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Showing 128 results for Reproductive Health

Mitra Bakhtiari, Aligholi Sobhani, Mohammad Akbari, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Mehdi Abbasi, Azim Hedayatpoor, Fardin Amidi , Feridoon Sargolzaei,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: Various approaches have been used in the attempts to improve the quality of frozen–thawed mouse sperms. According to literatures, it seems that hyaluronic acid (HA) has an important role on the permeability and motility of sperms and their interaction with gametes.
Objective: For evaluation of HA supplementation on sperm characteristics and fertilization capability, we investigated the effect of different doses of HA on mouse sperm morphology, motility, vitality and fertilization capability after freezing and thawing.
Materials and Methods: The cauda epididymes was removed from 6 male mice with aseptic method. The sperm samples were frozen in 1.8 ml cryotubes with 18% raffinose and 3% skimmed milk containing cryo-protectant solution. HA at the concentration of 750, 1000 or 1250 µg/ml was supplemented to frozen-thawed sperms. Sperm motility was measured with microscope, and fertilization rate was evaluated after routine IVF by counting the fertilized oocytes. For sperm morphology, papaniclau staining was used while; Eosin B was used for the assessment of sperm viability rate.
Results: HA supplementation (750 µg/ml) improved motility parameters (p < 0.05) and increased the fertility rate (p < 0.05). The effect of 1,000 µg/ml HA was also positive on the sperms. But 1,250 µg/ml HA had negative effect on above mentioned characteristic. On the other hand, none of these doses had any effect on sperm morphology.
Conclusion: The dose of 750 µg/ml of HA has the greatest effect on the motility, vitality and fertility rate of sperms after cryopreservation.

Ali Reza Talebi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Hossein Nahangi, Abulghasem Abbasi, Morteza Anvari,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often to young men at the peak of their reproductive health. Only 10% of SCI men can father children without medical assistance due to potential impairments in ejaculation and sperm quality.
Objective: The main objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the epididymal necrospermia- sperm death, after chronic SCI in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups of SCI, sham, and control. Following laminectomy, SCI was induced onto exposed dura matter (T10) of anesthetized rats. Sham group underwent laminectomy of T10 only; while, control rats were not exposed to any type of injury or medication. The spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were aspirated after 50 days for analysis of necrospermia with three assays of Eosin-Y staining, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS), and Hoechst 33258 fluorescent dye.
Results: The rate of necrospermia in SCI rats was significantly increased when compared with other groups (p<0.05). Also, the rates of necrspermia in SCI samples were similar with application of 3 assays (Eosin-Y: 46.11±9.41; HOS: 45.88±8.89; Hoechst: 46.76±9.31). Total necrospermia was not observed in any of the epididymal samples.
Conclusion: The results showed that chronic SCI is associated with high rate of epididymal necrospermia in mammals such as rats. It is, therefore, recommended that an effective laboratory technique, such as Hoechst 33258 should be used for separation of live and motile sperms from necrospermic ones for assisted reproduction program.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Behnaz Attar Shakeri, Batool Hoseini Rashidi, Fatemeh Ramezanzade, Mamak Shariat,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: Recently different studies suggested that discontinuation of gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) at beginning of ovarian stimulation (improvement of ovarian response to gonadotrophins) may have some benefit to poor responder patients in invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Objective:The efficacy of GnRHa stop protocol in poor responder patients in IVF cycles was assessed.
Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial that 40 poor responder patients (less than three mature follicles in a previous cycle) with normal basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were randomly allocated into two protocols: 1) Non-stop protocol: long GnRHa suppression, and start gonadotrophins from day 3 of mense. 2) Stop-protocol: GnRHa is stopped with the onset of menses, and gonadotrophin doses remained similar to group 1.
Results: A significantly higher number of follicles, oocytes, embryos and fertilization rate also shorter stimulation days and lower human menopausal gonadotropins (HMG) ampoules were recorded in the stop protocol compared to the control group. Both protocols resulted in a similar cancellation rate, pregnancy rate, estradiol level and LH level.
Conclusion: Early follicular cessation of GnRHa permitted the retrieval of a significantly higher number of follicles, oocytes and embryos, and can reduce the number of HMG and stimulation days.
Farnaz Sohrabvand, Nasrin Abedinia, Reyhaneh Pirjani, Mina Jafarabadi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: There is increasing evidence that psychological factors like anxiety and depression can affect IVF/ICSI treatment results.
Objective: This study aimed to clarify the role of women’s anxiety and depression on the outcome of ART cycles using Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective pilot study. One hundred six (106) consecutive women undergoing ICSI cycles were enrolled between January 2006 and 2007. Age, duration and cause of infertility, number and score of transferred embryos were recorded for each patient. Data regarding the state of anxiety and depression of each volunteer were collected using the translated and validated Iranian Cattle Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories.
Results: Among 106 women enrolled in the study, 25 cases (23.5%) of clinical pregnancies occurred. In univariate analysis, there was no significant difference regarding age and cause and duration of infertility between groups. Number of transferred embryos was significantly associated with higher pregnancy rates (3.4± 1.15 vs. 2.5±1.38 in pregnant and nonpregnant group respectively). Among the 106 participants, 73.58% had anxiety and 30.18% showed various degrees of depression. Out of 28 patients with no anxiety, 21(75%) and out of 74 patients with no depression, 24(32%) became pregnant. There was significant association between depression/anxiety and pregnancy rate (p=0.034 and p=0.00 respectively). Logistic regression model showed that anxiety/depression affect the outcome of ART significantly.
Conclusion: It is crucial to identify infertile patients at greater demand for psychological support before starting ART cycles.
Fatemeh Ghaemmaghami, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi, Azita Naseri, Azam Sadat Mousavi, Mitra Modarres Gilani, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Recent studies have showed conservative management in selective patients with borderline and malignant ovarian tumors is safe; therefore this management is considered in patients with ovarian tumor who desire to preserve fertility.
Objective: This study has been performed to evaluate the clinical outcome and fertility in patients with ovarian tumors who were treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: All patients who were treated conservatively (preservation of uterus and at least one ovary) or were on follow-up and had recurrence were evaluated in Vali-e-Asr Hospital during 2000-2004.
Results: Among 410 patients with ovarian tumors, 60 were treated conservatively. Age range was 13-34 years. Twenty-six of patients (43.3%) were desired pregnancy and 34 (56%) patients did not. Three (5%) patients had history of infertility. Histological types of tumors were as follows; 15(25%) borderline tumors, 10(16.7%) epithelial tumors, 26(43.3%) germ cell tumors, and 9(15%) sex cord tumors. Range of follow-up time was 12-48 months. Seven term pregnancies in 6 patients had been occurred, 1 in epithelial group, 2 in germ cell group, 1 in sex cord group and 3 in borderline group. Nine patients had recurrence and 2 patients expired, including one patient with serous cyst carcinoma (Stage IIIC).This patient had refused radical surgery and referred to our center with recurrence. Another patient had immature teratoma (Stage IIIC).
Conclusion: Conservative surgical management in young patients with stage I (grade 1, 2) of epithelial ovarian tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor and in patients with borderline and germ cell ovarian tumors could be performed in order to preserve fertility.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Atefeh Larti, Zahra Ezabadi, Nadia Jahangiri, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most challenging diseases that constitute 20% - 40% of women searching for their infertility diagnosis. Objective: This study was undertaken in order to compare the outcome of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in women with endometriosis, and tubal factor infertility as controls.
Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 a retrospective study was carried out in patients with endometriosis (n=80) and tubal infertility (n=57) after treatment with IVF/ICSI. The main outcome measures were ovarian responsiveness, quality of oocytes, implantation, pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and student t-tests.
Results: No differences were found in mean number of ampoules of hMG, duration of hMG injection, number of MΙΙ oocytes, number of embryo transferred, and rates of implantation, pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and twin birth between women with endometriosis and tubal infertility and also between women with stages I/II or those with stages III/IV disease with women with tubal factor infertility.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that endometriosis does not seem to have adverse effect on outcome of IVF/ ICSI as compared with tubal infertility.
Farnaz Sohrabvand, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Masoomeh Maasomi, Leila Asgarpoor, Mamak Shariat, Mahtab Hamedani,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (7-2009)

Background: In spite of the great progress in assisted reproductive techniques ( ART), and although good quality embryos are transferred,  pregnancy rates have remained around 30%-35% due to low implantation rates.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effects of administrating indomethacin or hyoscine suppositories prior to embryo transfer on the pregnancy rate in ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was performed in Vali-e-Asr Hospital as a pilot study from August 2005 through December 2006 on 66 infertile women in ART cycles. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation  was done using recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) with a long GnRH analogue protocol. After obtaining written consent, the subjects were randomly allocated into three  equal groups (n=22). Groups A and B received  indomethacin and hyoscine rectal suppositories, respectively 30 minutes  before embryo transfer and group C was the control group. Data were analyzed by χ2 , t-test, ANOVA, and Kruskall Wallis tests.
Results: Overall pregnancy rate was 31% (n=21) with 13.6% (n=3) in  group A,  45.5% (n=10), and 36% (n=8) in groups B and C respectively, which shows that pregnancy rate is significantly higher in the group using hyoscine compared to  the other two groups (p=0.04). Uterine muscle cramps were experienced by 3 women (13.6%) in group C while none were reported by women in groups A or B, which shows a significant difference (p<0.04).
Conclusion: It seems that  compared to indomethacin, hyoscine administration 30 minutes prior to embryo transfer can significantly increase pregnancy rates  by reducing uterine and cervical muscle spasm.
Mahnaz Ashrafi, Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani, Farideh Malekzadeh, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Fahimeh Kashfi, Babak Eshrati, Fatemeh Shabani,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Menopause is a step of a woman’s life when hormonal changes cause menstruation to stop permanently. Menopausal symptoms can affect women's health and differ between different races and societies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to survey the symptoms associated with menopause among Iranian women living in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study which has been done between 2004 and 2005, women aged equal or more than 35 years old living in districts of Tehran were selected by multistage randomized cluster sampling. For each woman a questionnaire was completed. The data gained from each questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS version 13.
Results: At time of study, 2462 women were naturally menopause. The mean age of natural menopause onset was 47.71 (SE=0.11) years. In 52.9% of cases, the onset of menopause was sudden. The symptoms associated with menopause were night sweats (61.2%), joint and muscle pain (59.9%), hot flashes (53.1%), fatigue (45.6%), decreased libido (33.9%), insomnia (33.7%), weight gain (30.1%), forgetfulness (24.9%) and urinary symptoms (17.4%). 
Conclusion: This study showed that night sweats, joint and muscle pain and hot flashes are the most common symptoms associated with menopause.
Elham Pourmatroud, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Maryam Rahmani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: There is a fundamental correlation between follicles and endometrium in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.
Objective: To assess the relation between perifollicular perfusion and sub endometrial parameters in Doppler ultrasonography and outcome of in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective deh1ive pilot study 10 patients were enrolled. Strict inclusion criteria were considered. Routine long protocol was used for ICSI. On the day of follicle retrieval colour Doppler indices were determined. Sub endometrial pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) and perifollicular perfusion were assessed. After oocyte retrieval the count of metaphase 2 (M2) oocytes emberyo with grade A quality and the result of cycle were evaluated also.
Results: RI and PI indices had a positive correlation. Follicles with ≥18 mm diameter and follicles with &gt;75% perfusion had a direct relation. Also subendometrial RI had a significant relation with follicular status (p-value= 0.04) But there was not a significant triple correlation (between endometrium follicles and outcome).
Conclusion: The mutual effects of vascularization status in two fundamental parts in ART is still unclear. The evaluation with Doppler ultrasonography should focus on two compartments together as one functional part at the same time. It means even in presence of good markers in each part the final decision must be taken by co-evaluation of follicles and endometrium.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Roya Nasiri, Mina Jafarabadi, Mohammad Sarafraz Yazdi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: Ovulation induction and ART may be a newly recognized cause of vascular thrombosis in unusual sites in otherwise healthy women. Objective: To report a case of thrombosis in right carotid artery 2.5 months after ovarian stimulation for IVF-ET.
Case report: A non pregnant 39-year-old woman without coagulation disorder and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The patient underwent two consecutive cycles of IVF-ET with administration of recombinant FSH and chorionic gonadotropin (10000 IU) in each cycle. The patient case had thrombosis of the carotid artery with clinical signs 2.5 months later while fasting in Ramadan. Thorough laboratory and imaging investigation revealed no causative factor.
Conclusion: Fasting may trigger thromboembolic complication weeks after ovarian stimulation.
Ensieh Tehraninejad, Akram Ghahghaei Nezamabadi, Batool Rashidi, Maryam Sohrabi, Maryam Bagheri, Fedyeh Haghollahi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: General concern is that the pregnancy rate is higher with GnRH-agonist as a protocol of pituitary suppression. GnRH-antagonist protocol provides a shorter period of administration and an easy flexible protocol.
Objective: In this study, the outcomes of GnRH agonist and antagonist in ICSI cycles are compared in normo responder patients.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 300 normoresponders undergoing ICSI were randomly divided to GnRh agonist (n=150) and GnRh antagonist (n=150) groups. The main outcome measurements were chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates (PR).
Results: The mean duration of stimulation were 9.6±1.6 and 8.2±1.6 days in agonist and antagonist groups respectively (p=0.001). The mean number of MII oocyte retrieved in agonist and antagonist groups were 7.7±4.0 and 6.9±4.3 respectively (p=0.03). There was no significant difference between two groups regarding mean number of gonadotrophin ampoules, follicles, occytes, total embryos and good quality embryos, OHSS incidence, and abortion rate. Chemical pregnancy rate was 35.3% in agonist and 39.3% in antagonist group. Clinical pregnancy rate was 35.3% in agonist and 34% in antagonist group. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 45 (31.3%) in agonist and 44 (29.3%) in antagonist group. There was no significant difference between two groups in pregnancy rates.
Conclusion: In this study antagonist protocol was shown to be an easy, safe and friendly protocol in Iranian normoresponder patients, having similar outcomes with standard agonist protocol but shorter period of stimulation.
Amir Mehdizadeh, Ali Rahimipour, Laya Farzadi, Masoud Darabi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Maghsod Shaaker, Amir-Mansour Vatankhah, Zahra Golmohamadi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Follicular fluid (FF) plays an important role in oocytes and embryo development, which may contribute to IVF/ICSI success rate.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) level in FF and the success rate of IVF/ICSI.
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, FF samples, FF samples were obtained from 100 patients referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent IVF and the remaining 21 underwent ICSI. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I and CETP were measured using enzymatic, turbidometric and ELISA methods respectively.
Results: Analysis of the subgroups with different levels of CETP showed a significant lower level of CETP in the subgroup with the lowest number of mature oocytes (p<0.05). The level of CETP was also considerably lower (18%, p=0.05) in subjects with<50% oocytes fertilization ratio than subjects with >70% of this ratio.
Conclusion: While no association was found for pregnancy, the amount of CETP in FF was associated positively to the maturity and the percentage of oocyte fertilization.
Batool Rashidi, Roya Nasiri, Haleh Rahmanpour, Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad , Maryam Deldar,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: The differential efficacy between long GnRH agonist with antagonist can partly be due to the preexisting differences in the early antral follicles before ovarian stimulation.
Objective: To compare the effect of pretreatment by estradiol with GnRH antagonist on antral follicular size coordination and basal hormone levels in GNRH antagonist protocol.
Materials and Methods: On cycle day 3 (control/day 3), women underwent measurements of early antral follicles by ultrasound and serum FSH and ovarian hormones then were randomized to receive oral estradiol 4mg/day (n=15) or 3mg cetrorelix acetate (n=15) in luteal phase before subsequent antagonist protocol. Participants were re-evaluated as on control/day 3.
Results: There was a significant reduction of mean follicular sizes in each group after medical intervention (7.63±2.11 Vs. 4.30±0.92 in group A and 8.73±1.96 Vs. 4.13±1.11 in group B) (p=0.0001). The magnitude of follicular size reduction was significantly higher in group B (-4.60±2.04 Vs. -3.33±2.28) (0.027). There was a non significant attenuation of follicular size discrepancies in two groups. FSH and inhibin B levels in the day 3 of the next cycle in both groups were significantly decreased but did not have significant difference between two groups.
Conclusion: Both luteal E2 and premenstrual GnRH antagonist administration reduces the follicular sizes significantly and GnRH antagonist acts more potently than E2 in this way but attenuation of follicular size discrepancies in both treatment is not significant
Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh, Toktam Tavakolianfar, Mamak Shariat, Seyed Javad Purafzali Firuzabadi, Fedieh Hagholahi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: The levonorgestrel-releasing IUD can help the treatment of dysmenorrhea by reducing the synthesis of endometrial prostaglandins as a conventional treatment.
Objective: This study was performed to assess the frequency of dysmenorrhea, satisfaction and quality of life in women using Mirena IUDs as compared to those using copper IUDs.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed between 2006 and 2007 on 160 women aged between 20 to 35 years who attended Shahid Ayat Health Center of Tehran, and they were clients using IUDs for contraception. 80 individuals in group A received Mirena IUD and 80 individuals in group B received copper (380-A) IUD. Demographic data, assessment of dysmenorrhea, and follow-up 1, 3 and 6 months after IUD replacement were recorded in questionnaires designed for this purpose. To assess the quality of life, SF36 questionnaire was answered by the attending groups, and to assess satisfaction, a test with 3 questions was answered by clients.
Results: Dysmenorrhea significantly was decreased in both groups six months after IUD insertion as compared to the first month (p<0.001). However, statistically, Mirena reduced dysmenorrhea faster and earlier compared to cupper IUD (p<0.003). There isn’t any significant difference between these two groups in satisfaction and quality of life outcomes.
Conclusion: There is no difference between these two groups in terms of the satisfaction and quality of life, therefor the usage of Mirena IUD is not a preferred contraception method.
Mehdi Sahmani, Reza Najafipour, Laya Farzadi, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Masoud Darabi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Maghsod Shaaker, Mohammad Noori,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Peroxisome proliferative-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that involved in cellular lipid metabolism and differentiation. The subtype γ of the PPAR family (PPAR?) plays important roles in physiologic functions of ovaries.
Objective: To determine correlation between PPARγ protein level in granulosa cells and pregnancy rate in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-five samples of granulosa cells were collected from women referred to an IVF treatment center. PPARγ protein expression level in granulosa cells was determined in comparison with β-actin level as control gene with Western blot test. Laboratory pregnancy was determined by a rise in blood ?-hCG level fourteen days after embryo transfer. Correlation analyses were used to test for associations between the oocytes and pregnancy occurrence as outcome variables and PPARγ protein expression level.
Results: Correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between granulosa cells PPARγ protein level with IVF parameters including number of matured oocytes and the ratio of fertilized to matured oocytes. Comparison of granulosa cells PPARγprotein level with positive and negative laboratory pregnancy revealed also no significant relationship.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, PPARγ protein level in granulosa cells could not be directly correlated to the success rate of IVF.
Tohid Najafi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Jalil Pakravesh, Khadijeh Foghi, Fatemeh Fadayi, Gelareh Rahimi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in female infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endometrial tissue of women with unexplained infertility.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study a total of 18 endometrial tissues obtained from 10 women with unexplained infertility and 8 normal and fertile women by endometrial biopsy, 6 to 10 days after LH surge. Specimens were fixed in 4% paraformaldhyde fixative and frozen sectioned for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation using monoclonal anti-human eNOS antibody. Hematoxilin and Eosin was used for Histological dating. Results: Localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was seen in glandular and luminal epithelium, vascular endothelium and stroma in both fertile women and women with unexplained infertility. Although there were differences in immunoreactivity of glandular epithelium (p=0.44), vascular endothelium (p=0.60) and stroma (p=0.63) but only over-expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium (p=0.045) of women with unexplained infertility compared to fertile women was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that changes in luminal expression of eNOS may influence receptivity of endometrium.
Seyede Hajar Sharami, Azita Tangestani, Roya Faraji, Ziba Zahiri, Amiri Azam,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor of preeclampsia with unknown mechanism and hyperlipidemia might be a probable case of it. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hyper-triglyceridemi in association with high prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: The authors conducted this case-control study of 42 preeclamptic and 41 normotensive overweight pregnant women. The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gestational age, and body mass index. Blood samples were collected at the time of diagnosis of preeclampsia, after 14 hour fasting to determine plasma lipid concentrations. Enzymatic photometric tests were used to determine lipid profile. Data was analyzed with independent “t-test”, Chi-square and one-way ANOVA and post HOC Tukey HSD test. The statistical significance was set at 0.05 levels. Results: In the subjects with preeclampsia, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased and plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased compared with the controls, (p<0.05), but plasma LDL cholesterol levels didn’t differ between the two groups. Women who developed severe preeclampsia had higher concentrations of TG and cholesterol and lower levels of HDL compared to noromotensive group. Mean TG: 375.16 vs. 202.85, p<0.001, Mean cholesterol: 245.64 vs. 214.32, p=0.04, Mean HDL: 40.80 vs. 48.95, p=0.03).
Conclusion: We noted that dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia was highly correlated with prepregnancy high BMI in preeclamptic women. These findings continue to support a role for dyslipidemia in BMI related preeclampsia.
Farideh Zafari Zangeneh, Alireza Abdollahi, Fatemeh Aminee, Mohammad Mahdi Naghizadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: “Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats.
Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1) to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCO; (2) to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine.
Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1) LC and yohimbine and 2) control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups.
Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001), while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles.
Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.
Viroj Wiwanitkit,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

The big public health concern in this year is the nuclear crisis in Japan that causes contamination of nuclides around the world. The effect of the exposure to leaked nuclides from the present nuclear crisis on reproductive health is a topic to be concerned. In my previous publication (1), the evidence on the relationship between nuclear exposure and infertility can be confirmed. However, there are also other adverse effects on the reproductive system of the exposed subjects. An interesting topic is the disturbance of the normal sex hormone system. There are some reports on the effect of exposure on sex hormone profile in exposed subjects. Based on the data from the referencing nuclear crisis, the Chernobly crisis, the change in the level of testosterone in exposed subjects were controversial. Some reports mentioned for low testosterone level (2) while the others noted for rising level (3-5) among exposed subjects. However, more reports points to the increasing level of testosterone. Nevertheless, the observation on the increased testosterone level in adolescent offspring of exposed subjects was also reported (5). Therefore, the problem of testosterone hormone alteration is a problem in reproductive health of the exposed subjects and this might lead to infertility (1). Hence, this is an interesting topic to be studied in the present Fukushima crisis. Unlike the report on testosterone, there are few reports on estrogen. The interesting report is on the estrogen related cancers in females exposed to the nuclides in the Chernobyl crisis. The study on breast cancers revealed that “BRCA1 mutations were strongly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, with estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors (6).” However, there is a report on the change of estrogen and progesterone in animals in the contaminated areas (7). For FSH and LH, although FSH and LH are not the actual sex hormones from gonad, the change of FSH and LH is another interesting issue. According to the study of Goncharov et al (4), there was a significant lowering of LH level but there was no significant change in FSH. However, in other studies, the increased FSH indicating the infertility was observed (2, 8). In conclusion, there are evidences on sex hormone change in the subjects exposed to nuclides from nuclear accident crisis. This is an important issue in reproductive medicine that should be the focus in following up of the exposed subjects in the present nuclear crisis.

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