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Behnaz Sheikholslami, Mojdeh Salehnia, Mojtaba Rezazadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)
Abstract

The cytokine of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a glycoprotein, which is synthesized in the female reproductive tract and has embryonic trophic effect in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the optimal dosage of GM-CSF to improve the mouse embryo development in vitro. To collect two and eight cells embryos, the pregnant NMRI mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 48 h and 72 h post hCG injections, respectively. The embryos were cultured randomlly in T6 medium supplemented with 5 mg /ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0, 2, and 10 ng / ml human rGM-CSF. The data of blastocyst formation and hatching in different groups of embryo culture were compared by chi-square analysis. The results showed that the developmental rates of 2 and 8 cells embryos to hatching blastocyst in the presence of 2 ng/ml of GM-CSF their control groups (51.5% and 49.7%, respectively) were more than those in the other groups, but insignificant. It seems more researches are necessary to confirm this suggestion that the GM-CSF with 2 ng/ml concentration may have a better potential, not only to enhance the developmental rates of 2 and 8 cells embryos but also for decreasing the degeneration of those embryos.
Mansour Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been described as an alternative to radioimmunoassay for the mammalian and nonmammalian steroids detection. In this study, a simple and rapid ELISA is described and validated for 4-pregnen-3,20, dione (progesterone). Materials and Methods: A general procedure for preparation of the acetylcholinesterase labelled steroid is described which is applicable to any steroid. Use of acetylcholinesterase tracer increased the sensitivity of assay so that reliable measurements of each steroid could be achieved with only 10 ?l of plasma. Results: Typical standard curves for progesterone steroids showed a workable range (detection limit) from 0.8 to 400 pg/well and the sensitivity of the assay taken as the concentration of steroid that induced 90% of B/B0, was 1.5 pg. Inter-assay variations that gave approximately 50% displacement was 9.2% for 10 replicates and intra-assay co-efficient of variation was less than 10% over the central part of the standard curve between 3 and 200 pg/well. There was a strong positive correlation (r>0.999) between the amount of steroid added to plasma and the amount measured. Conclusion: Method described here was applied to measure progesterone in plasma and this methodology could be of great interest to researchers measuring steroid hormones.
Mahmoud Hashemi-Tabar, Fatemeh Javadnia, Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Maryam Baazm,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: Recently, embryonic stem (ES) cells have become very important resources in basic medical researches. These cells can differetiate into derivatives of all primary germ layers. Objectives: In order to isolate embryonic stem cells in vitro, the blastocyst were cultured and the morphological aspects, population doubling time, alkalin phosphatse and differentiation properties of the cells were investigated. Materials and Methods: The balstocysts from NMRI mice were cultured for 3 days up to time that inner cell mass (ICM) reach to the outgrowth stage. The cells were disaggregated and trypsinized every 3 days until the appearance of the colonies of ES cells. The colony positive cells were fixed and stained for alkaline phosphatase. The ES cells were cultured in suspension state for 5 days, at the same time Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) was removed from media to form embryoid bodies(EBs). The EBs were cultured for 8 - 20 days on collagen coated dish to induce the spontaneouse differentiation. Results: During the 6-9 days after the disaggregation of ICM in the expansion stage, the colony of ES cells appeared as a flat monolayer mass with strike boundaries and nondistinguish cytoplasm including a few nuclei. In colony formation stage, the morphology changed from flat monolayer to round multilayer with strike define boundaries. Undifferentiated cells were seen as intensely small cells attached together compactly with high nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio. The cells of colonies tend to differetiate by separation from each other and became larger and diffused on substrate by attaching to dish. The positive alkaline phosphatase cells were seen in typical morphology of ES colonies. The EBs cells were seen in culture after 5 days in suspension and began to spontaneously differentiate into various types of cells such as nerve and hematopoitic lineages. Conclusion: Despite strike morphology of ES colonies, it is difficult to distinguish the differentiated from undifferentiated cell colonies in the colony formation stage. New ES cells are capable to give rise into EBs and are susceptible of spontaneously differentiation in various type of cells.
Ashok Agarwal, Sushil Anandh Prabakaran,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)
Abstract

Infertility is one of the most stressful conditions amongst married couples. Male factor infertility is implicated in almost half of these cases. Recent advances in the field of reproductive medicine have focused the attention of many researchers to consider reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction. Although, ROS is involved in many physiological functions of human spermatozoa, their excess production results in oxidative stress. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membranes are the two locations of ROS production that involves complex enzyme systems such as creatine kinase and diaphorase. ROS causes damage to the spermatozoa DNA, resulting in increased apoptosis of these cells. The production of ROS is greatly enhanced under the influence of various environmental and life style factors such as pollution and smoking. An effective scavenging system is essential to counteract the effects of ROS. Various endogenous antioxidants belonging to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic groups can remove the excess ROS and prevent oxidative stress. Since, ROS is essential for the normal sperm physiology, rationale use of antioxidants is advocated.
Mohammad Hossein Dehghan, Thomas Martin, Robabeh Dehghanan,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: About 90% of the world�s contraceptive users are women. This gender-based usage has occurred due to the emphasis of family planning programs and contraception research. Condom, vasectomy and withdrawal are the only male contraception devices available with less assurance for men. For new male contraceptive to have an impact, they must be acceptable to both men and women, as well as effective. A hormonal method will likely come to the market within the next few years. It is necessary to use biologically active botanical substances or fertility-regulating agents of plant origin which are ecofriendly. Objectives: The epididymis is a site which can be exploited for male contraception without undue side effects. It was therefore of interest to investigate the effect of biologically active botanical ecofriendly plants such as Azadirchta Indica (neem) seed alcoholic extract as an efficient and competent male contraceptive on male mouse epididymis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental case control study sixty adult healthy mice divided into two groups of 40 as the control and 20 as the treated group. The treated group was administered by Iranian Botanical Azadirachta Indica seed alcoholic extract, cultivated at Dashteh Moghan (Ardabil province). The seeds was extracted with ethanol then administered first 50 mg/kg body weight /day then 100 mg/kg body weight/day orally for 15 days, following WHO guide lines (MB-50). The target organ, epididymis parameters viz. sperm motility, sperm count fertility rate, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) morphology of spermatozoa and ATPase activity of epididymis of the two groups were compared. Results: The 50 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day showed no significant change in epididymal sperm motility, as compare to the control. Therefore the dose was changed to 100 mg/kg BW/day for 15 days. The body and organ weights (epididymis) of the treated animals were not significantly changed as compare to control group (p>0.05). The treatment brought about a significant reduction in fertility rate when normal cycling female mice were mated with treated males (p<0.001). Decline in ATPase activity in caput and cauda epididymis was observed (p<0.001). SEM photographs showed spermatozoa with abnormal head and bent mid-piece region. Conclusion: Decrease in ATPase activity could be attributed to androgen dependent parameters. However, the fertility rate was also significantly reduced which can be due to the decrease in cauda epididymal sperm motility and their morphological abnormalities. Since the effect on epididymal sperm motility and morphology was manifested in short period of 15 days, it is evident that the extract has potential as an antifertility agent. As this extract do not cause change in the body and organ weight, it is likely that no effect occurred on electrolyte balance
Abbas Aflatoonian, Tahereh K Bidgoli,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)
Abstract

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a unique iatrogenic complication of controlled ovarian stimulation (COH)/in vitro fertilization (IVF) in reproductive endocrinology occurring during the luteal phase or early pregnancy. It can have a serious impact on the patient�s health. With the expansion of the assisted reproductive techniques (ART) from 1978, the incidence of OHSS is increasing worldwide.OHSS is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, ovarian enlargement, fluid shift to the third space, and hemoconcentration. Severe cases are associated with thromboembolic phenomena, respiratory distress, liver dysfunction and renal failure. OHSS is more common among woman who are young, thin and have PCOS or multiple allergies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other cytokines are pivotal in the pathogenesis of OHSS. In the prevention of any disease, it should be emphasized that the possibility of primary prevention depends on two main requirements, first, the etiology of the disease and predisposing factors; and second, it must be feasible to avoid or manipulate such factors as paint of a prevention strategy. This strategy for preventing OHSS and its severity have included prediction of women at risk; the first step in prevention is identification of patients at risk by the recognition of risk factors. As this is not always possible, there are several ways of avoiding developing of the syndrome. The stimulation phase has to be carefully monitored (regular ultrasound and estradiol measurements), and further interventions need to be implemented if signs of hyper-response are present. The aim of this systemic review of the literature is to answer this question: �can we prevent severe OHSS�. Canceling the cycle, modification of method to trigger ovulation administration of macromolecules, coasting approach, timed unilateral or bilateral aspiration of one or two ovaries performed before or after hCG administration, In vitro maturation (IVM), elective cryopreservation of all embryos, and laser or electrocautery of one or both ovaries, have been showed to be associated with a reduced risk of OHSS by some research groups. The effect of combined method should be assessed. Finally, apart from canceling, none of these approaches was totally efficient, although most of the above-mentioned methods decrease the incidence in patients at high risk of OHSS, but overall �prevention is the ideal treatment of OHSS�.
Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance.
Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss.
Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraii, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Alireza Mossavie Jarahi, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial tissues in ectopic places outside the uterus. This disease has an important effect on the health and fertility of affected women. It’s etiology is not clearly known. For better understanding the pathophysiology of this disease, many researchers study on several aspects of the disease on animals. Objective: In this experimental study endometriosis was induced in female rats surgically and then its side effects were investigated with special focus on adhesion formation that is a major problem in women with this disease. Materials and methods: In Protestrous phase, female rats were randomly divided into two groups. In both groups, under intra peritoneal anesthesia, laparotomy was done and left horn and associated fat were removed. In experimented group (A), the removed endometrium was cut to six square pieces (2mm each) and they were sutured to the peritoneum, near ovaries and subcutaneous. In sham group (B), the same procedure was done for the fat tissues around the removed horn and the pieces were sutured to the same places. After 8 weeks, in Protestrous phase, clinical adhesion and size of implants were evaluated. Results: The total mean size of implants was calculated in each group, and this was significantly larger in experimented group (25.4 mm versus 2 mm p=0.000). The mean diameter of implants that calculated for each site of implantation in experimented group were significantly larger in left peritoneum (p=0.002), followed by right (p=0.000) and left (p=0.000) ovaries. The endometrial tissues grew in 100% of implants in subcutaneous area. Clinical adhesions (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 7 out of 10 in experimented group and in 2 out 10 in control group. The number of Esterous cycle were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that after inducing endometriosis by surgical approach, only endometrial implants grew as a cystic structures and this is a unique aspect of endometrial cells. Our results showed that endometriosis had a direct effect on adhesion formation, not surgery alone and induction of this disease didn&amp;#039;t have any adverse effect on ovarian function in female rats.
Hossein Hadinedoushan, Mohammad Ghafourzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

The presence of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in semen or serum may impair sperm function leading to immunological infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ASA on the surface of sperm and in circulating blood of infertile couples. In this cross sectional study, we studied 49 couples suffering from infertility for at least one year. Serum ASA (IgG and IgA classes) was examined by indirect SpermMAR test. Also, ASA (IgG and IgA classes) attached to the surface of spermatozoa were tested by direct SpermMAR method in ejaculates from infertile men. ASA were positive in 8% of semen samples (2% IgG, 4% IgA, 2% both IgG and IgA classes). Only in one woman, ASA of the IgG class was found in serum samples. The presence of ASA may impair fertilizing ability and is a serious factor which may prevent the success of various fertilization techniques. ASA assessment should be considered as an essential part of infertility management.
Azadeh Montaserti, Maryam Pourheydar, Mozafar Khazaei, Rostam Ghorbani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Physalis alkekengi (P. alkekengi)has been used as an abortive plant in Iranian traditional medicine for many years.
Objective: To investigate the effects of P.alkekengi on the fertility rate in female rats.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats were divided randomly into two groups; group 1/for investigating the implantation sites and group 2/ for investigating the number and weight of neonates. In both groups, treated animals received plant extract at dose of 150 mg/kg on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In group 1, treated animals were euthanized at 7th days of pregnancy and number of implantation sites were counted. In group 2, treated animals maintained till delivery time and after delivery, the number and weight of neonates were investigated.
Results: Data showed that administration of P. alkekengi extract on days 1-5 of pregnancy significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number and weight of neonates.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract produced anti- fertility effect probably by inhibiting implantation.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Research studies on reproductive mechanism of laboratory animals are essential for further advancement of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). One of these studies includes the assessment of in-vitro development of pre-implantation embryos. The objective was to compare the cleavage rates and morphology of in-vivo formed 2 to 8 cell embryos and blastocysts with in-vitro culture of the same embryos for 24 h.
Materials and Methods: 6-8 weeks old female NMRI mice were superovulated with 8IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG, ip). Two superovulated animals were caged with one male mouse for mating. Mated mice were killed by cervical dislocation at different time intervals to collect a total of 200 (50/ each) 2, 4, 8, and blastocyst embryos from uterine tubes and horns. Following morphological evaluation and cleavage rates, all embryos were incubated in Whittingham's T6 media+5% BSA for 24 h. Following incubation at 37ºC in 5% CO2, the cleavage rates as well as morphological feature of each embryo was re-evaluated and compared with the original embryos.
Results: The best quality embryos collected from uterine tubes were at 2-cells stage, which were reduced when compared with in-vivo developed 4-8 cells embryos. 88% and 52% of 2 and 8 cells embryos were respectively at grade A stage.  28 embryos out of 50 eight-cell embryos were at grades C and D after incubation. Following in vitro culture, the development of 16%, 24%, 24%, and 40% of the 2, 4, 8 cells, and blastocysts were arrested, respectively. Also, only 2 blastocysts (8%) reached the hatching stage which in comparison with in-vivo blstocysts were increased (P>0.05).
Conclusion: In-vitro culture of the in-vivo formed embryos reduced their cleavage rates and morphology, especially at more advanced stages. Therefore, it becomes necessary to improve the in-vitro culture condition and to transfer the embryos at early stage to consequently improve the implantation rates.
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

   Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a genetically based disorder which reflects multiple potential aetiologies and variable clinical presentations. It is clearly a heterogeneous syndrome, and current proposed diagnostic criteria include a number of disorders with similar phenotypes but radically different aetiologies. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of PCOS confusing to many clinicians and seriously delayed the clarification of its genetics, aetiology, clinical associations and assessment of treatment. There is no universally accepted clinical definition for PCOS. In this review the genetic causes and diagnosis criteria of PCOS will be discussed.
Zia Eslami, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyedhasani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Carriers of translocations may have an increased risk of an unbalanced progeny due to imbalances and delays in meiosis.
Case: A 24-year-old pregnant Iranian female was referred to the Genetic Department of Yazd Clinical and Research Centre for Infertility because of her pregnancy history. She had three previous pregnancies, two of which ended in abortion. The one live born infant was a girl who had multiple abnormalities and died when she was 11 days old. The cytogenetic analysis showed that the woman is a carrier of chromosomal translocation 46, XX, t (3; 22) (q21; q12), while her husband’s karyotype was found to be normal. The karyotype of her mother showed the same translocation. The risk of further miscarriages was high, and the proband was monitored closely during her pregnancy. After nine months of pregnancy, a normal baby girl weighted 3460 gr was delivered by Caesarean section. Three hours after birth, the baby suffered from jaundice and respiratory distress. The baby’s phenotype was normal. She received routine treatment successfully and after 15 days she was discharged from the hospital in a good condition. The baby’s karyotype showed the same translocation as her mother and grandmother.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, no translocation with such breakpoints t (3; 22) (q21; q12) has been described previously in the women with RPL.
Mitra Bakhtiari, Aligholi Sobhani, Mohammad Akbari, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Mehdi Abbasi, Azim Hedayatpoor, Fardin Amidi , Feridoon Sargolzaei,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Various approaches have been used in the attempts to improve the quality of frozen–thawed mouse sperms. According to literatures, it seems that hyaluronic acid (HA) has an important role on the permeability and motility of sperms and their interaction with gametes.
Objective: For evaluation of HA supplementation on sperm characteristics and fertilization capability, we investigated the effect of different doses of HA on mouse sperm morphology, motility, vitality and fertilization capability after freezing and thawing.
Materials and Methods: The cauda epididymes was removed from 6 male mice with aseptic method. The sperm samples were frozen in 1.8 ml cryotubes with 18% raffinose and 3% skimmed milk containing cryo-protectant solution. HA at the concentration of 750, 1000 or 1250 µg/ml was supplemented to frozen-thawed sperms. Sperm motility was measured with microscope, and fertilization rate was evaluated after routine IVF by counting the fertilized oocytes. For sperm morphology, papaniclau staining was used while; Eosin B was used for the assessment of sperm viability rate.
Results: HA supplementation (750 µg/ml) improved motility parameters (p < 0.05) and increased the fertility rate (p < 0.05). The effect of 1,000 µg/ml HA was also positive on the sperms. But 1,250 µg/ml HA had negative effect on above mentioned characteristic. On the other hand, none of these doses had any effect on sperm morphology.
Conclusion: The dose of 750 µg/ml of HA has the greatest effect on the motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms after cryopreservation.

 
Mohammad Reza Moein, Vali Ollah Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Serajadin Vahidi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: We compared ROS levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with this level in healthy donors. We also determined the ROS level in semen of infertile men according to the etiology of infertility, and also the effect of smoking on its level.
Materials and Methods: In total, 63 infertile patients and 63 healthy donors as control were selected. Complete physical examination, semen analysis, scrotal sonography and hormone assay were done for all patients. Azoospermic patients were excluded from the study. ROS level in semen was measured by chemiluminescence assay in both groups. Patients also were divided in two groups according to the etiology of infertility.
Results: The mean age of normal subjects and infertile men were 30.78±3.73 years and 31.43±6.60 years respectively. The mean ROS level in normal men was 180.05 RLU (Relative light unit), while this was 1852.04 RLU in infertile patients, which is significantly higher in case group (p=0.000). Fifty patients had varicocele and in 13 patients no specific etiology was found. The mean ROS level in varicocele patients was 2215.42 RLU and in unknown group was 454.44 RLU (p=0.048).
Conclusion: Our study showed that the level of ROS in seminal fluid of infertile men is significantly higher than fertile donors and also in infertile patients with varicocele it is higher than patients with unknown cause.
Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahnaz Heidari, Mahdi A Akhondi, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Matrigel (extracellular matrix) can improve the growth of many cell types in vitro.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Matrigel on the development of 2-4 cells human embryos in culture.
Material and Methods: Surplus 2-4 cells human embryos, resulting from ICSI, were divided into two groups (control and test). Quality of embryos in both groups was morphologically similar. The test group (n=140) was cultured in Hams’ F10 supplemented with 10% human serum albumin and 150 µl liquid Matrigel. The control group (n=140) was cultured in the same medium devoid of Matrigel. Embryos were cultured for an additional 4 days and their morphology was assessed every 24 hours. Both groups were then statistically compared.
Results: The percentage of the human embryos that reached the morula stage in the control and test groups were 79.2% and 80%, respectively (p>0.05).  However, 36.4% of embryos reached the blastocyst stage in the test group as compared to 5.7% in the control group after 144 hours in culture. This difference was statically significant (p <0.01). In addition, culture of embryos on Matrigel and medium versus medium alone significantly improved in vitro hatching (25.7% versus 3.5%; p <0.01).
Conclusion: Matrigel at low concentration enhances human blastocyst formation and hatching in vitro.


 


Tahmineh Peirouvi, Gholamhossein Farjah, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Phospholipids are distributed asymmetrically between inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane of live cells. Early during apoptosis, this asymmetry is disrupted and phosphatidylserine becomes exposed on the outside surface of the plasma membrane. There is little information about the effects of vitrification on apoptosis.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification on apoptosis of subfertile and fertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this study, semen samples were collected from subfertile (n=20) and fertile men (n=10) after 48h abstinence of intercourse. After semen analysis according to WHO criterias, each semen sample was divided into two portions. First portion was assessed by Annexin V-flous staining kit for showing apoptosis in subfertile and fertile men and second portion was assessed after vitrification-thawing. Results were analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test.
Results: After vitrification-thawing, mean percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa has increased 6 and 3 times in subfertile and fertile men respectively. This difference is significant.
Conclusion: Vitrification-thawing could disrupted membrane asymmetry and caused apoptosis. Therefore, it will cause reduction of functional spermatozoa in access of Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ART).
Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraiee, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Hojjat Zeraati, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Pegah Ebadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Immune system disturbances have an important role in endometriosis which may lead to infertility. It seems that inflammatory cytokines specially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) which were produced by activated macrophages have an important role in pathology of endometriosis.  Based on this theory, anti TNF-a  drugs like pentoxifylline (PX) are suggested as new drugs for Endometriosis.            
Objective: This experimental study has been done on female rats to determine the effect of PX on the endometrial implants and leukocytes in serum.
Material and Methods: In proestrous phase, one horn of rat’s bicorn uterus was removed surgically and the endometrium was implanted to different places as follows: subcutaneous, peritoneum and near ovaries. After two months observation, female rats divided into two groups randomly. In treated group (n=10) PX (5mg/kg twice a day) and in control group (n=10), normal saline (same dose) were injected subcutaneously. Then, via second laparotomy and in the same phase of the cycles, the size of implants and the amount of leukocytes in serum were measured.
Results: In treated group compared with control, the size of implants was decreased significantly in right subcutaneous  (8.05mm vs 13.50mm) p<0.01, left subcutaneous (7.64 mm vs 14mm) p<0.01, right ovary (6.64 mm vs 15.22mm) p<0.001 and left ovary (7.18 mm vs 14.56 mm) p<0.005. In treated group, the total leukocyte count (5259.54 ± 178.78 vs 15833.33 ±  259.27) p<0.02 was decreased. The number of esterous cycle was similar in both groups.
Conclusion: PX can reduce the size of endometrial implants as well as leukocyte count.
Robab Davar, Sedighe Ghandi, Naeimeh Tayebi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Recent reports have suggested that ultrasound-guided embryo transfer (UG-ET) might improve pregnancy rates.
Objective: To determine whether transabdominal UG-ET is a useful tool for increasing pregnancy and implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF or ICSI.
Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted in 180 patients in order to compare embryo transfer under abdominal ultrasound-guidance (n=90) with embryo transfer by clinical touch method (n=90).
Results: The Clinical pregnancy rate was 21.1 % in the ultrasound-guided group and 15.5 % in the clinical touch group (p =0.3). The implantation rate in the ultrasound guided group was 11.1% while this was 7.2% in the clinical touch group (p =0.12). The percentage of difficult transfer was not significantly different in both groups, this was 8.9% in the ultrasound-guided group and 13.3% in the clinical touch group (p =0.47).
Conclusions: Although the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate are higher in UG-ET group than the clinical touch group, but this difference was not statistically significant.
Natsuko Tokushige, Moamar Al-Jefout, Hilmy Salih, Ian S Fraser,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that can cause severe pelvic pain such as dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia, however the mechanisms by which pain is generated are not well understood. Nerve fibres in endometriotic plaques have been reported by several authors. We have recently demonstrated the presence of unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres (using the pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5) in the functional layer of endometrium in women with endometriosis and a significantly increased nerve fibre density in endometrium and myometrium in women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Sensory C nerve fibres were only detected in the functional layer of endometrium of women with endometriosis and never in women without endometriosis. This finding is so consistent that it may become an effective means of making the diagnosis of endometriosis. Nerve fibres expressing a range of neuronal markers and an over-expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFRp75) were also demonstrated in peritoneal endometrial plaques in women with endometriosis. Effects of currently available medications for endometriosis on nerve fibres in eutopic endometrium in hormonally treated women have been also studied. This review will describe nerve fibres in eutopic endometrium and ectopic endometriotic plaques in women with endometriosis.

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