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Showing 99 results for Male Infertility

Nosratollah Zarghami, Ali Khosrowbeygi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress plays an important role in male infertility. The aims of this study were to compare seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2?), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total (sum of free and bound) homocysteine (tHcy) in normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic men, and to examine the relationships between tHcy and lipid peroxidation products. Materials and Methods: The study was a case-control study with a simple random sampling. The case group consisted of 15 asthenozoospermic males. This group was compared with 15 normozoospermic men. Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and tHcy were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. MDA levels were determined by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare two groups. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman’s correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value <0.05 level. Results: MDA levels were lower in asthenozoospermic subjects than in control subjects (0.72±0.06 µM vs. 0.40±0.06 µM; p<0.05). No differences were seen in 15-F2t-isoprostane levels in asthenozoospermic subjects and controls (65.00±3.20 pg/ml vs. 58.17±4.12 pg/ml; p>0.05). Interestingly, tHcy levels were slightly higher in asthenozoospermic subjects than in controls (6.18±1.17 µM vs. 4.8±0.52µM). Sperm motility was inversely correlated with seminal plasma 15-F2t-isoprostane and MDA levels, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and tHcy showed no significant differences between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men. Sperm motility correlated inversely with seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane and MDA. No relationship was found between tHcy and lipid peroxidation. However, higher sample size is required to confirm these findings.
Ali Khosrowbeygi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Yaghoub Deldar,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in male infertility. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant status of seminal plasma by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared to normozoospermic males, and their correlations with seminal parameters. Materials and Methods: 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities divided in three categories: asthenozoospermic (n=15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n=16) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n=15), according WHO criteria, participated in the study. The control group consisted of 25 males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Commercially available colorimetric assays were used for measuring SOD activity and TAC. Results: TAC evaluation showed significantly lower values in the total case group (n=46) versus control group (1.05±0.04 mmmol/ml vs. 1.51±0.07 mmol/ml, p<0.05). Catalase activity also showed significantly lower values in the total case group (n=46) versus control group (14.40± 0.93 U/ml vs. 21.33±1.50 U/ml). But this difference was not significant for SOD activity (5.31±0.56 U/ml vs. 6.19±0.83 U/ml). Both catalase activity and TAC in asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic, oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects were significantly lower than normozoospermic males, but SOD activity did not show a significant difference between these groups. Both catalase activity and TAC showed a positively significant correlation with progressively motile sperms and normal sperm morphology, but these correlations with SOD activity were not significant. Conclusion: Decreasing seminal plasma antioxidant status especially catalase activity and TAC may have significant role in etiology of sperm abnormality. Article
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Leydig cell tumor is a rare form of testicular neoplasm which comprises 1-3% of all testicular tumors and only about 3% of these tumors are bilateral. A few Leydig all tumor have been described in patients with klinefelter�s syndrome so far. Case: The patient described in this case report was a 24 year-old man with chief complaint of infertility for one year. Physical examination, semen analysis, testes sonography and hormonal assay were done for him. Right side simple orchiectomy was performed for patient. Conclusion: This tumor is always benign in children and approximately 90% are benign in adults. Clinical presentation is testicular enlargement, gynecomastia, sexual activity disturbances such as decreased libido, infertility and azoospermia. We recommend complete exam and karyotype in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Ashok Agarwal, Sushil Anandh Prabakaran,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Infertility is one of the most stressful conditions amongst married couples. Male factor infertility is implicated in almost half of these cases. Recent advances in the field of reproductive medicine have focused the attention of many researchers to consider reactive oxygen species (ROS) as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction. Although, ROS is involved in many physiological functions of human spermatozoa, their excess production results in oxidative stress. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membranes are the two locations of ROS production that involves complex enzyme systems such as creatine kinase and diaphorase. ROS causes damage to the spermatozoa DNA, resulting in increased apoptosis of these cells. The production of ROS is greatly enhanced under the influence of various environmental and life style factors such as pollution and smoking. An effective scavenging system is essential to counteract the effects of ROS. Various endogenous antioxidants belonging to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic groups can remove the excess ROS and prevent oxidative stress. Since, ROS is essential for the normal sperm physiology, rationale use of antioxidants is advocated.
Mir Davood Omrani, Agneta Nordenskhold,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: For screening sequence variations in genes, rapid turnover time is of fundamental importance. While, many of the current methods are unfortunately time consuming and technically difficult to implement. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method had been shown to be a high-throughput, time saving, and economical tool for mutation screening. Objective: In the present study DHPLC method was used to explore the potential association between estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR2) variants and male infertility. Materials and Methods: DNA from 96 men with infertility and 96 normal male as control were screened for mutation in the nine exons of the ESR2 gene, using WAVE� DHPLC device equipped with a DNA separation column and automated sequence analysis on the ABI Prism 310. Results: DHPLC evaluation of ESR2 gene in 96 infertile patients, revealed one heterozygous sequence variation (IVS 8�4G>A) near the 5� splicing region of intron 8 in 5 patients. No variation was identified in control population. Conclusion: Mutation detection by DHPLC, as it is presented in this context, is a high-throughput, quick, and economical tool for mutation screening. The gene alterations in ESR2 gene that we�ve found might increase susceptibility to infertility; but without cDNA screening, the consequences of these genetic alterations cannot be predicted
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: Over recent decades a possible decrease in sperm quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported in many populations. Some recent findings, as cohort studies, showed an increased risk of testicular cancer in men with abnormal semen analysis.
Case: A 30 years old man referred to our clinic with chief compliant of infertility for 3 years. Spermogram revealed azoospermia and right extratesticular intrascrotal mass was detected by ultrasound examination. Right inguinal surgical approach showed intact small sized atrophic right testis and an intrascrotal mass. In microscopic examination of the mass mixed germ cell tumor with teratoma, yolk sac and embryonal components were reported.
Conclusion: Extragonadal germ cell tumors, like their testicular counterparts are associated with primary germ cell defects. The higher incidence of antecedent infertility suggests that either congenital or acquired primary germ cell defect contributes to defective spermatogenesis and therefore, there is higher risk of cancer development in incompletely migrated germ cells. We recommend complete evaluation of cancer in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Ashraf Moini, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Batol Hossein Rashidi, Parvin Jaberi Pour, Elham Azimi Neko,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: Although the uterine fibroids are common, their influence on fertility remains controversial. The association of submucosal fibroid with subfertility is well recognized, but debate persists as to whether intramural fibroids can cause infertility and the evidence for its effect on pregnancy in cycles of assisted conception remains unclear.
Objective: The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing uterine cavity on the outcome of ART cycles in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 94 women with uterine intramural fibroids and 184 controls referred to Royan Institute between 2001 and 2002 were enrolled. The intramural fibroids and their location were detected by transvaginal ultrasound performed just before the ART cycle. All patients underwent long standard GnRH agonist protocol. Student t-test and Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age of patients was 33.9 ±3.37 years in myoma group (n=94) and 33.28 ±3.59 years in control group (n=184). The total dose of gonadotropin used, estradiol level on day of hCG administration, the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos developed and transferred, the clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were similar in two groups.
Conclusion: The presence of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing endometrial cavity does not adversely affect clinical pregnancy rate in patients undergoing IVF or ICSI.
Monir Owj, Moid Mohseni, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Maria Sadeghi, Babak Eshrati, Fatemeh Shabani,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Smoking has negative effects on reproductive process. Exposing to cigarette smoking (passive smoking) may exert some effects as the direct smoking.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between ovarian response and passive smoking in women who underwent ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: One hundred-sixty patients who underwent ICSI between 2000 and 2001 were studied in a prospective cohort study. The case group included women whose husbands smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily for 1 year or more. The control group included women with nonsmoking husbands. Women with high FSH level (>12 IU/ml) were excluded. Long standard protocol with GnRH agonist and HMG were used in all patients. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer was carried out in a standard fashion.
Results: Eighty one women were in case group and 82 in control group. Ovarian response variables were not significantly different between two groups but there was a significant relation between passive smoking and fertilization (RR= 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). However pregnancy rate was not significantly different between two groups. Moreover there were no significant differences between heavy and light smokers in ovarian response outcomes.
Conclusion: This study showed no correlation between ovarian response parameters and passive smoking in women underwent ART cycles, whereas fertilization rate is significantly lower in this group compared to control group. It may be related to sperm quality than oocytes. Assessment of nicotin in follicular fluid and cytogenetic evaluation of embryo before transfer are recommended for more information and confirmation.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Mehrdad Soleimani, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a group of free radicals that in excessive amounts have negative influence on sperm quality and function.
Objective: To study the effect of varicocele and its severity on the level of ROS in infertile men with clinical varicocele.
Materials and Methods: In this controlled prospective study, 42 men with clinically diagnosed left varicocele and 30 fertile men were studied. Patients were asked about history of urogenital infection, using any antioxidant medication and smoking. Grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Levels of ROS in seminal plasma were measured in each group by a chemiluminiscence assay. The sperm parameters were also determined and compared in different groups.
Results: The ROS levels were significantly higher in patients with varicocele than normal men (mean: 1575.42 RLU (Radio Luminescence Unit) vs. 53.79 RLU, p=0.005). In total 20 patients had grade I, 20 patients grade II and 2 patients had grade III varicocele. The mean ROS levels were 669.12 RLU, 2406.87 RLU and 2324 RLU in patients with grade I, II and III varicocele respectively (p=0.144). In case group, 15 patients were smoker and 27 were non-smokers. The mean ROS levels in patients with the history of smoking was 1367.71 RLU while in non-smokers it was 897.672 RLU (p=0.729). Conclusion: Our study showed that increased levels of ROS production in the seminal fluid can be an important factor in the etiology of male infertility in patients with varicocele, and this effect is more prominent with higher grade of varicocele.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Atefeh Larti, Zahra Ezabadi, Nadia Jahangiri, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most challenging diseases that constitute 20% - 40% of women searching for their infertility diagnosis. Objective: This study was undertaken in order to compare the outcome of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in women with endometriosis, and tubal factor infertility as controls.
Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 a retrospective study was carried out in patients with endometriosis (n=80) and tubal infertility (n=57) after treatment with IVF/ICSI. The main outcome measures were ovarian responsiveness, quality of oocytes, implantation, pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and student t-tests.
Results: No differences were found in mean number of ampoules of hMG, duration of hMG injection, number of MΙΙ oocytes, number of embryo transferred, and rates of implantation, pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and twin birth between women with endometriosis and tubal infertility and also between women with stages I/II or those with stages III/IV disease with women with tubal factor infertility.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that endometriosis does not seem to have adverse effect on outcome of IVF/ ICSI as compared with tubal infertility.
Mahnaz Ashrafi, Saeed Kazemi Ashtiani, Farideh Malekzadeh, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Fahimeh Kashfi, Babak Eshrati, Fatemeh Shabani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Menopause is a step of a woman’s life when hormonal changes cause menstruation to stop permanently. Menopausal symptoms can affect women's health and differ between different races and societies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to survey the symptoms associated with menopause among Iranian women living in Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study which has been done between 2004 and 2005, women aged equal or more than 35 years old living in districts of Tehran were selected by multistage randomized cluster sampling. For each woman a questionnaire was completed. The data gained from each questionnaire was analyzed by using SPSS version 13.
Results: At time of study, 2462 women were naturally menopause. The mean age of natural menopause onset was 47.71 (SE=0.11) years. In 52.9% of cases, the onset of menopause was sudden. The symptoms associated with menopause were night sweats (61.2%), joint and muscle pain (59.9%), hot flashes (53.1%), fatigue (45.6%), decreased libido (33.9%), insomnia (33.7%), weight gain (30.1%), forgetfulness (24.9%) and urinary symptoms (17.4%). 
Conclusion: This study showed that night sweats, joint and muscle pain and hot flashes are the most common symptoms associated with menopause.
Mohsen Vigeh, Smith Derek R, Ping-Chi Hsu,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects.
Ashraf Moini, Fatemeh Zafarani, Bita Eslami, Maria Sadeghi, Zahra Kamyabi, Nadia Jahangiri,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Supplementation of luteal phase with progesterone is prescribed for women undergoing routine IVF treatment.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of three types of progesterone on biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates and abortion and live birth rates.
Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized study was performed at Royan Institute between March 2008 and March 2009 in women under 40 years old, who use GnRH analog down-regulation. One hundred eighty six patients in three groups were received progesterone in oil (100 mg, IM daily), intravaginal progesterone (400 mg, twice daily) and 17-a hydroxyprogestrone caproate (375mg, every three days), respectively.
Results: Final statistical analysis after withdrawal of some patients was performed in 50, 50 and 53 patients in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. No differences between the groups were found in baseline characteristics. No statistical significance different was discovered for biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancies. Although the abortion rate was statistically higher in group 1 (p=0.025) the live birth rate was not statistically significant between the three groups.
Conclusion: The effects of three types of progesterone were similar on pregnancies rate. We suggest the use of intravaginal progesterone during the luteal phase in patients undergoing an IVF-ET program because of the low numbers of abortions, and high ongoing pregnancy rates.
Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Tohid Najafi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Jalil Pakravesh, Khadijeh Foghi, Fatemeh Fadayi, Gelareh Rahimi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in female infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endometrial tissue of women with unexplained infertility.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study a total of 18 endometrial tissues obtained from 10 women with unexplained infertility and 8 normal and fertile women by endometrial biopsy, 6 to 10 days after LH surge. Specimens were fixed in 4% paraformaldhyde fixative and frozen sectioned for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation using monoclonal anti-human eNOS antibody. Hematoxilin and Eosin was used for Histological dating. Results: Localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was seen in glandular and luminal epithelium, vascular endothelium and stroma in both fertile women and women with unexplained infertility. Although there were differences in immunoreactivity of glandular epithelium (p=0.44), vascular endothelium (p=0.60) and stroma (p=0.63) but only over-expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium (p=0.045) of women with unexplained infertility compared to fertile women was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that changes in luminal expression of eNOS may influence receptivity of endometrium.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Behnaz Molaei, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Conventional IVF and ICSI are two common techniques to achieve fertilization. IVF has long been used for treatment of infertility, although it is not an effective treatment in severe male infertility. The use of ICSI has been expanded in severe male factor and fertilization failure after IVF cycle. In spite of the widespread use of ICSI in patients with non-male factor infertility, there is still little evidence to confirm its effectiveness in this population. Objective: To evaluate assisted reproductive technology outcomes between IVF and ICSI cycles in non-male factor, normoresponder patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 220 non-male factors, normoresponder patients who were indicated for ART were enrolled in this study. The patients received standard long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation and after oocytes retrieval, the patients were divided into two groups (IVF and ICSI groups). In IVF group (n=112), all of retrieved oocytes were treated by conventional IVF and in ICSI group (n=88), microinjection (ICSI) was done on all of retrieved oocytes.
Results: In IVF group, fertilization and implantation rates were significantly higher than ICSI group (66.22% and 16.67% in IVF group versus 57.46% and 11.17% in ICSI group, respectively). Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were statistically higher in IVF group as compared with the ICSI group (42.9% vs. 27.3% and 35.7% vs. 21.5%, respectively).
Conclusion: According to our study, the routine use of ICSI is not improved fertilization, implantation and chemical pregnancy rates and is not recommended in non-male factor, normozoospermic patients.
Zohreh Hojati, Somaye Heidari, Majid Motovali-Bashi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: About 10% of infertilities with obstructive azoospermia are congenital and caused by CF gene mutations. M469I mutation was observed for the first time in Taiwanese patients. This mutation not only causes CF, but also may be the origin of infertility too.
Objective: In this study, we aimed in designing a rapid, reliable RFLP-PCR procedure for detection of M469I mutation. The correlation and association between M469I mutation with infertility was investigated in this study.
Materials and Methods: one hundred ten patients (90 non obstructive and 20 obstructive) and 60 normal individuals were considered in this study. M469I mutation was detected using RFLP-PCR. This technique was completely designed for M469I genotyping, for the first time in our study. Amplification of the region surrounding the mutation in exon 10 of CFTR gene was then performed. RFLP analysis was carried out using the NdeI restriction enzyme. Results: All genomic DNA samples were genotyped successfully. M469I mutation was observed only in patients group. Therefore, genotype containing mutant allele (GT) has been detected only in the patients group. There was no significant correlation between GT and TT genotypes with infertility (p=0.437).
Conclusion: The M469I mutation has only been observed in Exon 10 CFTR gene of infertile patients, not in the control group. This mutation causes congenital bilateral absence of vaz deferens and finally infertility. This indicates a strong association between the M469I mutation and male infertility. Therefore, this is a CF-causing CFTR mutation that could be considered as a cause of infertility.
Elham Siasi, Ahmad Aleyasin, Javad Mowla, Hamid Sahebkashaf,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Histones are replaced by protamines to condensate and package DNA into the sperm head during mammalian spermatogenesis. Protamine genes defects have been reported to cause sperm DNA damage and male infertility.
Objective: In this study relationship among some protamines genes family SNPs include PRM1 (C321A), PRM2 (C248T) and TNP2 (T1019C), (G1272C), (G del in 1036 and 1046 bp) were studied in 96 idiopathic infertile men with azoospermia or oligospermia and 100 normal control men.
Materials and Methods: Analysis of SNPs was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR sequencing.
Results: No polymorphisms were found for tested SNPs except for PRM1 (C321A) and TNP2 (G1272C) in which frequency of altered AA and GG genotypes were slightly higher in infertile case group. Statistical analysis showed no significant association related to PRM1 (C321A) p=0.805 and TNP2 (G1272C) loci p=0.654.
Conclusion: These results are consistent with previous studies and indicating that all tested SNPs was not associated with oligospermia and azospermia and idiopatic male infertility in Iranian population.
Mohammad Ali Amirzargar, Mahnaz Yavangi, Abbass Basiri, Sayyed Mahdi Hosseini Moghaddam, Hooshang Babbolhavaeji, Nasibeh Amirzargar, Hossein Amirzargar, Leila Moadabshoar,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: The most frequent physical finding in infertile men is varicocele, in which one of the mechanisms that can affect seminal parameters is oxidative stress.
Objective: Our study aimed, for the first time, to compare the efficacy of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on sperm parameters and fertility after varicocelectomy.
Materials and Methods: 113 infertile men with varicocele were divided into four groups. Group A received HCG 5000 IU weekly, group B received HMG 75 IU three times a week, group C received rhFSH 75 IU three times a week and group D received no medical treatment after varicocelectomy.
Results: After three months, in group A sperm morphology improved (p=0.007), causing a 32% pregnancy rate. In group B, sperm motility (p=0.023) and morphology (p=0.014) improved, causing a 57% pregnancy rate. In group C, all of the investigated semen parameters increased (p<0.05), causing a 62.5% pregnancy rate. Only rhFSH improved sperm concentrations to >20×106 mL (p=0.027). In group D, sperm morphology increased (p=0.038), but other parameters remained unchanged and no pregnancies occurred.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that drugs can reduce induction time for spermatogenesis and fertility in comparison with varicocelectomy alone. For these purposes, rhFSH is more effective than other drugs.
Sughra Shahzad,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Genital tuberculosis is a common entity in gynecological practice particularly among infertile patients. It is rare in developed countries but is an important cause of infertility in developing countries.
Objective: The present study has investigated the prevalence of female genital tract tuberculosis (FGT) among infertile patients, which was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit-I, Allied Hospital, affiliated with Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Materials and Methods: 150 infertile women who were referred to infertility clinic were selected randomly and enrolled in our study. Patients were scanned for possible presence of FGT by examination and relevant investigation. We evaluated various aspects (age, symptoms, signs, and socio-economic factors) of the patients having tuberculosis.
Results: Very high frequency of FGT (20%) was found among infertile patients. While, a total of 25 patients out of 30 (83.33%) showed primary infertility and the remaining 5 cases (16.67%) had secondary infertility. Among secondary infertility patients, the parity ranged between 1 and 2. A total of 40% of patients (12 cases) were asymptomatic but infertile. Evidence of family history was found in 4 out of a total of 30 patients (13.3%), respectively. According to histopathological and bacteriological examination of endometrial biopsy and laparotomy, tuberculous endometritis was found in 20 out of a total of 25 (80%) cases, while tuberculous salpingitis and tuberculous oophoritis were found both in 2 (8%) of the cases, respectively. Only one case (4%) of tuberculosis cervicitis was found in the present study.
Conclusion: Although infertility is not a disease in classical sense, but it is an extremely important personal concern for many couples and a significant health problem for our profession. So, it is worthwhile to identify and evaluate the factors contributing to infertility.

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