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Farnaz Sohrabvand, Mina Jafarabadi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (7-2005)

Background: Knowledge of infertile couples about assisted reproductive technology is a fundamental parameter to optimize the infertility treatment and conduct it cooperatively. Objective: To evaluate knowledge and attitude of infertile couples about assisted reproductive technology we designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: 400 infertile patients were investigated by a self- administered structured questionnaire about demographic data, infertility history, and several relevant variables in an out patient infertility clinic of a university hospital. The main outcome measurements included scoring the answers in the questionnaire regarding knowledge, and grouping the answers regarding attitude. Resulted data were analyzed in relation to patient�s gender and treatment history, and educational, ethnic and religious groups. Results: Of 400 cases (251 women and 149 men) 167 patients (41.7%) were scaled to have good knowledge and 223 patients (55.7%) had a poor knowledge about ART. 74.6% of patients with advanced education and 30.3% of patients without advanced education were scaled to be good in knowledge. 45.6% of men, 43.4% of women and 64.8% of patients with a history of passing previous ART cycles had a good knowledge. The source of information was mentioned to be the ART centers in 73% of cases. 95% of patients disagreed to have sperm or ovum donation or to undergo surrogacy. 22% of all patients (27.5% of women versus 12.1% of men) agreed with embryo reduction. 94.5% of patients mentioned the ART expenses not to be affordable readily. Conclusions: Less than half of patients presented to be knowledgeable about ART. Not a great portion of the patients agreed with sperm donation. ART expense is mentioned to be burdensome by nearly all of the patients.
Seyed Saeid Mazloomy, Mahdieh Shirvani-Anarak, Abbas-Ali Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Since AIDS is not only a vital medical problem, but also a socioeconomic complication, therefore increasing people's knowledge and replacing their unhealthy behavior by a healthy one is of important consideration. Women, specially in reproductive ages of their life, have a special situation regarding the probability of pregnancy and infection of their fetus.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS, their perception of risk, risk behavior and management, and their attitudes towards AIDS.
Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, a total of 120 pregnant women, who referred to family health clinics in Yazd, were selected by simple random sampling. Information was collected via a special designed questionnaire containing 22 questions for evaluating knowledge and 6 questions for evaluating attitude. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test with SPSS software.
Results: The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was not significantly different in different age groups (p=0.151), while it had a significant relationship with their education (p=0.000). There was a correlation between general knowledge and attitude in pregnant women (p=0.033) (r=0.126). The attitude about AIDS in pregnant women was fairly good and there was a significant difference in this regard related to their education (p=0.000), while there was not significant difference regarding their age (p=0.410) (Mean =19.8).
Conclusion: There is an urgent need for HIV prevention efforts, such as health education and focusing on the pregnant women in developing world. Health educators should tailor education programs for women at risk, particularly those with lower education, to enhance their knowledge about HIV and to improve their attitude about AIDS.
Afsaneh Khademi, Ashraf Alleyassin, Marzieh Agha-Hosseini, Nasrin Dadras, Allaleh Asghari Roodsari, Leila Tabatabaeefar, Mehrnoosh Amini,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a real problem that affects 25-63% of women. There is no valid Persian version of sexual function questionnaire (FSQ).
Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of Persian version of sexual function questionnaire.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 547 women were questioned by Persian version of SFQ. Factor analysis produced five domains of female sexual function. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity were calculated.
Results: Five-factor structure accounted for 63% of the variance. Arousal-orgasm domain was as same as arousal-sensation, arousal-lubrication, and orgasm domains of the original version. Enjoyment-desire domain was similar to enjoyment and desire domains except one question. Pain and partner domains were consistent with original domains. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity were reasonable in Persian version of SFQ.
Conclusion: Persian version of SFQ is almost valuable and reliable to use for Iranian population with exception of one question. Results of the omitted question from enjoyment domain should interpret separately as unusual sex domain.
Marjan Anvar, Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf, Roya Kokabi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: The experience of infertility can be extremely stressful and associated with a range of psychiatric problems in infertile women. Generally; some of the risk factors which may lead to psychiatric problem are repeated unsuccessful treatment of infertility, low socioeconomic status, lack of partner support, being female, life events, etc.
Objective: In this study, we have analyzed the psychiatric problems of infertile women by means of primary health questionnaire (PHQ).
Materials and methods: In a cross sectional study 100 infertile women were selected and advised to fill up PHQ. After obtaining their consents psychiatric problems such as somatoform, panic, other anxiety disorder major depressive and other depressive disorders, were assessed, and their results were analyzed and compared with these results from 98 fertile women.
Results: According to PHQ results major depression and anxiety disorders were significantly more frequent in infertile women, but considering somatoform and panic disorder there was no significant difference between infertile and fertile women.
Conclusions: Infertility may be considered as one of the major casual factor in major depressive and anxiety disorders in association with other social problems.
Fatemeh Nayeri, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Ashraf Alyasin, Firoozeh Nili,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: Today there is a rise in the number of newborns conceived by artificial reproductive techniques (ART). Numerous studies have been performed on the perinatal outcome of these pregnancies. However, there is limited data about the condition of health of these newborns in Iran. Objective: Regarding the higher prevalence of probable complications and symptomatic congenital anomalies, we aimed to determine the state of health of newborns born by ART.
Materials and methods: A total of 109 newborn who were conceived through ART and 479 newborns of spontaneous conception were enrolled into our study. The study was prospective, case-control study in Tehran, Iran, from March 2003 to March 2004. Both case and control groups were adjusted in regard to race, sex, type of delivery, chronic disease of mother, age of mother, and antenatal steroids administration. All newborns were examined by neonatologist after birth and their outcome were followed until hospital discharge or death. Data pertaining to clinical and laboratory findings of newborns and death were entered into a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Confidence interval was 95%.
Results : Prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), twins and triplets, small for gestational age (SGA), need for resuscitation at birth, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and NICU admission were significantly higher among newborns born after ART than those born through spontaneous conception (p<0.05). Regression logistic analysis showed that RDS and NICU admission were more strongly associated with weight at birth and gestational age than with method of conception. However, increased rate of SGA in the case group was associated with multiple pregnancy. Also, there was no significant statistical relationship between the method of conception and the prevalence of congenital anomalies, large for gestational age (LGA), congenital pneumonia, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC), respiratory air leakage syndromes (ALS), hydrops fetalis, hyperbilirubinemia sepsis, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), isseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), cardiac failure, lung hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and hemolysis.
Conclusion: Newborns who were conceived by ART were more likely in need of resuscitation at birth regardless of other factors. Furthermore, newborns born after ART were at higher risk of developing prematur birth, LBW, and multiple birth.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Seyed Mohammad Seyedhassani, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: Infertility is defined as one year unprotected intercourse without pregnancy. It greatly affects couples' quality of life and has great impact on their careers everyday activities sexual and non-sexual relationships.
Objective: To study the prevalence of both primary and secondary infertility and demographic characteristics of it in Yazd province.
Materials and Methods: We studied 5200 married defined couples in 260 randomized clusters. These couples were interviewed based on using a structured questionnaire. Then for etiological evaluation infertile couples were referred to the Research and Clinical Center for Infertility.
Results: Among these couples 277 cases of infertility were encountered and the overall prevalence of infertility was 5.52% (95% CI from 4.9% to 6.1%). In total 170 couples (3.48%) had primary and 107 (2.04%) had secondary infertility. The prevalence of infertility in rural and urban areas was 5.3% and 6.8% respectively. Female factors were more common (57.5%) in etiologic assessment of infertility.
Conclusion: Our data showed a lower total prevalence of infertility in our people compared to the other countries. Furthermore there was significant difference in infertility prevalence between geographic parts of the province. Female factors and among them ovarian disorders were the main cause of infertility in central part of Iran.
Mahnaz Ashrafi, Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani, Farideh Malekzadeh, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Fahimeh Kashfi, Babak Eshrati, Fatemeh Shabani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Menopause is a step of a woman’s life when hormonal changes cause menstruation to stop permanently. Menopausal symptoms can affect women's health and differ between different races and societies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to survey the symptoms associated with menopause among Iranian women living in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study which has been done between 2004 and 2005, women aged equal or more than 35 years old living in districts of Tehran were selected by multistage randomized cluster sampling. For each woman a questionnaire was completed. The data gained from each questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS version 13.
Results: At time of study, 2462 women were naturally menopause. The mean age of natural menopause onset was 47.71 (SE=0.11) years. In 52.9% of cases, the onset of menopause was sudden. The symptoms associated with menopause were night sweats (61.2%), joint and muscle pain (59.9%), hot flashes (53.1%), fatigue (45.6%), decreased libido (33.9%), insomnia (33.7%), weight gain (30.1%), forgetfulness (24.9%) and urinary symptoms (17.4%). 
Conclusion: This study showed that night sweats, joint and muscle pain and hot flashes are the most common symptoms associated with menopause.
Monir Pashmi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabaie, Seyed Ahmad Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Using the method “surrogacy” in which a woman accepts to bear and deliver a child for a married couple is considered as a subsidiary method in infertility therapy. This method is relatively new in Iran.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the experiences of the women involved in surrogacy and to reveal some issues related to this method.
Materials and Methods: The method of research was analytic–deh1ive and causative – comparative type. The 5-item neo - questionnaire and structured interview were used simultaneously. The sample consisted of 15 surrogate mothers 15 intended mothers and 30 normal mothers (each with one or more children). The studied data was gathered in the fall and winter of 2009 in Isfahan by the researcher (Monir Pashmi) and data analysis was executed through the use of deh1ive data (such as the median standard deviation) and interpretive data (T- test).
Results: The research revealed that in terms of social – cultural status the surrogate and intended mothers were completely different but their psychological characteristics were not significantly varied. Results indicate the satisfaction and consent of both sides involved in the surrogacy. They had a good relationship during the pregnancy period but after delivery the intended mother wanted no further relationship they found out this method an altruistic experience.
Conclusion: Most surrogate and intended mothers do not consider surrogacy a problematic issue. A number of mothers however did mention that they had not been given the appropriate counseling beforehand. It seems plausible therefore to endeavour a general rise in the socio – cultural awareness of surrogacy in Iranian society.
Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Mortazavizadeh, Aboolfazl Khorasani Gerdekoohi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenemia hyperinsulinemia insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with an enigmatic pathophysiologic and molecular basis. Obesity hyperandrogenism and infertility occur frequently in PCOS which mostly have a genetic predisposition and are features known to be associated with the development of breast cancer risk.
Objective: In present study frequency of PCOS in patients with premenopausal breast cancer was compared with the frequency in women without breast cancer.
Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study which compared PCOS frequency in 166 patients with premenopausal breast cancer and 166 healthy controls with normal mammography in last 6 months.
Results: Eleven patients (6.62%) in case group and 16 patients (9.63%) in control group had polycystic ovary syndrome according to their questionnaire. The difference was not significant (p=0.645).
Conclusion: There was no relationship between frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome and breast cancer in this study. This might be due to the age of patients with breast cancer in this study which was mostly over 40. It could be significant if the patients were chosen in lower age for showing more effect of genetic than environment. The adjustment or matching of other risk factors could help to find the better results.
Saeed Motevallizadeh, Hossein Malek Afzali, Bagher Larijani,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC) details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services.
Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers.
Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no answers have been expected and measured accordingly.
Results: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services. Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively. Conclusion: Applying the consultant’s personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance.
Mert Kazandi, Ozlem Gunday, Timucin Kurtulus Mermer, Nuray Erturk, Erdinc Ozkınay,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations.
Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance.
Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety(p<0.0001) while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p:0.213).
Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.
Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Amir Hosein Aminian, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Najmeh Seighal, Hosein Falahzadeh, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction.
Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software.
Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.
Fatemeh Ramazanzadeh, Toktam Tavakolianfar, Mamak Shariat, Seyed Javad Purafzali Firuzabadi, Fedieh Hagholahi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: The levonorgestrel-releasing IUD can help the treatment of dysmenorrhea by reducing the synthesis of endometrial prostaglandins as a conventional treatment.
Objective: This study was performed to assess the frequency of dysmenorrhea, satisfaction and quality of life in women using Mirena IUDs as compared to those using copper IUDs.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed between 2006 and 2007 on 160 women aged between 20 to 35 years who attended Shahid Ayat Health Center of Tehran, and they were clients using IUDs for contraception. 80 individuals in group A received Mirena IUD and 80 individuals in group B received copper (380-A) IUD. Demographic data, assessment of dysmenorrhea, and follow-up 1, 3 and 6 months after IUD replacement were recorded in questionnaires designed for this purpose. To assess the quality of life, SF36 questionnaire was answered by the attending groups, and to assess satisfaction, a test with 3 questions was answered by clients.
Results: Dysmenorrhea significantly was decreased in both groups six months after IUD insertion as compared to the first month (p<0.001). However, statistically, Mirena reduced dysmenorrhea faster and earlier compared to cupper IUD (p<0.003). There isn’t any significant difference between these two groups in satisfaction and quality of life outcomes.
Conclusion: There is no difference between these two groups in terms of the satisfaction and quality of life, therefor the usage of Mirena IUD is not a preferred contraception method.
Hossein Fallahzadeh, Maryam Hossienzadeh, Fatemeh Yazdani, Atefeh Javadi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Evidences shows that menopause affects women's health, but women's knowledge of proper care and maintenance is insufficient.
Objective: To determine knowledge of hormone therapy (HT), reproductive physiology, and menopause in a population of 40-60 year old women.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted through a cluster sampling among 330 women in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran, in 2010. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing questions about reproductive physiology related to menopause and HT by interviewing. Inferential and descriptive statistics via SPSS.15 software were used for data analysis.
Results: Overall, 2.1% of women were current takers of HT, 13.4% had taken it in the past but had stopped and 84.5% had never taken hormone replacement therapy. Iranian women had low knowledge of HT, reproductive physiology, and menopause. Most of the women (85.5%) knew that hot flashes are common around menopause and only 77.2% knew decreasing estrogen production causes the menopause. They knew little about the effects of progestagens and the effects of HT on fertility. Logistic regression determined that age, educational level and BMI were the most important factors predicting use of HT after adjusting for other variables.
Conclusion: Iranian women have a low HT usage rate and the majority of them are lacking of the knowledge about HT and menopause. Women need improved knowledge of the risks and benefits of HT as well as education about the reproductive system around menopause.

Mahshid Bokaie, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Behnaz Enjezab, Pooran Heidari, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: There are many reasons why some couples do not become parents. Some are infertile, some do not want kids, children can be in a social context unacceptable and for others different life goals are more important.
Objective: This study was designed to determine barriers of child adoption in infertile couples in Iran.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Iran from April 2010 to June 2011. The research program was comprised consecutively in 240 infertile couples. Experts in Guidance and Counseling vetted the instrument and set that it has content validity. Test re-test reliability was conducted by the investigators using a sample of 20 couples who have filled questionnaire.
Results: Although 230 (96%) of the respondents heard of child adoption, only 89 (37.3%) of couples knew correct meaning of child adoption. Fifty four women (24%) knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 196 (82%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby. Hoping of childbearing (78%) was the main barrier to adopt a child.
Conclusion: The barriers mentioned were cultural practices, stigmatization, financial implications, and technical problems. Most of the infertile Iranian couples prefer to stay even so without children or think about new treatment.
Seyyed Mojtaba Yassini, Mohsen Taghavi Shavazi, Naeimeh Taghavi Shavazi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Nowadays artificially assisted reproductive techniques are used to cure infertility. These methods are highly expensive, time-consuming and have low success rates which are usually around 20-40%. One of the best alternate methods for infertility treatment that can be considered is adoption that often decreases the treatment costs and the psychological impact within an infertile couple.
Objective: This study has been done with the aim of determining adoption acceptance rates and the effective factors of adoption in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between October 2009-2010 on 200 infertile couples who had been referred to Infertility Center of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Information gathered through face-to-face interview and questionnaires. The data analyzed through a SPSS software program using ANOVA test.
Results: There was a significant statistical relationship between adoption acceptance value scores and marriage duration of a couple (p=0.002 in men, p=0.004 in women) and presence of adoption backgrounds in male relatives (p=0.004). There was no statistically significant relationship between age, gender, education level, and onus of infertility, the number of previous referrals for an infertility solution and presence of adoption backgrounds in female relatives.
Conclusion: Adoption as an alternative option to infertility treatment need to be more considered as a medical, social and cultural issue.
Ali Reza Bakhshayesh, Mahsa Kazeraninejad, Mahsa Dehghan Mongabadi, Malihe Raghebian,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Infertility affects various aspects of personality and psychology, familial and career performances, and relationships. Studies show that stress, anxiety, life dissatisfaction, and other psychological problems follow infertility . Infertility issue, its tests and remedy are stressful and may lead to anxiety and depression and have destructive effects on couple relationships.
Objective: The present study was done in order to comparison general health and coping strategies in fertile and infertile women.
Materials and Methods: This is an analytic cross-sectional study and was done through random sampling on 70 fertile women and 70 infertile women who visited Yazd’s clinics. The age range of participants was between 20-40 years. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Ways of coping questionnaire (WOCQ) were filled by women who were agreed to participate in the study, following some explanations about aims and ways of doing the study. In the next step, data were analyzed through statistic methods and independent t-test. We considered a significant level p<0.05 in all tests.
Results: The results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) with respect to general health in two groups, but no significant difference was found in problem-centered and emotion centered coping strategies and depression anxiety.
Conclusion: This study shows that general health in both groups is below average which means women are not sensitive about their general health. So planning on improving women’s general health by providing consultation and training courses is suggested.
Mahnaz Yavangi, Mohammad Ali Amirzargar, Nasibeh Amirzargar, Maryam Dadashpour,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: During the month of Ramadan, millions of Muslims abstain from food and drink daily from dawn to sunset and people actually experience repeated cycles of fasting and refeeding. Menstruation is a normal physiological process that its regularity is controlled by hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Etiology of menstrual dysfunction includes weight loss, hypoleptinemia, abnormal eating behaviors, exercise, and psychological stressors.
Objective: To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on menstrual cycles.
Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed on 80 female college students resident in a dormitory of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics and menstrual calendar was filled by all participants. All analyses were performed using the statistical software SPSS for Windows version 11.5.
Results: We found 11.3%, 30%, and 16.3% of participates had abnormal menstrual pattern three months before, during and three months after Ramadan, respectively. In participates who fast more than 15 days, menstrual period had significantly more abnormality than participants who fast less than 15 days. Considering our results we demonstrated that menstrual abnormalities during Ramadan month reach to their peak and three months after Ramadan reduce but do not return to previous condition.
Conclusion: This study confirms that menstrual abnormalities including oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and hypermenorrhea increased during Ramadan especially in participates with more than 15 days of fasting.
Ali Gholami, Shaker Salarilak,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)

Background: The increasing number of cesarean section is a great concern in many countries. In Iran cesarean section rate has been steadily rising from 35% in 2000 to 40% in 2005. Preferences for cesarean are often associated with some factors.
Objective: To investigate factors associated with preference for cesarean delivery, with special emphasis on pregnant women’s preferences in first pregnancy in Neyshabur (Northeast of Iran).
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, written questionnaires were completed via face to face interview with 797 pregnant women in first pregnancy. Socio-demographic data, preference toward mode of delivery and factors associated with it were assessed by applying questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the independent variables associated with preference for cesarean delivery.
Results: In this study observed that 18.6% of pregnant women preferred caesarean delivery in first pregnancy. The mean age of pregnant women that they preferred cesarean delivery was upper than pregnant women that they preferred vaginal delivery and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.006). There was a statistically significant relation between preference for cesarean delivery and the following variables: educational level (p<0.001), gestational age (p=0.003) spouse’s age of pregnant women (p=0.001), physician’s advice (p<0.001), and fear of delivery (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study show that the majority of pregnant women do not prefer caesarean delivery to vaginal delivery. Nevertheless the preference rate for cesarean delivery exceeded 15% that suggested by WHO and most important factors in pregnant women prefer cesarean deliveries are fear of delivery and physician’s advice.
Hossein Fallahzadeh, Zohreh Farajpour, Zahra Emam,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: Short birth intervals have been associated with adverse health outcomes, including infant, child and maternal mortality.
Objective:  We aimed to investigate the duration and determinants of inter birth intervals among women of reproductive age in Yazd, Iran.
Materials and Methods:  A cluster sampling technique was used to select 400 ever-married women aged 15-49 years in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran. Data were obtained by interview questionnaire and analyzed with life table, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses.
Results:  The mean duration of inter birth interval was 49.76 (standard error 1.82) months (95% CI: 46.19-53.34 months) with a median of 39. In 28.5% of women the birth interval was <2 years, in 28% it was 3-5 years and in 25.5% it was ≥6 years. Among explanatory variables of interest, age of marriage, and woman's education were significant predicators of the birth interval. Women who stated an ideal preference of two children constituted 59.9% of the sample and 16% had 3 children as well as 10.7% had an ideal preference for 4 or 5.
Conclusion:  The study recommended an educational program to have optimal birth intervals and ideal number of children per family for the prevention of adverse prenatal outcomes.

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