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Showing 32 results for Reproductive Age

Abass Aflatoonian, Reza Aflatoonian, Zahra Khashavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Background: Ovarian functional cyst is one of the most common pelvic mass in reproductive age which mostly resolves spontaneously. Sonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis of benign cyst with high accuracy. The objective of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal sonography in detecting type of ovarian cyst and compare the results wieh cytological results. Materials and Methods: 82 women in reproductive age who have had simple ovarian cysts with benign criteria which unresolved after taking contraceptive pills for 3 months were considered for this clinical study. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of cysts were done and were then sent to the pathological evaluation. Also, all data regarding the size of the cysts and aspirated fliud were recorded in charts for further statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound comparing with cytology on diagnosis for functional cysts was 94.9%, for epithelial ovarian cyst was 97.5% and for endometrioma was 97.5% (P= 0.0001).The size of cysts with diameter of <10cm was not related to the quality of cysts. Conclusion: The results showed that sonography is a valuable and reliable tool for diagnosis of benign ovarian cyst. It seems that if a mass appears benign by ultrasound morphologic criteria, probability of it being malignant is near to zero, which can be aspirated by transvaginal route without any fear from missing of malignancy or complication
Seyed Saeid Mazloomy, Mahdieh Shirvani-Anarak, Abbas-Ali Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background:   Objective:   Materials and Methods:   Results:   Conclusion:   Key Words:   AIDS, Pregnant women, Knowledge, Attitude There is an urgent need for HIV prevention efforts, such as health education and focusing on   the pregnant women in developing world. Health educators should tailor education programs for women at risk, particularly those with lower education, to enhance their knowledge about HIV and to improve their attitude about AIDS. The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was not significantly different in different age   groups (p=0.151), while it had a significant relationship with their education (p=0.000). There was a correlation between general knowledge and attitude in pregnant women (p=0.033) (r=0.126). The attitude about AIDS in pregnant women was fairly good and there was a significant difference in this regard related to their education (p=0.000), while there was not significant difference regarding their age (p=0.410) (Mean =19.8). In a cross sectional study, a total of 120 pregnant women, who referred to   family health clinics in Yazd, were selected by simple random sampling. Information was collected via a special designed questionnaire containing 22 questions for evaluating knowledge and 6 questions for evaluating attitude. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test with SPSS software. The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS, their   perception of risk, risk behavior and management, and their attitudes towards AIDS. Since AIDS is not only a vital medical problem, but also a socioeconomic complication,   therefore increasing people's knowledge and replacing their unhealthy behavior by a healthy one is of important consideration. Women, specially in reproductive ages of their life, have a special situation regarding the probability of pregnancy and infection of their fetus.
Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Mortazavizadeh, Aboolfazl Khorasani Gerdekoohi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenemia hyperinsulinemia insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with an enigmatic pathophysiologic and molecular basis. Obesity hyperandrogenism and infertility occur frequently in PCOS which mostly have a genetic predisposition and are features known to be associated with the development of breast cancer risk.
Objective: In present study frequency of PCOS in patients with premenopausal breast cancer was compared with the frequency in women without breast cancer.
Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study which compared PCOS frequency in 166 patients with premenopausal breast cancer and 166 healthy controls with normal mammography in last 6 months.
Results: Eleven patients (6.62%) in case group and 16 patients (9.63%) in control group had polycystic ovary syndrome according to their questionnaire. The difference was not significant (p=0.645).
Conclusion: There was no relationship between frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome and breast cancer in this study. This might be due to the age of patients with breast cancer in this study which was mostly over 40. It could be significant if the patients were chosen in lower age for showing more effect of genetic than environment. The adjustment or matching of other risk factors could help to find the better results.
Sedigheh Ghandi, Raheleh Ahmadi, Mahmoud Fazel,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Although heterotopic gestation is common in assisted reproductive techniques, it is very rare in natural conception and clomiphene induced pregnancy. Diagnosis and appropriate intervention of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicious.
Case: In this paper a case of heterotopic pregnancy in a 30-year old woman with hemoperitoneum from ruptured tubal pregnancy with live intrauterine gestation at 9 weeks of gestation is reported.
Conclusion: This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered particularly after the induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality.
Fakhrolmolouk Yassaee, Roghieh Eskandari, Zohreh Amiri,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a disease that commonly affects women of reproductive age and is associated with maternal and fetal complications.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to report the perinatal outcome in pregnant women with ITP. Materials and Methods: Twenty one pregnant women with ITP admitted in a teaching hospital in Tehran, from October 2008 to February 2010, were enrolled in this prospective historical cohort study; course and perinatal outcome of pregnancies were studied.
Results: Seven (33.3%) cases had been diagnosed before pregnancy, while the other fourteen (66.7%) were diagnosed during pregnancy. During hospitalization, thirteen (62%) patients required treatment, eight (61.5%) of them with steroids, two (15.3%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and three (23%) were treated with steroids and IVIG. Three babies were delivered vaginally (14.3%), seventeen (81%) through cesarean section and one patient aborted her fetus. Nine mothers (42.9%) had platelet counts <50000/ml at the time of delivery; but postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 4 (19%) women and one women received platelet transfusion during cesarean section. Six (28.6%) women developed gestational diabetes. Pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia in one woman and by abruptio placenta in another. One pregnancy terminated in intrauterine fetal death. Seventeen infants (89.5%) had normal platelet counts, and two (10.5%) had moderate thrombocytopenia. No infant showed signs of hemorrhage, but 2 neonates (10.5%) were diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusion: Rate of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with ITP is higher than the general population. Rate of gestinational diabetes is 3-5% and postpartum hemorrhage is 5-7% in general. Postpartum hemorrhage is common in these women. Severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding in the newborns are uncommon.
Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Zahra Mazloom Khorasani, Behrooz Davachi, Javad Mazloom Khorasani,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is a frequent metabolic disturbance in PCOS. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem. Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D has a role on insulin sensitivity so may contribute to reduction of hyperandrogenemia.
Objective: The aim was to determine the effects of vitamin D treatment in metabolic components and ovulation evidence in PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Fifty one untreated PCOS patients were randomly divided into three groups and treated with calcitriol, metformin, or placebo. Before and 3 months after treatment, ovulation evidence was assessed by ovarian trans abdominal sonography. Plasma fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and androgen levels were measured before and after treatment. A 75gr glucose test was performed before and after treatment and two set of results was compared.
Results: Three patients did not continue this study. Only 11 patient (22.9%) had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). Metformin caused a significant decrease in weight (p=0.027), insulin level (p=0.043), and insulin resistance (p=0.048). Systolic blood pressure and PTH significantly improved after calcitriol (p=0.029, p=0.009 respectively). An improvement in ovulation was detected after calcitriol and seven patients, without evidence of ovulation before treatment, illustrated ovulation after 3 months. Difference with calcitriol in ovulation was significant versus other two methods (p=0.02). Conclusion: Calcitriol treatment in PCOS may be prior to metformin in ovulation induction.
Hossein Fallahzadeh, Zohreh Farajpour, Zahra Emam,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Short birth intervals have been associated with adverse health outcomes, including infant, child and maternal mortality.
Objective:  We aimed to investigate the duration and determinants of inter birth intervals among women of reproductive age in Yazd, Iran.
Materials and Methods:  A cluster sampling technique was used to select 400 ever-married women aged 15-49 years in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran. Data were obtained by interview questionnaire and analyzed with life table, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses.
Results:  The mean duration of inter birth interval was 49.76 (standard error 1.82) months (95% CI: 46.19-53.34 months) with a median of 39. In 28.5% of women the birth interval was <2 years, in 28% it was 3-5 years and in 25.5% it was ≥6 years. Among explanatory variables of interest, age of marriage, and woman's education were significant predicators of the birth interval. Women who stated an ideal preference of two children constituted 59.9% of the sample and 16% had 3 children as well as 10.7% had an ideal preference for 4 or 5.
Conclusion:  The study recommended an educational program to have optimal birth intervals and ideal number of children per family for the prevention of adverse prenatal outcomes.
Nargess Afzali, Firoozeh Ahmadi, Farnaz Akhbari,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients.
Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG).
Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis.
Sedigheh Borna, Mamak Shariat, Mohaddese Fallahi, Leila Janani,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly.
Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages.
Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. we selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti Toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women and the full text of papers were found too.
Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7).
Conclusion: In Iran, screening is not routinely performed yet. The incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors.
Reihaneh Hosseini, Zahra Asgari, Ashraf Moini,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Ectopic pregnancy is one of the main problems in women in reproductive age that needs special attention and appropriate strategy should be managed. In some cases expectant management seems good strategy without any medicine or surgery and their possible side effects. But are the outcomes always the same? Which outcomes should we expect?
Case: We have reported 2 patients whose ectopic pregnancy had been managed conservatively and they had sustained pain for several months which needed surgery to resolve.
Conclusion: In the case of ectopic pregnancy, it is important for the clinician to select the patient meticulously and be aware of common and rare consequences of her treatment.
Saghar Salehpour, Nasrin Saharkhiz, Aida Moeini, Anahita Enzevaei,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

One of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which its prevalence is reported around 6.5-8% (1). Some clinical trials assessed association between PCOS and other autoimmune related endocrinopathies such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction with controversial results (2). Some investigators showed increase level of serum antiovarian antibodies in the half of affected women (3, 4). However, the exact mechanism of autoimmune processes in PCOS pathogenesis is remained to be fully elucidated. Autoimmune thyroid disorder including hashimoto’s thyroiditis also has been shown to have correlation with PCOS (5). According to Janssen’s et al study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) was three times higher in patients with PCOS compared with control group (6). The cause of this high incidence is open to speculation. Genetic defect was assumed to predispose persons to AIT as well as PCOS. Both disorders seem to have an oligo-genetic background (5, 7). To date, a common genetic background has not been found. Gleicher et al hypothesized that development of PCOS could be attributed to functional autoantibodies including thyroid autoantibodies [anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab)] (8). Ott et al reported a poor treatment response in infertile PCOS women with elevated anti-TPO levels (9). In a cross-sectional study at Infertility and Reproductive Health Center (IRHRC), we evaluated serum level of thyroid function tests (TFT) including autoantibodies and to assess their relation with other characteristic and hormonal parameters of PCOS. A total of seventy five women with average age of 26 years who fulfilled the 2003 Rotterdam Criteria underwent gynecologic evaluation and blood sampling between January 2009 and December 2011. The mean±SD of serum anti-TPO in Ott et al, Ganie et al, Kachuei et al, Janssen et al and our study were 52.2±98.5, 321.4±189.6, 216±428, 123±328, and 41.06±91.18 IU/ml respectively (5, 6, 9, 10). The wide range of reported values could be attributed to different type of laboratory assessment, value of cut point and heterogeneity of selected patients. About fifteen percent of our patients were anti-TPO positive; the reported range of positive anti-TPO percentage was 15 to 30 in different studies (5, 6, 9, 10 and present study). In fact, the observed ratio in our research is lower than Kachuei’s study which held in a same country (5). In that research, authors did not find difference in rate of positivity between PCOS and control group. Percentage of anti-TPO positivity in Ganie et al and Janssen et al in normal women were zero and eight percent respectively (6, 10). In our study, presence or absence of anti-TPO did not have a major influence on the characteristics and hormonal values of the PCOS patients; only hip circumference and estradiol level were significantly higher in anti-TPO positive cases. In another study this difference was observed for hypoechoic ultrasound pattern, patient’s age and LH to-FSH-ratio. Ott et al suggested that anti-TPO could be a good predictive marker for treatment response in infertile women with PCOS (9). They reported a higher anti-TPO level in patients who were resistant to clomiphene citrate treatment. TSH level in our PCOS patients was 3.16±3.55 mU/l; other investigators report its value between 2 and 3 mU/l. We did not find any difference in biochemical and hormonal serum values of patients between euthyroid and hypothyroid ones. TSH level in PCOS patients and control subjects did not differ significantly in Ganie et al, Kachuei et al researches which is in contrast to the results of Janssen and colleagues (5, 10). High prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in PCOS women of reproductive age brings this question in our mind that is it necessary to screen these patients for hypothyroidism? Due to increased risk of morbidity in hypothyroid mother and her newborn, it seems logical to assess thyroid function test in suspicious patients. To have a proper answer for this question, however, several prospective researches should be conducted with more number of participants in a longer follow up period. Based on our data, it is more likely to see a disturbance in serum values of thyroid function test and autoantibodies in women with PCOS. We recommend evaluation of these parameters by longitudinal cohort studies with more number of cases and a longer follow up period.
Tahereh Eftekhar, Farnaz Sohrabvand, Neda Zabandan, Mamak Shariat, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Akram Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age.
Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.
Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia.
Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. 
Leila Amini, Najmeh Tehranian, Mansoureh Movahedin, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Saeideh Ziaei,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)

Background: Recently there is a focus on the antioxidants as adjuvant treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most endocrinopathy in reproductive age women.
Objective: The aim of this review is answer to the question whether antioxidants are effective for managing of hormonal and metabolic problems in women with PCOS based on first degree evidences from Iran.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review of clinical trials was done in Persian and international databases including PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, and Magiran up to 2013. Keywords were including polycystic ovary syndrome, Iran, vitamin, antioxidant. From 440 potential studies found electronically, 11 studies; including 444 women in intervention and 390 women in control groups. Intervention in three studies was Calcium-vitamin D or calcitriol; in three studies was ω-3 fatty acids; in two studies was N-acetyl cysteine; in one study was folic acid; in one study was Zinc; and in one study was Soy.
Results: Finally, 11 studies that were relevant and met the inclusion criteria reviewed. There were 7 studies in English and 4 studies in Persian. We couldn’t include all studies because all full texts were not accessible.
Conclusion: The results showed that antioxidants and vitamins have positive effects on management of PCOS women. Although it seems more studies is necessary in this field.
Ketevan Beltadze, Ludmila Barbakadze,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups.
Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively).
Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.
Anahita Jalilian, Faezeh Kiani, Fatemeh Sayehmiri, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Zahra Khodaee, Malihe Akbari,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of infertility due to anovulation. There is no single criterion for the diagnosis of this syndrome.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PCOS and its associated complications in Iranian women using meta-analysis method.
Materials and Methods: Prevalence of PCOS was investigated from the SID, Goggle scholar, PubMed, Magiran, Irandoc, and Iranmedex, and weighting of each study was calculated according to sample size and prevalence of the binomial distribution. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model meta-analysis (Random effects model) and the software R and Stata Version 11.2.
Results: 30 studies conducted between the years 2006 to 2011 were entered into meta-analysis. The total sample size was 19, 226 women aged between 10-45 years. The prevalence of PCOS based on National institute of child health and human disease of the U.S was, 6.8% (95 % CI: 4.11–8.5), based on Rotterdam was 19.5% (95 % CI: 2.24-8.14), and based on ultrasound was 4.41% (95% CI: 5.68-4.14). Also, the prevalence of hirsutism was estimated to be 13%, acne 26%, androgenic alopecia 9%, menstrual disorders 28%, overweight 21%, obesity 19%, and infertility 8%.
Conclusion: The prevalence of PCOS in Iran is not high. However, given the risk of complications such as heart disease - cardiovascular and infertility, prevention of PCOS is important; we suggest that health officials must submit plans for the community in this respect.
Azadeh-Sadat Nazouri, Mona Khosravifar, Ali-Asghar Akhlaghi, Marzieh Shiva, Parvaneh Afsharian,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine women’s disorders in reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism has a critical role in the etiology of PCOS and it can cause fault in Steroidogenesis process. During steroidogenesis, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) seems to increase the delivery of cholesterol through mitochondrial membrane. Therefore, polymorphisms of StAR might effect on this protein and play a role in the etiology of PCOS. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between StAR SNPs with PCOS. Thus, seven polymorphisms in this gene: rs104894086, rs104894089, rs104894090, rs137852689, rs10489487, rs104894085 were detected. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 45 PCOS women, 40 male factor/unexplained infertile women, and 40 fertile women as two control groups were participated from 2008-2012. Polymorphisms were detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: Heterozygote genotyping for rs137852689 SNP (amino acid 218 C > T) was only seen in seven PCOS patients, one in normal ovulatory women, and five in male factor/unexplained infertile women (15.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%, respectively) (p= 0.12). While, it has shown no association between other SNPS with PCOs. Conclusion: The RFLP results for seven chosen SNPs, which located in exon 5 and 7 showed normal status in three groups, it means no heterozygous or homozygous forms of selected SNPs were observed. So, it seems evaluation of the active amino acid sites should be investigated and also the study population should be increased.
Sonia Minooee, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity.
Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW).
Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively).
Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS.
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami, Batool Hossein Rashidi,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications.
Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48).
Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.
Anahita Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Azam Ghanei,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (8-2016)

Background: With the prevalence of 6-10%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered the most common endocrinological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. It has been suggested that genetic factors participate in the development of PCOS. Follicular development has been considered as one of the impaired processes in PCOS. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) gene is a candidate gene in follicular development and its variants may play role in pathogenesis of PCOS.
Objective: To investigate whether BMP-15 gene mutations are present in Iranian women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 5 ml venous blood samples was taken from 70 PCOS women referring to Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between January to December 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample by salting out method. Then a set of PCR reactions for exon1 of BMP-15 gene was performed using specific primers followed by genotyping with direct sequencing.
Results: Two different polymorphisms were found in the gene under study. In total 20 patients (28.6%) were heterozygote (C/G), and 2 patients (2.86%) were homozygous (G/G) for c.-9C>G in 5´UTR promoter region of BMP-15 gene (rs3810682). In addition, in the coding region of exon1, three patients (4.3%) were heterozygote (G/A) for c.A308G (rs41308602). Two PCOS patients (2.86%) appeared to have both c.-9C>G (C/G) and c.A308G (G/A) variants simultaneously.
Conclusion: Our research detected two polymorphisms of BMP-15 gene among PCOS patients, indicating that even though it cannot be concluded that variants of BMP-15 gene are the principal cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome; they could be involved in pathogenic process in development of PCOS.
Samira Rajaei, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Sara Norouzi, Yasrin Berangi, Sahereh Arabian, Parvaneh Lak, Ali Dabbagh,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is among the most unfavorable problems in women in reproductive age; however its pathophysiology is still not fully confirmed. Vitamin D as an immunomodulator could prevent inflammatory state before and during menstruation.
Objective: The aim was to investigate whether there is any relationship between serum vitamin D levels and PMS.
Materials and Methods: In total, 82 women participate in this case-control study which was conducted in Shahid Akbar-abadi hospital from November 2013 to March 2015. Categorization was based on an Iranian version of the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST). Levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25OHD) were determined by using 25-OH Vitamin D ELISA kit in luteal phase. Characteristics of participants and vitamin D levels were compared between two groups by using independent sample t-test.
Results: Menarche age of women with PMS was significantly lower than normal women (p=0.04). Body mass index was not statistically different between groups. We observed a high rate of vitamin D deficiency and also its severe deficiency in both PMS and non-PMS groups. However, our study demonstrated no significant difference in the levels of serum 25OHD between the two groups.
Conclusion: It seems there is no association between PMS and serum levels of vitamin D3; however, the high rate of vitamin D deficiency amon

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