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Semra Kahraman, Nacati Findikli,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Since its first clinical application in early 90s, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has became a powerful diagnostic procedure in clinical practice for avoiding the birth of an affected child as well as increasing the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) outcome . The technique involves the screening of preimplantation embryos for chromosomal abnormalities in certain indications such as advanced maternal age, repeated abortions and translocations, or for single gene defects, the majority of which are cystic fibrosis and thalassaemias. In this context, it becomes an alternative option for traditional prenatal diagnosis. So far, more than 1000 unaffected babies have been born after PGD, indicating that the procedure is safe and effective in prevention of genetic defects as well as increasing the ART outcome. Besides its diagnostic value and expanding indications such as cancer predisposition, dynamic mutations and late onset disorders, a new feature, namely preimplantation human leuckocyte antigen (HLA) typing also demonstrates its novel therapeutic role in contemporary medicine. This article summarizes the recent status of PGD and discusses the current limitations and future perspectives associated with PGD techniques . Key Words:   PGD, ART,FISH
Mir Davood Omrani, Agneta Nordenskhold,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: For screening sequence variations in genes, rapid turnover time is of fundamental importance. While, many of the current methods are unfortunately time consuming and technically difficult to implement. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method had been shown to be a high-throughput, time saving, and economical tool for mutation screening. Objective: In the present study DHPLC method was used to explore the potential association between estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR2) variants and male infertility. Materials and Methods: DNA from 96 men with infertility and 96 normal male as control were screened for mutation in the nine exons of the ESR2 gene, using WAVE� DHPLC device equipped with a DNA separation column and automated sequence analysis on the ABI Prism 310. Results: DHPLC evaluation of ESR2 gene in 96 infertile patients, revealed one heterozygous sequence variation (IVS 8�4G>A) near the 5� splicing region of intron 8 in 5 patients. No variation was identified in control population. Conclusion: Mutation detection by DHPLC, as it is presented in this context, is a high-throughput, quick, and economical tool for mutation screening. The gene alterations in ESR2 gene that we�ve found might increase susceptibility to infertility; but without cDNA screening, the consequences of these genetic alterations cannot be predicted
Maryam –sadat Hosseini, Parviz Gharehkhani, Maryam Sadeghi,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Severe preeclampsia is a quite well-known entity with high incidence of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although little is known about its etiology, inherited disorders of hemostasis and antiphospholipid syndrome have been postulated as common causes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of these two entities with preeclampsia in a group of Iranian patients.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 26 parturients with severe preeclampsia and 26 healthy pregnant women who were matched according to the age, parity, gestational age and previous history of abortion. A 10cc blood sample was obtained and the following factors were measured: factor V Leiden, protein S, protein C, antithrombin III, anticardiolipin antibodies (IgM and IgG) and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant antibody.
Results: We have not found any significant difference in the values of factor V Leiden, antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, and anticardiolipin-IgG between preeclamptic (case) and non-preeclamptic (control) parturients. Meanwhile, lupus anticoagulant antibody was detected in one case and one control. However, anticardiolipin IgM was shown to be significantly higher in the preeclamptic patients. Severe preeclamptic parturients were 4.4 times more likely to develop elevated levels of IgM (OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10, p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results failed to reveal any significant association between preeclampsia and indices of inherited disorders of hemostasis, except for anticardiolipin IgM. Thus, routine screening of these indices are not recommended due to high expenses and shortness of reliability. 
Monjurul Hoque, Ehsanul Hoque, Suriya B Kader,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: Intrapartam complications such as foetal malpresentation, placental abruption, dysfunctional labour, and postpartum haemorrhage are associated with grandmultiparity. In developing countries and many parts of Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, there is limited access to medical care. There is a need in these areas to identify women whose pregnancies are at risk of complication and it is an important part of antenatal screening and care during delivery to reduce adverse outcomes.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the complications during pregnancy and delivery of grandmultiparity and to compare it with other parity groups.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective case control study was conducted targeting women delivered at Empangeni Hospital during April to December 2004. Among all women who delivered at the hospital, 352 grandmultimaras, 3326 nulliparas and 3772 who had parity 1 to 5, were taken as cases and controls respectively for the study.
Results: Significantly higher rates of ante partum (1%) and post partum (2%) haemorrhages, post term delivery (3%), and intrauterine foetal deaths (4.5%) were observed in grandpultiparas compared to nulliparous women but there was no difference with parity group 1-5. Assisted vaginal delivery rates were significantly lower in grandpultiparas women (2%) compared to nulliparous (5%) group (p < 0.05) but there was no difference with parity group 1-5. There were no significant differences in anaemia (14%), hypertension (10%), eclampsia (0.5%) and diabetes (3%), elective and emergency caesarean delivery (14.2%) and low-birth-weight delivery rates (13.2%) among different parity groups.
Conclusion: Grandmultiparity was not safer compared to other lower parity groups. Thus strategies are needed to guide women to seek proper care during pregnancy and if possible to avoid pregnancy if they had higher parity.
Ali Khosrowbeygi, Nosratollah Zargham, Laya Farzadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: The lipids of the spermatozoa membrane are important for the fluidity and flexibility of spermatozoa. However, spermatozoa’s lipids are the main substrates for peroxidation, which may provoke severe functional disorder of sperm.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the fatty acids composition of spermatozoa in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The patients were 51 men with seminal parameters abnormalities undergoing infertility screening. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n=15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n=21) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n=15). The patients were compared with 21 males with normozoospermia. Sperm fatty acid analysis was performed using capillary gas chromatography.
Results: Levels of stearic acid and oleic acid were significantly higher in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects compared with these levels in normozoospermic males. Levels of arachidonic acid and DHA were significantly lower in the sperms of oligoasthenoteratozoospermic males than normozoospermic men. Sperm motility and morphology were correlated positively with levels of arachidonic acid and DHA while a negative correlation was observed with levels of stearic acid and oleic acid.
Conclusion: In conclusion, impaired sperm function can originate from the disorder of sperm lipid metabolism. Low levels of DHA and arachidonic acid in spermatozoa of oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects may be the result of breakdown of them.
Mir Davood Omrani, Javad Karimzad Hagh, Wolfrom Klein, Jurgen Gebauer,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Cytogenetic analysis, Y-chromosome microdeletion screening, FISH techniques and other genetic methods have helped in finding the causes of infertility in azoospermic or severe oligoazoospermic cases in the last decade.
Objective: In the present study, we characterized an abnormal Y-chromosome, detected as a mosaic in an azoospermic male ascertained for infertility. Materials and Methods: Chromosome analysis, using G, Q and C banding techniques and FISH analyses with several different DNA probes specific for Y and X chromosome sequences [XY centromeric α-satellite, Y non-α-satellite III, LSI-probes of the Y chromosome, WCP of Chromosome Y, SRY gene, subtelomeric Xp and Yp, which cover the SHOX (short stature-homeobox containing) gene, and subtelomeric Xq and Yq probes] were performed. A total of 20 sequence tagged sites were analyzed using primer sets specific for the Y-chromosome microdeletion loci. The primers were chosen to cover AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc regions as well as the SRY gene.
Results: Chromosome analysis revealed a gonosomal mosaicism of monosomy X (51%) and a pseudodicentric Y (49%) chromosome: mos 45, X/46,X psu dic (Y) (qter→p11.32 :: p11.2→qter). Molecular genetic studies did not show deletions in the AZFabc regions, but a deletion was found in the short arms of the dicentric Y chromosome. One of the SRY genes was also missing.
Conclusion: The azoospermia in this patient could be explained by either the presence of an abnormal Y-chromosome that cannot form a sex vesicle (which appears to be necessary for the completion of meiosis process and the formation of sperm), or the presence of the 45, X cell line.
Musa Toyin Yakubu, Musbau Adewumi Akanji, Adenike Temidayo Oladiji, Abdulwaheed Olajide Olatinwo, Abdulfatai Ayoade Adesokan, Monsurat Oyenike Yakubu, Bamidele Victor Owoyele, Taofik Olatunde Sunmonu, Moyosore Salihu Ajao,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: The increase in the rate of infertility in women has prompted the need to search for plants with antifertility potentials.
Objective: The effect of administration of aqueous extract of Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leaves for seven days on reproductive hormones of female Wistar rats was investigated.
Materials and Methods: Sixty female albino rats were grouped into four (A, B, C and D) of 15 each. Group A (the control) received orally 6.5 ml kg-1 body weight of distilled water on daily basis for 7 days. Groups B, C and D were treated like the control except that they received 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 body weight of the extract.
Results: Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phlobatannins and triterpenes. Administration of the extract produced significant increase (p<0.05) in the serum prolactin concentration whereas those of estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones were significantly reduced.
Conclusion: The alterations in the female rat reproductive hormones by the extract are indications of adverse effect on the maturation and ovulation of follicles. Consequently, the extract may impair fertility and conception in female rats. Thus, the Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leaf extract may be explored as a female contraceptive.
Sedigheh Soheilykhah, Mahdie Mogibian, Sodabeh Rahimi-Saghand, Maryam Rashidi, Saeideh Soheilykhah, Maryam Piroz,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic complications of pregnancy and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and to help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes
Objective: This prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of GDM in Yazd and to assess the effect of various contributing factors. Materials and Methods: One thousand and seventy one pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-hour blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl then a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100g glucose was performed and diagnosis was established according to American Diabetes Association criteria.
Results: Three hundred and forty two (31.9%) women had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. The overall incidence of GDM was 10.2% (n=110). Seventy six of subjects (7.1%) have one abnormal OGTT. There was a significant association between incidence of GDM and age familial history of diabetes BMI before pregnancy parity history of GDM macrosomic baby still birth during previous pregnancies and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Conclusion: According to high incidence of GDM in our area we recommend screening for GDM in all pregnant women and modification of contributing factors in high risk women.
Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Shahin Narooi, Babak Mojtabaean, Nouzar Nakhaee,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (7-2010)

Background: Doppler indices of umbilical artery are used as indicator of fetal well being.
Objective: To compare Doppler parameters of umbilical artery including pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in patients with preeclampsia with those of normal pregnancies and to evaluate the diagnostic characteristics of these parameters in preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: In a case control study, umbilical artery pulsatility and resistance indices were calculated at a free loop of umbilical cord in 25 preeclamptic patients and 75 uneventful pregnancies. Measurements were compared and diagnostic characteristics of the indices were determined. Results: Mean of pulsatility and resistance index were significantly higher in preeclampsia patients than the control group. Besides, patients with severe preeclampsia showed significantly higher values of PI and RI in comparison to those with mild preeclampsia. For PI, the cut-off of ≥0.98 yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity. Also, RI of 0.64 acquired a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 44%.
Conclusion: Umbilical artery pulsatility index and resistance index increase in preeclampsia and these changes tend to be greater in severe preeclampsia. Umbilical artery PI and RI seem to be more appropriate in excluding preeclampsia rather than confirming it, and we propose the cut-off values of 0.98 for PI and/or 0.64 for RI, to rule-out the disease.
Mohammadreza Ghadir, Abolfazl Iranikhah, Mahboubeh Jandaghi, Farahnaz Joukar, Massih Sedigh-Rahimabadi, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Celiac sprue (gluten sensitive enteropathy) is an autoimmune disease which is hereditary and its pathology mainly bases on immunologic intolerance to gluten. It has a vast variety of signs and symptoms and its clinical features range from a silent disease to a typical gastrointestinal disorder. In this study we reviewed and summarized some other related issues about this disease and its relation with infertility.
Case: The case is a 26 years old lady who had referred to a gynecologist because of infertility for 2 years and later it revealed that she has celiac sprue. Conclusion: Screening for its silent or subtle types especially among suspicious cases such as unexplained infertility seems to be a cost effective action. Meanwhile, in time administration of a gluten-free diet can lead to an almost complete cure.
Nader Esmailpoor, Mitra Ahmad Soltani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: While myoma is the most common pelvic mass of women, most women do not seek screening tests for uterine myoma and if they have any fibroid they are not volunteer for its surgical removal.

Case: We present here a novel technique of vascular skeletonization to preserve uterus, making pregnancy possible for an infertile woman with a large uterine myoma, situated in the uterine lower segment.

Conclusion: Vascular skeletonization to preserve vessels for a case of myomectomy helped preserve the patient's ability to conceive.

Viroj Wiwanitkit,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

To construct a semen bank, the collection of donated semen has to be done and an important concern is the safety of collected semen. The contamination is a big problem. Basically, the infectious pathogens can exist within donated semen, hence, a good donor screening is very important. Although viruses have an indirect role in sperm quality, but the evidence in banked semen is presently lack. This does not mean that there is no viral contamination but it might imply the inadequate concern on this issue. Contaminated semen usually means poor quality and hazardous to the recipient. The contamination of the virus in banked semen is a common problem in animal semen banking (1). The safety and transmission of each problematic virus is widely studied and well clarified in animal semen banking (2). However, this issue is not widely concerned in human semen banking. For sure, this case is an actual direct contamination and this cannot be detected if there is no specific screening in the banking process. The scenario of important new emerging viral infections will be specifically detailed in this report. West Nile virus is an emerging problematic viral infection that can cause a deadly clinical disorder. Basically, West Nile virus is classified as an arbovirus that is mainly transmitted by mosquito. However, the uncommon modes of transmissions such as transfusion related transmission are reported (3). The contamination of West Nile virus in semen is an important question in andrology. There is no evidence indicating for the presence of West Nile virus in the semen of the patients. However, American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected West Nile virus infections (4). SARS is another deadly emerging viral infection. The new coronavirus infection is transmitted via respiratory route. The serious symptom due to this infection leads to death in almost all cases and brings a great concern to medical scientists around the world. The contamination of SARS in semen is an interesting topic. The possible transmission of SARS virus via germ line is an important question to be investigated in reproductive medicine (5). Luckily, till present, there is no evidence of SARS contamination in semen. Generally, influenza virus is a respiratory virus that causes respiratory tract infection. In the recent few years, an atypical influenza, avian flu, emerged. This infection brought a concern to the medical society. In early of this year, 2009, the newest emerging viral infection caused by a novel influenza virus, swine flu occurred and became pandemic. The topic on the new influenza virus becomes the present hot issue. Focusing on the contamination of classical influenza virus in semen, there are many evidences confirming the existence of virus in semen derived from the infected cases. It is also confirmed that the existence of the influenza virus in semen lead to decreased semen quality and pathological spermatozoa (6, 7). For the case of avian flu and swine flu, there is no report on the existence of virus in the semen of infected cases at present (8). However, a recent report on animal model indicated for the possibility of transmission of swine flu virus via reproductive tract insemination (9). It is suggested that new atypical influenza can result in poor semen quality and might lead to further infertility (8). However, there is no report on contamination of influenza virus in banked semen. A possible explanation might be the fact that although the influenza virus can contaminate in donated semen it leads to poor semen quality but no proof for possible further transmission to the other one. For the case of avian flu and swine flu, there is also no report on the contamination in banked semen.
Ramaswamy Suganthi, Vv Vijesh, Sanjay Jayachandran, Jahangir Ali Fathima Benazir,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: Y chromosomal microdeletion is an important genetic disorder, which may arise due to intrachromosomal recombination between homologous sequences in the male specific region of the human Y chromosome. It is frequently associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The screening for Y chromosomal microdeletions has a great clinical value.
Objective: To develop a sequence tagged site (STS) based multiplex PCR protocol, which could be specific for the rapid detection of AZF deletions and thereby estimating the frequency of AZF sub deletions in infertile South Indian men.
Materials and Methods: In the current study, PCR based Y chromosomal microdeletion screening analysis was performed in 75 men including 30 non-obstructive azoospermic men, 20 severe oligozoospermic, and 25 normozoospermic fertile men (controls) using 15 known STS primer pairs mapped within the AZF locus. Deletion frequency was estimated after successful PCR amplification.
Results: We designed and optimized a STS based multiplex PCR protocol, which could be helpful for the clinicians to detect the Y chromosomal deletions rapidly and specifically. In our study, we estimated an overall deletion frequency of 36%. Among these 12 (40%) were azoospermic and 6 (30%) were oligozoospermic. No microdeletions were observed in normozoospermic fertile men.
Conclusion: Our Study emphasizes the fact that Y chromosomal microdeletion screening tests are unavoidable in the workup of idiopathic male infertility. Mandatory screening for Y deletions should be done in all azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic patients before undergoing assisted reproductive technology.
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Saeede Soleimanian, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Azam Rasti, Maryam Golzade, Hamid Hoseini Fahraji,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: It has been hypothesized that Y-q microdeletion can account for significant proportion of infertility in men. There are three nonoverlapping regions referred to as the "azoozpermia factors" AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc from proximal to distal part of Y-q. These have been defined as spermatogenesis loci, this region deletions have been shown to be involved in male azoospermic or severe oligoozospermic infertility.
Objective: Evaluation the rate of Y-chromosome microdeletions in infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 25 azoospermic infertile men candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were selected as case group. For control group, 25 normoozoospemric men were selected. All cases and controls had normal 46XY karyotype. DNA extraction and molecular analysis were done on blood samples. Multiplex-PCR method was done to identify the presence of microdeletion in AZFa, AZFb or AZFc loci. Eight STS primers that include two controls were selected to determine Y-chromosome microdeletions.
Results: 20% (5/25) of all patients have at least one microdeletion in more than one region of AZF loci. Totally 17 microdeletions was observed, one case had deletions in three AZF regions, and 4 cases had deletions in two AZF regions. The rate of deletions was 42% (7/17) for AZFc, 35% (6/17) for AZFa and 23% (4/17) for AZFb.
Conclusion: The molecular DNA analysis could help us to know the real cause of infertility and can give good information for good decision for example in men whit microdeletions who want to undertake ICSI procedure the deletions will be passed to their son.
Fatemeh Pourkeramati, Haleh Soltanghoraee, Naser Amirjannati, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Cryptorchidism is a common malformation in neonates; surgery or medical treatments are applied during childhood. Untreated cryptorchid testes are in the risk of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN) and consequently invasive testicular tumors which could be shown by immunohistochemistry staining for placental like acid phosphatase (PLAP) marker.
Objective: We designed this study to know the prevalence of IGCN in untreated cryptorchid testes of infertile men, in our infertility center as a refferal center.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed H&E slides of testicular samples of 13 adult infertile patients with impalpable intra-abdominal testes seeking infertility treatment; then we stained them by PLAP marker.
Results: Three (23.08%) samples were positive for PLAP marker means presence of IGCN in testis. One of them showed seminoma besides IGCN. Conclusion: According to the results of this study and the fact that there are adult untreated cryptorchid patients in our country yet, it is suggested to pay more attention in clinical examination, assessment and follow up of such patients for malignancy screening.
Maryam Dalili, Mohamad Ali Karimzadeh Meybodi, Mohamad Ghaforzadeh, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Hossein Molavi-E Vardanjani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: Spontaneous preterm labor is one of the common obstetrics problems causing several physical, psychological and economical outcomes. Although due to these outcomes and the efficacy of cares for decreasing them, preterm labor screening is cost-effective and it is still one of the challenging issues in obstetrics.
Objective: In this study preterm labor screening by using cervical transvaginal sonography was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: This observational cohort study was performed in Yazd, Iran. Samples were selected from pregnant women at gestational age of 21-24 weeks who had single live fetus and referred to the obstetrics clinics of two selected hospitals in Yazd. Gestational age was estimated based on the sonography of the first trimester and cervical length measured by transvaginal sonography. Data analysis was done by using t and x2 test as well as ANOVA. Statistical significant level was considered as p<0.05.
Results: From 450 participants, 47 cases had preterm labor and 6 cases had positive funneling. Mean age of women with term labor was 26.09±4.13 years and that of women with preterm labor was 26.7±3.51 years (p=0.334). Duration of pregnancy and cervical length significantly differed between women with and without funneling (p=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of screening based on cervical length of 25mm were 55.5% (50.9-60.1%) and 93.6% (91.2-96%) respectively.
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, transvaginal ultrasound assessment of cervical length in low risk women has an acceptable reliability for screening of preterm labor.
Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Tahere Jahaninejad, Hossein Pashaiefar, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Mahnaz Zahraei,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: About 15% of couples have infertility problems which 40% of them are related to the male factors. Genetic factors are candidate for about 10% of male infertility conditions. Among these, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions on the Yq are considered most important for spermatogenesis. Microdeletions of these regions are thought to be involved in some cases of azoospermic or oligospermic infertile men.
Objective: We studied the prevalence of AZF microdeletions among Iranian infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligospermia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men were selected for case group and 50 men with normal spermogram as control group. The molecular study of Y chromosome microdeletions was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method by using of 13 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from AZF region.
Results: Four (8%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions among case group, deletion in AZFc region was the most frequent (80%) followed by AZFb (20%), in AZFa and AZFd region we did not detect any deletions. No deletion was detected in control group; the ratio of Y chromosome microdeletion in azoospermic men was higher than this ratio in oligospermic men [19% (3/16) among azoospermic men and 3% (1/34) among oligospermics]. Serum FSH level in men with microdeletions was higher than this level in men with no deletions (p=0.034).
Conclusion: Because of relatively high prevalence of microdeletions on the long arm of Y chromosome among Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic patients, screening of this microdeletion may be advised to infertile men particularly azoospermic and oligospermic men before using assisted reproductive treatments.
Gülay Yilmazel, Elçin Balci,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: The postpartum period is a time of transition for a pregnant woman and her new family. In this period many pregnant women are in search about the family planning methods. But contraceptive options differ depending on women’s desires such as cultural and religious believes, partner attitudes, previous contraceptive experiences.
Objective: This study was conducted to identify status of using a contraceptive method before pregnancy and the factors associated with preferences of contraception in postpartum period.
Materials and Methods: The descriptive research was conducted in a State Hospital March-May 2012 in Turkey. The population of study was formed with 200 pregnant women who applied follow-up pregnant clinics. We took permissions from local authorities and participants. 182 voluntary pregnant women were surveyed. We prepared a 20 item question are form which was asking socio-demographic futures, contraceptives methods before-after delivery and the factors related with using contraceptives after screening literatures related with subject.
Results: The 49.5% of women reported that they didn’t use any methods before. There was a significant relation between using contraceptives before pregnancy with the idea of using contraceptive during the postpartum period and receiving contraception counseling during pregnancy (p=0.004, p=0.035 respectively).
Conclusion: The 86.4% of pregnant implied that they would use a contraceptive method in postpartum period. IUD was the most preferred method. Status of using contraceptive before and receiving contraception counseling in pregnancy were the effective variables on thoughts about using a contraceptive method. To achieve desired goals for maternal and child health in our country health professionals should be more focused on postpartum contraception in antenatal care programs.
Sedigheh Borna, Mamak Shariat, Mohaddese Fallahi, Leila Janani,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly.
Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages.
Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. we selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti Toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women and the full text of papers were found too.
Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7).
Conclusion: In Iran, screening is not routinely performed yet. The incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors.
Mir Davood Omrani, Faezeh Azizi, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Niloufar Safavi Naini, Sara Omrani, Arezo Mona Abbasi, Soraya Saleh Gargari,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: The major aneuploidies that are diagnosed prenatally involve the autosomal chromosomes 13, 18, and 21, as well as sex chromosomes, X and Y. Because multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is rapid and non-invasive, it has replaced traditional culture methods for the screening and diagnosis of common aneuploidies in some countries.
Objective:  To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of MLPA in a cross-sectional descriptive study for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidies in comparison to other methods.
Materials and Methods:  Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples of 10 normal controls and the amniotic fluid of 55 patients. Aneuploidies screening of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were carried out using specific MLPA probe mixes (P095-A2). For comparison purposes, samples were also tested by Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR) and routine chromosomal culture method.
Results:  Using this specific MLPA technique and data-analyzing software (Genemarker v1.85), one case was diagnosed with 45, X (e.g. Monosomy X or Turner’s Syndrome), and the remaining 54 cases revealed normal karyotypes. These results were concordant with routine chromosomal culture and QF-PCR findings.
Conclusion:  The experiment demonstrates that MLPA can provide a rapid and accurate clinical method for prenatal identification of common chromosomal aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.

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