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Showing 40 results for Implantation

Mojdeh Salehnia,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between ultrastructural studies for pinopodes expression after ovarian hyperstimulation and progesterone injection in mice. Materials and Methods: Adult NMRI mice were superovulated using human menopasual gonadotropic (hMG) and human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) hormones; after that, daily injection of progesterone (1 mg/mouse) was performed. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 3.5 and 4.5 days after hCG injection. Tissues of uterine horns were obtained and processed for scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy studies. The pseudopregnant control samples were studied same as experimental groups. Results: The SEM and TEM observations showed that in control groups on 3.5 days of pregnancy, there were some pinopodes. All apical cell surfaces expressed these projections on the forth day. In progestrone-injected group, well developed pinopods were expressed 3.5 days after hCG injection and they were transformed to small projections on the fourth day following hCG injection. Also, the life span of pinopods was limited to a short time. At the TEM levels, the pinopods were seen as swelling process on the apical surface, which were more pronounced on day 3.5 of hCG injection in hyperstimulated and progestrone injection. Conclusion: The progestrone may cause premature expression of pinopodes and the implantation failure after ovarian induction may be due to these timing changes.
Mahmoud Hashemitabar, Babak Ghavamizadeh, Fatemea Javadnia, Esmaiel Sadain,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: The luteal phase defect is a common event following the ovarian stimulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of human chorionic gonadotropine (hCG) and progesterone hormones to improve the luteal phase defect. Materials and Methods: 60 mice were superovulated routinely with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) (7.5U) and hCG (10U). The mice were mated and divided into 3 groups: 1- control (n=20) 2- hCG treatment (n= 20), and 3-Progesterone treatment (n=20). Each group was divided again into two subgroups. The mice (10 from each group) had no injection in group one and were injected intraperiteneal (IP) by hCG (5U/day) and progesterone (1mg/day) subcutaneously (sc) in groups 2 and 3, respectively for four days. On the day 5, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the uterus were flushed to count the number of blastocyst and their quality. The above treatment were carried out for 12 days in the other 10 mice in each group. Similarly group one had no injection and groups 2 and 3 were injected by hCG and progesterone for 12 days respectively by the same manner as mention above. The animals were killed on day 13 and the implanted embryos were counted. The uterus and ovary were processed on days 5 and 13 of pregnancy for histological studies. Results: The mean number of blastocysts per mouse were: 12.2%, 2.6% and 3% in group 1 to 3, respectively. The nomber of implanted embryos were 29 as: 13 living fetus in one mouse and 16 resorption fetus in the other. The morphology of uterus on day 5 was as follow: no development in the stroma and endometrial gland in control group, the stroma and endometrial gland so developed to form the saw teeth appearance which indicated on receptivity of uterus in hCG treated group similar to progesterone treated group, but without the saw teeth appearance. The continuation of hCG injection maintained the receptivity of uterus; while, the continuation in progesterone caused metaplesia of epithelium. The morphology of ovaries in all three groups showed no changes in corpus luteum size on day 5, and showed the following changes on day 13: increasing the number of primary and secondary follicles in control group; while, reducing the size of corpus luteum in hCG group. Conclusion: Progesterone did not improve the uterus and implantation rate. The prolonged usage of progesterone can change the morphology of uterus to more abnormal state in conterast to the prolonged usage of hCG.
Nezhat Moossavifar, Nayereh Khadem, Alieh Torabizadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: It has been demonstrated that performing a mock embryo transfer (ET) significantly improves the pregnancy rate in IVF cycles. The mock ET could be performed prior to the stimulation cycle or immediately before real ET. The problem of the first procedure is the possibility of variation in the uterine position and or cervico–uterine angle.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the consistency of the type of ET in mock ET prior to the treatment cycle with real ET.
Materials and Methods: A prospective comparison between the technique of mock embryo transfer and real embryo transfer. One hundred and sixty treatment cycles on 141 patients between January 2003 and September 2004 ended to ET and they were analyzed prospectively. In each cycle, patients underwent a mock ET in mid luteal phase prior to treatment cycle (the date when patients referred to have consultation about down regulation regimen).
Results: Of 160 mock ET the Wallace catheter passed easily in 144 (90%) of them. In the remaining 16 cycles (10%) a tenaculum and or a rigid cannula had to be used. From 144 cases of easy mock ET, real ET was easy in 121 (84%) cases while 23 (16%) cases had difficultly during real ET. In the 16 cases of difficult mock ET, there was 8 cases (50%) of difficult real ET and 8 cases (50%) of easy real ET (p=0.001, χ2=10.67). The overall clinical pregnancy rate for both difficult and easy transfer was 35%. The pregnancy rate for easy real ET was  37.2% and for difficult real ET was 25.87%. Despite of the difference, the statistical analysis shows no significance difference (χ2=1.21). The difference between mean age for both difficult and easy real transfer was not significant.
Conclusion: Mock ET before beginning of the treatment cycle is highly consistent with real ET.
Azadeh Montaserti, Maryam Pourheydar, Mozafar Khazaei, Rostam Ghorbani,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Physalis alkekengi (P. alkekengi)has been used as an abortive plant in Iranian traditional medicine for many years.
Objective: To investigate the effects of P.alkekengi on the fertility rate in female rats.
Material and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats were divided randomly into two groups; group 1/for investigating the implantation sites and group 2/ for investigating the number and weight of neonates. In both groups, treated animals received plant extract at dose of 150 mg/kg on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In group 1, treated animals were euthanized at 7th days of pregnancy and number of implantation sites were counted. In group 2, treated animals maintained till delivery time and after delivery, the number and weight of neonates were investigated.
Results: Data showed that administration of P. alkekengi extract on days 1-5 of pregnancy significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number and weight of neonates.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the extract produced anti- fertility effect probably by inhibiting implantation.
Behrooz Niknafs, Fathemeh Afshar, Abdo-Rahman Dezfulian,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: There are some controversial data on application of progesterone and progesterone plus estrogen at luteal phase.
Objective: To investigate the effects of different luteal support hormones on the Alkaline Phosphates (ALP) activity in the endometrial epithelium and endometrial thickness during superovulation process for obtaining the optimized endometrial receptivity in animal model.
Materials and Methods: Pseudopregnant female Balb/c mice were induced for pseudopregnany through superovulation then the mice were divided into two groups. Experimental group included five groups: the pseudopregnant mice were given four consecutive daily injections of progesterone (P group) estrogen (E group) estrogen + progesterone (E+P group) antiprogesterone + estrogen (RU 486 + E) and sham group. In the control group pseudopregnancy was induced in the natural cycle. The uterus was collected after day 4.5 of pseudopregnancy. The samples were prepared for the morphological and morphometrical evaluation of the endometrial ALP activity and endometrial thickness.
Results: ALP activity was observed in all groups except P group. ALP activity of P + E group was similar to E and RU 486 + E groups. Sham group showed high ALP activity compared to the P group. The endometrial thickness was low in the P group and high in the sham group in comparison with other groups.
Conclusion: In conclusion super ovulation decreased the ALP activity. Estrogen along with progesterone at the luteal phase increased the enzyme activity and the endometrial thickness compared with the progesterone administration and thus progesterone plus estrogen could improve embryo receptivity.
Hossein Nikzad, Maryam Kabir-Salmani, Shigetatsu Shiokawa, Yoshiro Akimoto, Mitsutoshi Iwashita,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (7-2010)

Background: Pinopodes are suggested as biological markers of uterine receptivity, but their molecular components are unknown.
Objective: Co-expression of galectin-3 and avb3 integrin at human pinopodes has been examined in this study to propose a role for them during adhesion phase of embryo implantation.
Materials and Methods: Biopsies were obtained from early and mid luteal phase endometrium of 12 fertile women with regular menstrual periods (25-35 days) and the mean age of 37 years (range 25–45). Then, they were examined under light and scanning electron microscopy for detection and dating of pinopodes. Using immunofluorescent staining and immunogold electron microscopy, the expression of galectin-3 and avb3 integrin in human endometrium and pinopodes was detected. Further, statistical analysis was performed using immunogold electron microscopy to investigate the expression and subcellular distribution of these, before and during the frame of implantation window.
Results: The results demonstrated that pinopodes of luminal epithelial cells exhibited immunoreactivity for both galectin-3 and αvβ3 integrin, which was increased statistically significant (p< 0.05) at the time of implantation window. Furthermore, area-related distribution of these proteins was found higher in pinopodes compared to the neighboring apical membrane without pinopode.
Conclusion: Temporal and spatial expression of galectin-3 and αvβ3 integrin at pinopodes proposes a role for pinopodes in the adhesion of embryo and the involvement of galectin-3 as a binding partner of integrins in the human utero-fetal complex.
Soghra Rabiee, Marziyyeh Farimani, Maryam Ahmadi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Pregnancy rate with IVF cycle is almost 22%. Many investigations perform to increase this rate in IVF. Various factors affect the result of IVF cycles. One of these factors could be uterine contractions that expel transferred embryo. Ritodrine is a beta mimetic agent that can block and decrease uterine contractions.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine ritodrine effectiveness for increasing the implantation rate in IVF cycles, and its probable mechanisms in decreasing uterine contractions as well.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients of IVF-ET cycles were divided randomly in two groups in a university hospital, Hamadan, Iran. The case group were prescribed ritodrine 10 mg / bid orally after oocyte retrieval until 10 days. The control group didn’t received ridotrine.
Results: In ritodrine group 14% of patients and in control group 16% had positive β-hCG test (p-value>0.5).
Conclusion: Ritodrine did not improve the implantation rate in IVF-ET cycles.
Venant Tchokonte-Nana, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: The pregnancy rate during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) following progesterone supplement still remains very low at around 20%.
Objective: To investigate the effects of peanut oil itself on the endometrial receptivity, the pregnancy success rate and fertility during the peri-implantation time in hyper stimulated and normal rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley rats with at least four regular oestrus cycles were randomly divided into 4 groups: two groups were hyper stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and treated with progesterone or with peanut oil; the two other groups were not hyper stimulated and treated with saline solution or peanut oil. On day 5.5 of pregnancy, the uterine horns were removed and blood was collected for histomorphometric and serum progesterone evaluation. 12 rats were allowed to continue the presumed pregnancy to term. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and student t-test were used to compare the means of morphometric and radioimmunoassay data between groups. p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean values of morphometric parameters and serum progesterone varied significantly between the groups (ANOVA, p<0.0001). The lowest values of progesterone parameters were observed in the hyperstimulated groups that did not deliver pups; both hyperstimulated groups had deleterious luminal epithelium with varying degrees of mucosal projections. There were isolated decidualised zones observed in hyper stimulated peanut oil group, whereas peanut oil group had the highest number of implantation sites and deliveries.
Conclusion: The results show that hype stimulation reduces the endometrial receptivity, while peanut oil increases endometrial receptivity, pregnancy rates and fertility by triggering decidualisation.
Leili Safdarian, Shohre Movahedi, Ashraf Aleyasine, Marzie Aghahosaini, Parvin Fallah, Zahra Rezaiian,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Despite numerous developments in the field of assisted reproduction the implantation rate remains low .Recent studies suggested that local injury to endometrium in controlled ovarian hyper stimulation cycle improves implantation rate. Studies have attempted to intervene in the development of endometrium.
Objective: The aim of the present study was the exploration of the possibility that local injury of the endometrium increases implantation rate.
Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 100 good responders to hormone stimulation patients were divided into control group (n=50) and experimental group (n=50) which undergo endometrial biopsy by biopsy catheter )piplle) on day 21 of their previous menstrual cycle with use of contraceptive pills before the IVF-ET treatment. In total, 26 patients were removed from the study because the number of stimulated follicles were below 3, or there was no embryo or there was the risk of OHSS. The remaining patients were 33 in experimental group and 41 in the control group.
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the age of the patients, duration of infertility and BMI, base line FSH level and responses to hormone stimulation. The rates of embryo implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy in the experimental group were 4.9%, 18.2% and 12.1% with no significant differences with the control group (6.7%, 19.5%, 17.1%). Cancellation rate was 26%.
Conclusion: In our study, endometrial biopsy didn’t increase the chances to conceive at the following cycle of treatment.
Nastaran Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Behrooz Aflatoonian, Elham Rahmani, Abass Aflatoonian,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is defined as pregnancy failure after two to six times with at least ten high grade embryo transfer to uterus. A variety of causes have been anticipated for RIF, including anatomical, autoimmune, genetics, endocrine and thrombotic anomalies. Factors responsible for RIF have important implication regarding treatment however in many couples a perfect cause cannot be found.
Cases: In these case series, we reported nine couples with RIF that after investigation no definitive etiology was found for RIF and empirical therapy by heparin, aspirin and or immunotherapy was not effective. In these cases we recommended transfer of embryos to surrogate uterus. Nine patients were studied and six of them developed a normal pregnancy (pregnancy rate=66.66%).
Conclusion: This study showed that surrogacy is a good option for treatment of RIF.
Li Hai-Xia, Guo Xin-Yu, Xie Yan, Yuan Qi-Long, Ge Ming-Xiao, Zhang Jin-Yu,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Aggressive embryo and receptive endometrium are necessary for successful implantation. On this time endometrium transformates to receptive state, which permits embryonic implantation. Studies about embryonic implantation and endometrial receptivity are always a hot spot in the field of reproductive medicine.
Objective: To investigate the expression pattern of Meis1 during peri-implantation in mice endometrium.
Materials and Methods: Mice for experiment were raised in SPF environment. The mice were mated with a female/male ratio of 2:1. The female mice with detected plugs were regarded as pregnant day 1 (pd1). Endometrial tissues were collected respectively on pd1, pd2, pd4, pd5 and pd6. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the location of Meis1 in mice endometrium. The expression level of mRNA and protein of Meis1 were further detected using Quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
Results: We found that Meis1 is located in the cytoplasm and membrane of endometrial glandual epithelium cells and the nucleus of endometrial stromal and decidual cells. Both Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting showed that Meis1 expressed regularly in mice endometrium. Meis1 mRNA expressed weakly on pd1, then significantly increased on pd4 (p=0.018), and achieved to a peak on pd5 (p=0.0012), it showed a decrease trend on pd6. Meis1 protein expressed weakly on pd1 and pd2, then significantly increased on pd4 and pd5 (p=0.0019), it showed a decrease trend on pd6.
Conclusion: Meis1 is dynamically expressed in mice endometrium during peri-implantation. The time that Meis1 expression reaches its peak value is coincident with the implantation window, which implied that Meis1 is closely related with embryonic implantation.
Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Layasadat Khorsandi, Ghasem Saki,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is a multifunctional lectin that involves in a number of critical biological processes.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of Gal-3 in mouse endometrium during estrus phase of estrous cycle and pre-implantation.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 42 NMRI female mice were divided in seven different groups. Ovulation in NMRI female mice was stimulated by injecting hMG and hCG. Estrus phase was considered as stimulated and un-stimulated groups. The other groups of mice were mated, and the day of vaginal plug formation was considered as the day 1 of pregnancy. The mice of all groups were sacrificed on different days of pre-implantation period and their uterine horns were fixed and avidin- biotin complex method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied.
Results: In estrus group, Gal-3 immunoreactivity in luminal epithelium was strong, in stromal cells very strong, in glandular epithelium very weak and endothelial cells very strong. No identifiable difference was observed in un-stimulated and stimulated estrus phase. In test groups, days 1-2, insignificant difference of Gal-3 expression was observed. On day 3, luminal epithelium and stromal cells showed significant decrease in comparison to estrus and day 1 (p=0.001). On the 4th and 5th days, luminal epithelium and stromal cells showed significant decrease in comparison to estrus phase and days 1-3 (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: The data suggested that successful implantation is probably associated with the downregulation of Gal-3 in the mouse endometrium at the beginning of pregnancy.
Leila Roshangar, Jafar Soleimani-Rad, Bahman Rashidi, Hossein Mazochian, Behzad Nikzad, Sara Soleimani Rad,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: Endometrial development has an important role in blastocyst adhesion and implantation. During IVF cycles, endometrial development is enhanced by progesterone.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare ultrastructural and morphometrical characteristics of mice uterine endometrium in natural cycle with those in superovulated cycles received progesterone or Sildenafil.
Materials and Methods: In This study, 60 female bulb/c mice were divided into 4 groups: a control and 3 experimental; gonadotropin, gonadotropin+ Sildenafil and gonadotropin+ progesterone. In experimental groups the mice superovulated mated. In the gonadotropin+ progesterone and gonadotropin+ Viagra groups, the mice respectively received 1mg progesterone and 3 mg Sildenafil citrate. Their uterine specimens were prepared for morphometrical and ultrastructural study. Height of the epithelial cells was measured, using motic software. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA.
Results: Microscopy revealed that in control group the cells had numerous apical microvilli and the height of the cells was 20.52±2.43 μm. In gonadotropin+ progesterone group, the granules were found in basal and apical portions and cellular height were 17.91±2.78 μm which were significantly shorter than in the control and gonadotropin groups (p<0.001). In this group, the apical membrane also contained pinopodes. In gonadotropin +Sildenafil group, the granules were found in both apical and basal portions and the height of the cells were 17.60±2.49 μm which were significantly shorter than in the control and gonadotropin groups (p<0.001). In this group, pinopodes appeared slightly extensive than the other groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that superovulatory drugs in mice stimulate endometrial maturation but injection of Sildenafil is nearly more positive.
Zohreh Alizadeh, Shamila Faramarzi, Massoud Saidijam, Tahereh Alizamir, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari , Nooshin Shabab, Marzieh Farimani Sanoee,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: HOXA11 and HOXA10 are expressed in endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and show a dramatic increase during the mid-luteal phase at the time of implantation. The expression of these genes is decreased in women with myomas.
Objective: To determine whether myomectomy would reverse HOXA11 and HOXA10 expression, we evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in the endometria of patients before and after myomectomy.
Materials and Methods: Expression of HOXA11 and HOXA10 were examined prospectively during the midluteal phase in endometrium obtained from infertile women (n=12) with myoma before and three months after myomectomy. Endometrial HOXA11 and HOXA10 expression were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results: Endometrial HOXA11 and HOXA10 mRNAs expression levels (normalized to 18SrRNA) were increased insignificantly in endometrium of patients after myomectomy (p=0.7 and p=0.15 respectively).
Conclusion: The results suggest that the alteration in expression pattern of these genes could not account for some aspects of fertility after myomectomy.
Afsoon Zarei, Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad, Masoumeh Younesi, Saeed Alborzi, Jaleh Zolghadri, Alamtaj Samsami, Sedigheh Amooee, Shahintaj Aramesh,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: The direct effect of hCG on the human endometrium was studied several times.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of intrauterine injection of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) before embryo transfer (ET).
Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total number of 182 infertile patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles were randomly assigned to receive 250μg intrauterine rhCG (n=84) or placebo (n=98) before ET. The implantation and pregnancy rates were compared between groups.
Results: Patients who received intrauterine rhCG before ET had significantly higher implantation (36.9% vs. 22.4%; p=0.035), clinical pregnancy rates (34.5% vs. 20.4%; p=0.044) and ongoing pregnancy rate (32.1% vs. 18.4%; p=0.032) when compared to those who received placebo. The abortion (2.4% vs. 2.0%; p=0.929) and ectopic pregnancy rates (1.2% vs. 1.0%; p=0.976) were comparable between groups of rhCG and placebo, respectively. Conclusion: Intrauterine injection of 250μg of rhCG before ET significantly improves the implantation and pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles
Yingli Cong, Lifang Cui, Zhenhong Zhang, Jianzhong Xi, Mianjuan Wang,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the preimplantation blastocysts. So it is suggested that ES and ICM cells should have similar cellular surface molecules and antiserum to ES cells can inhibit ICM development.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rabbit antiserum to ES cells on mouse preimplantation embryo development and chimera production.
Materials and Methods: Mouse 4-cell embryos were matured in vitro at 37.5oC, in humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere for 12-36 h. The embryos were cultured in KSOM medium with or without antiserum for 12-36 h. The ratios of in vitro embryo development of the blastocysts, cell division, attachment potential, alkaline phosphatase activity, post-implantation development, and chimera production were assessed and compared with the control group. P<0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The rabbit antiserum to mouse ES cells showed delay in embryo compaction and induced decompaction at 8-cell stage. The development of 4-cell embryos in the presence of the antiserum for 36h did not lead to a reduced or absent ICM. These embryos still displayed positive alkaline phosphatase activity, normal cell division, embryo attachment, outgrowth formation, implantation and post-implantation development. In addition, decompaction induced by antiserum did not increase production and germline transmission of chimeric mice.
Conclusion: The results showed that antiserum to ES cells delayed embryo compaction and did not affect post-implantation development and chimera production.
Lotfollah Dezhkam, Hakime Dezhkam, Iman Dezhkam,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Now there are three ways to select the sex of the fetus before implantation (1, 2). Two of these methods are scientifically proven that are used in the fertility and infertility centers (3). Two types of pre implantation methods (PGD and Ericsson method) used for social sex selection. Both of them are based on actively rendering the second sex chromosome to be either a Y chromosome (resulting in a male), or an X chromosome (resulting in a female). Another way to determine the sex of an embryo before implantation is called PGD (pre implantation genetic diagnosis). In this procedure, after ovarian stimulation multiple oocytes are removed from the mother. The eggs are fertilized in the laboratory using the father&#039;s sperm in a technique called in vitro fertilization (IVF). As the embryos develop through cleavage, a blastomere is removed from each embryo and then assessed for the presence of Y and X chromosome and separated by sexual chromosome. Embryos of the desired gender are transferred back in the mother&#039;s uterus (4). There are two ways to select the sperm sex; Micro Sort and Ericsson method (5, 6). In this way the sperm that contain the desired sex chromosome can be selected and used for fertilization of female gametes. In Ericsson as sperm passes through albumin gradient, the differences in mass between the X and Y chromosomes cause the females dragged down by the weight of the extra &quot;leg&quot; of the X sex chromosome. The method has a 70-72% success rate for boys and a 69-75% success rate for girls (2). The third method is the determination of sperm sex chromosomes in sperm sorting by flow cytometry. Sperm sorting is an advanced technique that sorts sperm &quot;in vitro&quot; by flow cytometry. This shines a laser at the sperm to distinguish X and Y chromosomes and can automatically separate the sperm out into different samples. The technology is already in commercial use for animal farming (7). It is currently being trialed on humans in the US under the trademark Micro Sort; it claims a 90% success rate but is still considered experimental by the FDA (3). There are also methods for sex selection after implantation which can be performed by prenatal sex discernment, followed by sex-selective abortion of any offspring of the unwanted sex that is unaccepted in Islam and there is not the place to discuss (8). There are great ethical debates about being true or false using these methods in sex selecting in American and European ethics committees. Primary care physicians questioned whether women could truly express free choice under pressure from family and community. Other concern is that sex selection led to invasive medical interventions in the absence of therapeutic indications that could result in child neglect of the lesser-desired sex (9). We want to answer this concern in Islamic view and show whether it is true or false to use this methods in Islam. Currently the sex selection is done for two medical and non-medical reasons that in medical reason preventing genetic disease to occur in a child and Non-medical reason is done merely for the sake of parental interest and desire to have a son or daughter. From the Islamic point of view (Shia jurisprudence), there is no barrier for using the two methods accepted by the FDA and the reasons cited by the Ethics Committee of the American and European to ban the use of these methods is just for the possibility and fear of future risk that are talked about and those reasons are not notable at all and we can simply make strategies to prevent them. The only thing that limit the use of Micro Sort and Ericsson method, is arrangements of doing (Unlawful see and Unlawful touch) (10, 11). With regard to the above, we could conclude, first the use of these two methods (PGD and Ericsson method) is allowed for medical items and second for non-medical items must exist a necessity or hardship to allow to do (12). This task is dependent on the organizations and institutions review ethical and medical considerations and ambiguities to set a framework for using these methods.
Leila Safdarian, Zahra Najmi, Ashraf Aleyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Mandana Rashidi, Sara Asadollah,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)

Background: The largest percentage of failed invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, are due to lack of implantation. As hereditary thrombophilia can cause in placentation failure, it may have a role in recurrent IVF failure.
Objective: Aim of this case-control study was to determine whether hereditary thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failures.
Materials and Methods: Case group comprised 96 infertile women, with a history of recurrent IVF failure. Control group was comprised of 95 healthy women with proven fertility who had conceived spontaneously. All participants were assessed for the presence of inherited thrombophilias including: factor V Leiden, methilen tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation, prothrombin mutation, homocystein level, protein S and C deficiency, antithrombin III (AT-III) deficiency and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mutation. Presence of thrombophilia was compared between groups.
Results: Having at least one thrombophilia known as a risk factor for recurrent IVF failure (95% CI=1.74-5.70, OR=3.15, p=0.00). Mutation of factor V Leiden (95% CI=1.26-10.27, OR=3.06, P=0.01) and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation (95% CI=1.55-97.86, OR=12.33, p=0.05) were also risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. However, we could not find significant difference in other inherited thrombophilia’s.
Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failure compared with healthy women. Having at least one thrombophilia, mutation of factor V Leiden and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation were risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. 
Mahbubeh Enghelabifar, Somaiieh Allafan, Jina Khayatzadeh, Khadijeh Shahrokh Abadi, Mohammad Hasanzadeh Nazarabadi, Fahimeh Moradi, Nozhat Musavifar, Mohsen Jalali, Majid Mojarrad,
Volume 12, Issue 9 (10-2014)

Background: Implantation failure of blastocyst is one of the main reasons of failure to become pregnancy following use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques. HLA-G, one of the non-classic HLA subtypes, seems to have a vital role in neutralizing of mother immune system. According to importance of ins/del polymorphism of HLA-G in regulation of HLA-G expression, it seems that this polymorphism has an important effect in immune response against embryo, and so success of embryo implantation.
Objective: In this experiment we try to evaluate association of HLA-G ins/del polymorphism with risk of occurrence of RIF in ART treated infertile women.
Materials and Methods: To evaluating insertion/deletion polymorphism association with RIF we design a case-control study. We select 40 women with history of recurrent failure to become pregnant following IVF as RIF case group. Forty women with pregnancy following IVF were selected as control. Members of both groups were assessed to rule out of anatomical, immunological and known genetical cause of infertility. Presence of 14 bp insertion/deletion alleles was assessed using PCR-PAGE technique. The data were analyzed by means of SPSS software using Chi-Square tests at the significant level of p<0.05.
Results: Our data shows that frequency of heterozygote genotype (ins/del) was significantly higher in case group. Furthermore presence of HLA-G insertion/deletion genotype shows association with increase of implantation failure risk by 3.85 fold.
Conclusion: According our results, Heterozygote genotype of ins/del leads to increase of RIF risk. It seems that by genotyping of HLA-G polymorphism, we can predict risk of implantation failure in infertile women after use of ART.
Fatemeh Peyghambari, Saeid Amanpour, Mehri Fayazi, Mahnaz Haddadi, Samad Muhammadnejad, Ahad Muhammadnejad, Mehdi Salimi, Zohreh Mazaheri,
Volume 12, Issue 9 (10-2014)

Background: It has been hypothesized that blastocyst integrin expression changes can affect the spontaneous miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS).
Objective: In this study, the profile of integrin genes and proteins was investigated on blastocyst of the PCOS experimental mouse model.
Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into 3 groups: control, experimental [PCOS that was injected estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)]. After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by PMSG and HCG. Vaginal plaque was checked, and mice were investigated 5 days after the test. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined; α4, αv, β1 and β3 integrin genes and protein of blastocysts were examined by real time PCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
Results: Estradiol level was significantly increased (p≤0.035) in PCOS group. Based on our finding, the ratio of geneschr('39') expressions αv, β3, β1 and α4 in PCOS to control group was 0.479±0.01, 0.5±0.001, 2.7±0.4 and 1.023±0.2 respectively. Genes expression showed a great difference (p≤0.001) between β3, β1 and αv in PCOS compared to other groups. αv and β3 integrin proteins expressed in all groups but intensity of these proteins in PCOS groups, was lower than other groups.
Conclusion: Pattern of αv and β3 integrins expression on the mouse blastocyst surface has an important effect during the implantation window. This pattern has changed in PCOS model and might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this experimental study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved.

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