate abnormal spermatozoa compared to PureSperm and combined alb/PureSperm.
Conclusion: Routine separation methods slightly enriched X- or Y- bearing spermatozoa, but the differences were not significant for clinical purposes. The combined alb/PureSperm method had no advantages for assessing sex ratio or chromatin integrity compared to simpler gradient methods.
Esmat Mangoli, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Majid Pourentezari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), primary or idiopathic is a chronic disorder of the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. DM may impact male reproductive function at several levels. It is shown that DM has detrimental effects on sperm parameters in human and experimental animals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of diabetes on sperm parameters (viability, count, morphology and motility) and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality in mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally twenty adult male Syrian mice were divided randomly into 2 groups (n=10). The animals of group A were considered as controls while group B mice were diabetic that received a single dose (200 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ) intra peritoneally. After 35 days, the cauda epididymis of each diabetic mouse was dissected and placed in culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analyzed for count, motility, morphology and viability. The sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity, was evaluated with Aniline Blue (AB), Toluidine blue (TB), Acridine orange (AO) and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining.
Results: In sperm analysis, the diabetic mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals (p=0.000). Regarding sperm chromatin quality, the results of TB and AO tests showed statically significant differences between two groups, but in AB and CMA3 staining, we didn’t see any differences between them.
Conclusion: The results showed that STZ-induced diabetes mellitus may influence the male fertility potential via affecting sperm parameters and DNA integrity in mice. However, according to our data, the diabetes doesn’t have any detrimental effects on histone-protamines replacement during the testicular phase of sperm chromatin packaging.
Ali Nabi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Ehsan Zare,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: It is estimated that about 50% of causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cases remain unknown. Sperm factors are suggested to have probable role in cases with RPL.
Objective: The goal was to determine the possible relationship between semen bacterial contaminations with unexplained RPL. Also, the correlation between number of bacterial colony and sperm chromatin condensation was examined.
Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 30 fertile men (group A) and 30 infertile (group B) patients with unknown RPL. Semen collection and analysis were done according to WHO manuals. Sperm count and motility were evaluated by Makler chamber. Eosin-Nigrosin and Papanicolaou staining methods were applied for viability and morphology assessment, respectively. The semen samples from both groups were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Aniline blue (AB) and toluidine blue (TB) staining methods were applied for evaluating sperm chromatin condensation.
Results: The numbers of colonies were significantly higher in group B when compared to group A. Also, S. aureus and E. coli showed significant differences between two groups. Both AB+ and TB+ sperm cells showed significant increase in group B compared to group A. There was a significant negative correlation between colony number and progressive motility (p=0.01), sperm viability (p=0.007). In addition, positive correlations were found between colony number and AB (p=0.001) and TB (p=0.004) as well.
Conclusion: Bacterial contaminations in semen of men from RPL couples had significantly higher levels when compared to fertile controls. Presence of microorganisms in semen may be correlated with irregular sperm parameters and quality.
Zohreh Khodayari Naeini, Hassan Hassani Bafrani, Hossein Nikzad,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: An effect of cryopreservation on human sperm is sublethal cryodamage, in which cell viability post-thaw is lost more rapidly at later times than in fresh cells.
Objective: This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality of cryopreserved human spermatozoa from men with normal semen parameters.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples (n=35) were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Individual samples were classified as two portions. One portion (n=10) was for elucidate the concentration of ebselen.Then the samples(n=25) were divided in to 5groups.The first aliquot remained fresh.The second aliquots was mixed with cryopreservation medium.The third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing solvent of ebselen.The forth and fifth aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing 1.25 and 2.5 µm of ebselen.Samples were frozen and thawed samples were assessed for sperm parameters.Three-way ANOVA Multivariate measures were used to assess. According to this assesment the differences are observed in existent groups in post-thaw count, motility index, vitality staining, and morphology and DNA fragmentation.
Results: After freezing the media containing of ebselen, DNA fragmentation is significantly different in comparison with control group. ebselen with 1.25 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.047). Similarly ebselen with 2.5 µm dose was significantly associated with post-thaw DNA fragmentation (p=0.038). But other parameters were not altered.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the addition of ebselen to cryopreservation medium doesnot improve post-thaw parameters and DNA fragmentation of sperm
Mohammad Mardani, Ahmad Vaez, Shahnaz Razavi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Currently, relation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) ROS concentration and semen quality was indicated. Saffron has traditionally been not only considered as a food additive but also as a medicinal herb, which has a good antioxidant properties.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection potency of saffron and vitamin E on sperm chromatin integrity.
Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats divided equally into saffron (100 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 mg/kg) and control (0.5cc distilled water /day) groups. After 60 days, cauda epididymis dissected and sperm cells were used for analysis of sperm chromatin packaging by chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining, and sperm chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation by acridine orange (AO) staining.
Results: The mean percentage of CMA3 positive sperm was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups relative to control group (p<0.001). Moreover, the AO staining results showed that the mean percentage of sperm with DNA damage was significantly decreased in saffron and vitamin E groups as compared with control group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Our results purposed that saffron can protect sperm against DNA damage and chromatin anomalies.
Majid Pourentezari, Alireza Talebi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Esmat Mangoli, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical primarily. AA is also found in carbohydrate-rich foods that are prepared at high temperatures, such as French fries and potato chips. It is demonstrated that AA is a carcinogen and reproductive toxin and has ability to induce sperm damage.
Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effects of AA on sperm parameters and evaluation of sperm chromatin quality and testosterone hormone in mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 16 adult male mice were divided into two groups. Mice of group A fed on basal diet; group B received basal diet and AA (10 mg/kg, water solution) for 35 days. The right cauda epididymis was incised and then placed in Ham’s F10 culture media at 37oC for 15 min. Released spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology and viability. To determine the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation, the cytochemical techniques including Aniline blue, Acridine orange and Chromomycin A3 staining were used.
Results: AA-treated mice had poor parameters in comparison with control animals. In sperm chromatin assessments, except TB (p=0.16), significant differences were found in all of the tests between two groups. It was also seen a significant decrease in concentration of blood testosterone in AA-treated animals when compared to controls (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to our results, AA can affect sperm parameters as well as sperm chromatin condensation and DNA integrity in mice. These abnormalities may be related to the reduction in blood testosterone.
Marzieh Rahimipour, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Abolghasem Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Marjan Omidi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay.
Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively).
Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.

Fatemeh Roodbari, Nahid Abedi, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 13, Issue 11 (12-2015)

Background: There are few studies indicating the detrimental effects of ibuprofen on sperm fertility potential and DNA integrity. Objective: To determine the effects of Ibuprofen on sperm parameters, chromatin condensation and DNA integrity of mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 36 adult male mice with average weight 37 gr were divided into three groups, including control (group I, n=12), normal dosage of ibuprofen (group II, n=12) and high dosage (group III, n=12). Ibuprofen with different doses was dissolved in daily water of animals. After 35, 70 and 105 days, the cauda epididymis of mice were cut and incubated in Ham’s F10 media. Sperm samples were analyzed for parameters (motility, morphology and count), DNA integrity (SCD test) and chromatin condensation (chromomycin A3 and Aniline blue staining). Results: After 35 days, in addition to above mentioned sperm parameters, all of the treated mice showed statistically significant increase in spermatozoa with immature chromatin (P<0.05). However, after 70 days, the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation assessed by SCD was increased in group II (66.5±0.7) and the percentage of immature spermatozoa (AB+ and CMA3+) was higher in group III (77.5±0.7 and 49.5±6.3 respectively) than other groups. After 105 days, the AB+ spermatozoa were increased in both normal dose and high dose groups. Conclusion: Ibuprofen may cause a significant reduction in sperm parameters and sperm chromatin/DNA integrity in mice. It should be noted that these deleterious effects are dose-dependent and can be seen in early and late stage of drug treatments.
Ali Reza Talebi, Farzaneh Fesahat, Esmat Mangoli, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Maryam Nayeri, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoshan,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Etiology of more than half of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion. The etiology of more than 50 percent of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions (RSA) cases has been remained unexplained. It is supposed that RSA may have "paternal effect" due to supply 50% of embryonic genomic content by male gamete.
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of sperm apoptosis and protamine deficiency at same time in RSA cases.
Materials and Methods: Forty fertile (control) and 40 unfertile men with RSA (case) were enrolled in this case-control study. Semen analysis was performed in accordance with WHO criteria and sperm apoptosis and protamine deficiency were evaluated by cell apoptosis detection kit and chromomycin A3, respectively.
Results: Results showed significant different between normal morphology and total motility in two groups. Case group had higher percentage of spermatozoa with protamine deficiency and apoptosis compared to controls significantly.
Conclusion: Our results showed that in cases of RSA, in addition to abnormal sperm parameters, we have a high percentage of spermatozoa with protamine deficiency and apoptosis and these two anomalies may consider as important causes of idiopathic recurrent abortions. It should be advised that sperm chromatin and DNA examinations are useful tools in the process of RSA treatments.
Zohreh Hojati, Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh, Fariba Dehghanian,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)

Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters.
Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 inJHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24.
Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons.
Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility.
Neda Taghizabet, Esmat Mangoli, Fatemeh Anbari, Seyed Ali Masoodi, Ali Reza Talebi, Malihe Mazrooei,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)

Background: Evaluating the significance and the effects of plant-derived drugs on laboratory animal’s fertility was recognized. There was antioxidant activity reported from Heracleum persicum (Golpar).
Objective: Current study aims to study the antioxidant effect of Golpar extracts on sperm parameters and chromatin quality in mice.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult male mice were divided to 3 groups (10 wk old, 35 gr weight): group1 received hydro alcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg, ip), group 2 received oil extract (200 mg/kg, ip) and group 3 serving as the sham control group that received sterile water. Finally, left cauda epididymis of each animal was dissected and sperm analysis was done accordingly. To asses sperm chromatin and DNA quality, we used aniline blue (AB), toluidine blue (TB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and acridine orange (AO) staining.
Results: Progressive and non-progressive sperm motility were significantly increased in group 1 in comparison with group 3 (p=0.032). There was an increasing trend in progressive sperm motility and decreasing trend in non-progressive sperm motility in group 2 in comparison with group 3, but the differences were not significant (p=0.221 and p=0.144, respectively). According to the sperm chromatin quality, the results of TB and AO tests revealed significant differences (p=0.004, p=0.000, respectively) between those groups and showed that the extracts of Golpar cause DNA damage, but no differences can be observed between them in AB and CMA3 staining (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that Heracleum persicum extracts may improve sperm motility. Also, it has harmful effects on sperm chromatin condensation and DNA integrity in mice
Mahsa Nazari, Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Hosseini Sharifabad, Abolghasem Abbasi, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Amir Hossein Danafar,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

Background: The particles in the range of 1-100 nm are called nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticle is one of the most important metal nanoparticles with wide usage.
Objective: This study investigated the effects of gold nanoparticles on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in mice.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 male bulb-c mice were divided into 9 groups including: 4 Sham groups (Sc 1-4), 4 experimental groups (Au 1-4), and 1 control group (C). Experimental groups received 40 and 200 µg/kg/day soluble gold (Au) nano-particles for 7 and 35 days, by intra peritoneal injection, respectively. Sham groups were treated with 1.2 mM sodium citrate solution with 40 and 200 µg/kg/day doses for same days and control group did not receive any materials. Motility and Morphology of spermatozoa were analyzed. Chromatin quality was also evaluated using AB (Aniline blue), TB (Toluidine blue) and CMA3 (Chromomycin A3) staining methods.
Results: The sperm analysis results showed that motility and morphology of sperm in experimental groups (especially in groups that have been treated for 35 days with nano-particles) had significant decrease in comparison with control group. TB, AB and CMA3 results showed a significant increase in abnormal spermatozoa from all Au-treated groups.
Conclusion: Gold nano-particles firstly can reduce the sperm parameters such as motility and normal morphology and secondly affect sperm chromatin remodeling and cause the increase instability of chromatin and also increase the rate of sperm DNA damage. These deleterious effects were more obvious in maximum dose and chronic phase.

Mojdeh Sabour, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Amir Hossein Danafar, Marjan Omidi, Iman Halvaei, Ali Nabi, Saeed Ghasemi- Esmailabad, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) was shown to have harmful effects on malereproductive system.
Objective: To investigate probable effects of daily administration of MA on spermparameters and chromatin/DNA integrity in mouse.
Material and Methods: Thirty-five NMRI male mice were divided into five groupsincluding low, medium, and high dosage groups which were injectedintraperitoneally with 4, 8 and 15 mg/kg/day for 35 days, respectively. Normalsaline was injected in sham group and no medications were used in control group.Then, the mice were killed and caudal epididymis of each animal was cut and placedin Ham’s F10 medium for sperm retrieval. To evaluate sperm chromatinabnormalities, the aniline blue, toluidine blue and chromomycine A3 were used. Forsperm DNA integrity and apoptosis, the acridine orange, sperm chromatindispersion, and TUNEL assay were applied. For sperm morphology, Papanicolaoustaining was done
Results: Normal morphology and progressive motility of spermatozoa decreased inmedium and high dosage groups in comparison with the control group (p=0.035).There was a significant increase in rate of aniline blue, toluidine blue, andchromomycine A3 positive spermatozoa in high dosage group. In a similar manner,there was an increase in rates of acridine orange, TUNEL and sperm chromatindispersion positive sperm cells in high dosage group with respect to others.
Conclusion: MA abuse in a dose-dependent manner could have detrimental effectson male reproductive indices including sperm parameters and spermchromatin/DNA integrity in mice
Soheila Pourmasumi, Parvin Sabeti, Tahereh Rahiminia, Esmat Mangoli, Nasim Tabibnejad, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (7-2017)

The sperm DNA damage may occur in testis, genital ducts, and also after ejaculation. Mechanisms altering chromatin remodeling are abortive apoptosis and oxidative stress resulting from reactive oxygen species. Three classifications of intratesticular, post-testicular, and external factors have been correlated with increased levels of sperm DNA damage which can affect the potential of fertility. Alcohol consumption may not increase the rate of sperm residual histones and protamine deficiency; however, it causes an increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In a medical problem as spinal cord injury, poor semen parameters and sperm DNA damage were reported. Infection induces reactive oxygen species production, decreases the total antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA fragmentation or antigen production that lead to sperm dysfunctions and DNA fragmentation. While reactive oxygen species generation increases with age, oxidative stress may be responsible for the age-dependent sperm DNA damage. The exposing of reproductive organs in older men to oxidative stress for a long time may produce more DNA-damaged spermatozoa than youngers. Examining the sperm chromatin quality in testicular cancer and Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients prior to chemotherapy demonstrated the high incidence of DNA damage and low compaction in spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. In chemotherapy cycles with genotoxic agents in cancer patients, an increase in sperm DNA damage was shown after treatment. In overall, those factors occurring during the prenatal or the adult life alter the distribution of proteins associated with sperm chromatin induce changes in germ cells which can be detected in infertile patients.
Ladan Bandegi, Morteza Anvari, Mahmood Vakili, Arezoo Khoradmehr, Aghdas Mirjalili, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (6-2018)

Background: Prescribing antidepressant drugs is becoming common. These drugs are known to affect sexual functions.
Objective: The study is aimed to assess the effects of amitriptyline and venlafaxine on sperm parameters and evaluate Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl values in BALB/ mice spermatozoa.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male BALB/c mice were separated into five groups. Group Ι (control) received distilled water; group ΙΙ amitriptyline (4 mg/kg); group ΙΙΙ amitriptyline (4 mg/kg) +vitamin C (10 mg/kg); group ΙV venlafaxine (2 mg/kg); and group V received vitamin C (10 mg/kg) + venlafaxine (2 mg/kg). All drugs were administered by oral gavage for 35 days. After excision of caudal epididymis, it was located in 1 mL Ham's F10 medium at 37oC for 15 min and then analysis of sperm parameters was performed. To examine lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity, the MDA and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl were measured, respectively.
Results: The mean sperm parameters in the group treated with amitriptyline were significantly lower than in the other groups. MDA tests showed a significant difference between amitriptyline and control groups (p=0.007).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that amitriptyline consumption can weaken sperm parameters, which can be attributed to the increased production of ROS and toxicity resulting from amitriptyline consumption. Moreover, venlafaxine improved sperm parameters in mice and the lipid peroxidation in this group did not change compared to the control group.
Mahnaz Heidari, Niknam Lakpour, Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Saeideh Shani, Leila Goharbakhsh, Ghazaleh Cheshmi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (7-2018)

Background: Sperm processing methods separate motile sperms with good morphology from dead and abnormal forms of sperms, immature germ cells, and non-sperm cells.
Objective: The propose of this study was to compare the efficacy of upstream and swim-up processing techniques to separate sperms with the high quality especially in relation to sperm chromatin integrity.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study used semen samples from 60 normozoospermic men. Specimens were divided into equal aliquots for processing by swim up (group A), and upstream (group B) methods and compare with control by raw semen (group C). Sperm concentration, morphology, motility, DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were measured in these three groups.
Results: The results revealed that sperm concentration in the swim up samples was significantly greater than upstream samples (p≤0.04). as addition, motile sperm recovery including the percentage of progressive motility and a total number of motile sperm was better in the swim-up compared to an upstream method and raw semen (p≤0.001). The cell debris and seminal fluid were equally removed by both methods and the percentage of normal forms was also similar in both procedures (p≥0.4). In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were not significantly different between the three groups (p≥0.1).
Conclusion: According to results, apparently the upstream method had no significant efficiency to separate good quality sperms compare to swim up. Therefore, swim up seems to be a simple, inexpensive, reliable and widely available method with an efficient yield to separate motile sperm with good morphology and better chromatin integrity for insemination in the infertility clinics.
Peyman Salehi, Seyedeh Zahra Shahrokhi, Tayyebeh Kamran, Ali Ajami, Sana Taghiyar, Mohammad Reza Deemeh,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (2-2019)

Background: The effect of antioxidant therapy on sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and achieving natural pregnancy were under debate. Very few studies have showed the rate of pregnancy rate after the antioxidant therapy due to ethical and technical limitations.
Objective: The aim of this cohort study was to determine the improvement rate of sperm DFI and natural pregnancy rate after the antioxidant therapy in infertile men.
Materials and Methods: 1645 infertile men were subjected for this study from May 2015 to December 2017. The Spermogram and sperm DFI were assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2010-based protocols and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), respectively, in sperm samples before and after antioxidant therapy.
Results: The total sperm DFI improvement rate was 38.9% in the total population. Sperm DFI improvement had close correlation with total motility (r= 0.731, p= 0.001) and progressive motility improvement (r= 0.885, p= 0.001); 16.8% of individuals who completed antioxidant therapy for nine months achieved natural pregnancy.
Conclusion: The results of the current study suggested that SCSA along with spermogram might be a suitable option for the evaluation of fertility potential. In addition, antioxidant therapy may be useful for men with high levels of sperm DFI. However, the rate of pregnancy was still low and other treatment protocols such as assisted reproductive technology may be necessary.

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