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Showing 42 results for Histology

Fahime Sadat Kamali, Rasoul Shahrooz, Golamreza Najafi, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 0, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Paraquat (PQ), as a pyridine compound, is widely used worldwide to control annual weeds. The oxidative stress caused by PQ can cause deleterious changes in the testicular tissue.
Objective: An investigation on the protective effects of Crocin (CCN) against PQ-induced oxidative damages and apoptotic indices in testicular tissue. 
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight adult male albino mice (20-25 gr) were divided into four groups (n = 7/each). The control group received 0.1 ml/day of normal saline by intraperitoneal injection (IP); sham-control group received PQ 5 mg/kg/day, IP, and the experimental groups received PQ (CCN+PQ) and CCN-sole (200 mg/kg/day, IP), respectively, for 35 continuous days. At the end of the treatment period, the testes were dissected out and used for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. The expressions of tumor suppressor p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), and caspase-3 were considered as hallmark factors of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated as key biomarkers for oxidative stress.
Results: The PQ significantly (p< 0.02, p< 0.01) diminished the spermatogenesis indices and SOD, increased MDA levels, and enhanced the apoptosis-related gene expression. However, the co-administration of CCN and PQ significantly (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.02) ameliorated the spermatogenesis ratio, upregulated the SOD level as well as bcl-2 expression, and reduced the MDA content and apoptosis vs the PQ-sole group.
Conclusion: This study showed that the antioxidant properties of CCN enable to ameliorate the PQ-induced destructive effects by upregulating the testicular structure, antioxidant and apoptotic status.
Mina Omidi, Akram Ahangarpour, Seyed Ali Mard, Layasadat Khorsandi,
Volume 0, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Aging is accompanied by decreasing general function in the cells and tissues. D-galactose (D-gal) induces aging and plays a role in the pathogenesis of it. Myricitrin is a plant-derived antioxidant.
Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of myricitrin on antioxidant defense, sex hormone levels, uterus, and ovarian histology in D-gal-induced aging female mouse model.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 female adult NMRI mice, weighing 30-35 gr, 3-4 months old, were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12/each): (I) Control (vehicle; normal saline), (II) D-gal at 500 mg/kg/d for 45 days, (III-V) D-gal + myricitrin-treated groups (these groups received myricitrin at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d, and (VI) D-gal + 100 mg/kg/d vitamin E orally for the last 28 days. The antioxidant indices were done on the basis of colorimetric method, and sex hormone levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Histological assessment of the uterus and ovaries were also evaluated.
Results: D-gal impaired the estrous cycle, also degenerative changes occur in the ovarian follicles and damage to the uterus and ovarian tissue occurs. In D-gal group, the level of sex hormones (p =0.03) and the total antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002) decreased, while the level of malondialdehyde and gonadotropins increased (p = 0.03). Myricitrin at lower doses and vitamin E ameliorated the D-gal effects.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that myricitrin at low doses can effectively prevent D-gal-induced oxidation and aging in mice. The effect of myricitrin was equivalent and sometimes better than vitamin E.
Davoud Kianifard, Professor Ali Ehsani, Dr Parisa Zeinolabedini Daneshgar, Dr Ghasem Akbari, Mr Seyyed Maysam Mousavi Sjoar,
Volume 0, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: Paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, and monosodium glutamate (MSG) have oxidative effects on testicular tissue.
Objective: In this study, the effects of MSG administration on the exacerbation of testicular tissue alterations related to PTX treatment were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: MSG (30 & 60 mg/kg i.p.) was administrated to six groups (n = 8/each) of adult mice before or after PTX treatment: control, PTX-treated, MSG30 + PTX, MSG60 + PTX, PTX + MSG30, and PTX + MSG60. Following the euthanizing, the body weight measurement, pituitary–testicular axis hormonal analysis and serum lipid peroxidation index assessment was prepared, testicular histomorphometry (tubular diameter and germinal epithelium height), immunohistochemistry of p53 was completed. Microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (tubular differentiation, spermiogenesis and repopulation indices) were studied.
Results: Body weight was not changed significantly. The levels of testosterone (p = 0.0001), follicle stimulating hormone (p = 0.019), and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.08) were decreased while the level of lipid peroxidation index was increased (p = 0.208) in the treated groups. The histomorphometry indices (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively), germ cells population (p < 0.05) and microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (p = 0.001, p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, respectively) were significantly reduced in all treated groups. The administration of MSG before PTX treatment induces more changes. The most positive reaction to p53 was observed in MSG30 or 60 + PTX groups compared to other groups.
Conclusion: The administration of MSG could intensify testicular tissue alterations related to PTX chemotherapy.
Davoodi Sohrabi, Mohsen Alipour, Ali Awsat Mellati,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Metronidazole and its derivatives have both antiprotozoal and anti bacterial effects. The reproductive toxicity of metronidazole has been observed in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the detrimental effects of metronidazole on spermatogenesis and testicular androgenesis in male adult rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats (70-90 days old) were randomly divided into three groups. Animals in group I (Control group) were administered with the water only. Animals in groups II and III were administered with metronidazol at the doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 60 days. Quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis was carried out by counting the relative number of each variety of germ-cells at the stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, i.e. type-A spermatogonia (ASg), pre-leptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), and step 7 spermatids (7Sd). Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In groups II and III, there was a significant decrease in the testes, accessory sex organ weights, plasma concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone with massive degeneration of all the germ cells at stage VII. Our data concluded that metronidazole has a suppressive influence on spermatogenesis and sex hormones in rats.
Tahmineh Peirouvi, Gholamhossein Farjah, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Phospholipids are distributed asymmetrically between inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane of live cells. Early during apoptosis, this asymmetry is disrupted and phosphatidylserine becomes exposed on the outside surface of the plasma membrane. There is little information about the effects of vitrification on apoptosis.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification on apoptosis of subfertile and fertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this study, semen samples were collected from subfertile (n=20) and fertile men (n=10) after 48h abstinence of intercourse. After semen analysis according to WHO criterias, each semen sample was divided into two portions. First portion was assessed by Annexin V-flous staining kit for showing apoptosis in subfertile and fertile men and second portion was assessed after vitrification-thawing. Results were analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test.
Results: After vitrification-thawing, mean percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa has increased 6 and 3 times in subfertile and fertile men respectively. This difference is significant.
Conclusion: Vitrification-thawing could disrupted membrane asymmetry and caused apoptosis. Therefore, it will cause reduction of functional spermatozoa in access of Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ART).
Behrooz Niknafs, Fathemeh Afshari, Abdo-Rahman Dezfulian,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: The application of luteal phase supplementation hormones to increase the implantation rate is on debate among researchers.
Objective: In this study, the morphological and morphometrical assessment of superovulated mice endometrium were investigated at window implantation period superovulated mice.
Materials and Methods: Female mice were superovualated then were mated with vasectomized mice; the mice were divided in experimental and control groups. Experimental group included five groups which in them pseudopregnant mice were given a four consecutive daily injection of 1-progesterone (P), 2-estrogen (E), 3-estrogen + progesterone, 4-antiprogesterone+estrogen and 5-sham group. The uterine of all groups were collected after 4.5 day of pseudopregnancy and were prepared for histological and morphometrical studies.
Results: Morphological studies of endometrial tissue showed that the luminal epithelium in group P appeared cuboidal shape. Endometrial folding was very high in group E+P. The luminal epithelium in groups E, E+P and RU 486 + E were seen in different morphology in comparison to control group. Morphometrical evaluation also showed height of luminal epithelium in group E (32.7±0.67) and E+P (33.6±1.3) were higher than those were seen in control (22.5±1.5) and group P (15.3±1.2).
Conclusion: Progesterone caused the lowest endometrial development compare to other groups. It is concluded that the adding of E to P may improve endometrial condition to implant at luteal phase.
Arash Khaki, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Mohammad Nouri, Amir Afshin Khaki, Chelar C Ozanci, Marefat Ghafari-Novin, Mohammad Hamadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)

Background: Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae) is used medicinally and as a culinary spice.
Objective: Medicinal use of ginger dates back to ancient China and India. Ginger and its constituents are stated to have antiemetic, antithrombotic, antihepatotoxic, anti-inflammatory, stimulant, cholagogue and antioxidant. It has been used since ancient time as medicinal and food origins it contain antioxidative and androgenic activities and have well effect in diseases treatment in more countries world-wide. As an antioxidant’s ginger has a useful effect on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters.
Materials and Methods: Wistar male rat (n=30) were allocated into three groups, control (n=10) and test groups (n=20), that subdivided into groups of 2 that received ginger rhizome powder (50 and 100mg/kg/day) for 20 consequence day. Animals were kept in standard conditions. In twentieth day the testes tissue of Rats in whole groups were removed and sperm was collected from epididymis and prepared for analysis.
Results: Serum total testosterones significantly increased in experimental group that has received 100 mg/kg/day Ginger (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both test groups significantly increased (p<0.05) in comparison to control group, Whereas, LH, FSH hormones, sperm concentration, morphology and testes weights in both experimental and control group were similar.
Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of 100 mg/kg/day of ginger significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and serum total testosterones. This suggested that ginger may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters.
Leila Roshangar, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Parisa Nikpoo, Manijeh Sayyah Melli,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Induction of ovulation in ART is necessary for superovulation and the side effects of superovulatory drugs are debated. Oxytocin as a natural hormone, have receptors and is synthesized by several reproductive organs. Preovulatory presence of oxytocin receptor mRNAs in granulosa cells indicating a role for oxytocin in follicular development.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection on folliculogenesis, ovulation and endometrial growth in mice.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female mice were divided into two groups as control and experimental. The mice at their sterous cycle received 1 IU/gr oxytocin, in experimental, and the same volume of solvent in control groups. Half of the mice in each group are sacrificed at 24 hours post injection and the other half, 48 hours after the injection. Ovarian samples fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin and sections were stained with H and E and studied using stereological techniques. The data were analyzed with Man– Whitney test.
Results: Microscopic examination revealed that the number and morphological features of follicles at different stages were similar at 24 and 48 hours post injection in both groups. The volumes of the ovaries were similar in both groups at 24 hour. However, at 48 hour, the volume of ovaries, corpora lutea and endometrial thickness, in experimental group, were significantly higher than those in control group (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the increased volume of corpus luteum in the experimental group, it is concluded that oxytocin injection has a stimulatory effect on induction of ovulation.   
Behrooz Niknafs, Fathemeh Afshar, Abdo-Rahman Dezfulian,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: There are some controversial data on application of progesterone and progesterone plus estrogen at luteal phase.
Objective: To investigate the effects of different luteal support hormones on the Alkaline Phosphates (ALP) activity in the endometrial epithelium and endometrial thickness during superovulation process for obtaining the optimized endometrial receptivity in animal model.
Materials and Methods: Pseudopregnant female Balb/c mice were induced for pseudopregnany through superovulation then the mice were divided into two groups. Experimental group included five groups: the pseudopregnant mice were given four consecutive daily injections of progesterone (P group) estrogen (E group) estrogen + progesterone (E+P group) antiprogesterone + estrogen (RU 486 + E) and sham group. In the control group pseudopregnancy was induced in the natural cycle. The uterus was collected after day 4.5 of pseudopregnancy. The samples were prepared for the morphological and morphometrical evaluation of the endometrial ALP activity and endometrial thickness.
Results: ALP activity was observed in all groups except P group. ALP activity of P + E group was similar to E and RU 486 + E groups. Sham group showed high ALP activity compared to the P group. The endometrial thickness was low in the P group and high in the sham group in comparison with other groups.
Conclusion: In conclusion super ovulation decreased the ALP activity. Estrogen along with progesterone at the luteal phase increased the enzyme activity and the endometrial thickness compared with the progesterone administration and thus progesterone plus estrogen could improve embryo receptivity.
Mazdak Razi, Kaveh Akhtari, Ali Reza Najafpour, Keyvan Abdi, Rasoul Shahrooz, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Sajad Feyzi, Hadi Cheragi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Nowadays it is proofed that the uterine artery plays essential role in follicular growth and/or post parturition hemorrhagic.
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation (BUAL) on follicular fate and the probable histochemical changes of the carbohydrate and lipids in the ovaries of rabbits.
Materials and Methods: 24 mature female rabbits randomized into two test and control-sham groups. Test group subdivided to three groups based on time. Animals in the test group under went to BUAL. The ovaries were processed to histochemical and histomorphometric analyses to evaluate the ratio of lipid carbohydrate and lipase enzyme in follicular cells.
Results: The ovaries from test groups exhibited many atretic follicles in various sizes. BUAL significantly (p≤0.05) increased the rate of atresia in the test groups in comparison to the control-sham cases. This situation was progressed by the time. In the test groups lipid reactions were observed more remarkable in the small atretic follicles in comparison to the large atretic follicles. BUAL elevated the reaction sites for lipase enzyme in the early stages of the atresia in the test group.
Conclusion: Referring to our results BUAL caused significant (p≤0.05) hypo-ovulation by increasing the atresia. Also increasing lipid foci in the first stages of the apoptotic process caused cytoplasmic lipase enzyme evaluation while the lipase enzyme level was decreased by the advancement of the atresia and decreasing of the biological activities in follicular cells.
Mahmoudreza Moradi, Mohsen Alemi, Asaad Moradi, Babak Izadi, Farajollah Parhodah, Fatemeh Torkaman Asadi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In the recent years, the use of laboratory blood factors such as FSH and inhibin-B for the assessment of spermatogenesis in different studies has increased; of course, the conflicting results have also been achieved.
Objective: To investigate if the measurement of inhibin-B can help surgeon to reduce unnecessary diagnostic testicular biopsies in males with azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during July 2006 to September 2007 on 41 patients with azoospermia. FSH and inhibin-B were measured and bilateral open testicular biopsy was performed for all patients.
Results: Sperm was seen in 29% of biopsies that in 100% of these samples inhibin-B was more than 100 pg/mL and FSH was less than twice the normal (p=0.001). Inhibin-B had significant correlation inversely with testicular fibrosis and Sertoli cell only syndrome (p=0.043 and p=0.011, respectively) and directly with incomplete spermatocytic maturation arrest and obstructive azoospermia (p=0.027 and p=0.013, respectively). FSH was only correlated with obstructive azoospermia (p=0.001).
Conclusion: We suggest that if FSH is less than twice the normal, inhibin-B should be measured and if its level is less than 100 pg/mL, we can cancel about the half of unnecessary diagnostic testicular biopsies.

Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Mazdak Razi, Rajab Ali Sadrkhanloo, Hassan Malekinejad, Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: The exact pathophysiology of testicular degeneration, following varicocele has not been completely understood yet.  
Objective: The current study was designed to determine the effect of varicocele on germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasmic biohistochmical alterations.   Materials and Methods: To follow-up this study, left varicocele was induced in test groups. Non-varicocelized rats were served as control-sham (n=6). Following 4, 6 and 8 months, right and left testes were dissected out and the blood serum sample was taken. The GE cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, lipase and alkaline-phosphates (ALP) ratios were analyzed. Serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured.
Results: Observations demonstrated that in varicocele-induced rats, the spermatogenesis cell lineage exhibited lower number of cells with periodic acid shift positive cytoplasm, higher number of cells with lipid and ALP positive stained cytoplasm in comparison to control animals. Lipase enzyme decreased by the time in the test animals. In varicocelized groups the number of Leydig cells decreased in to 2.25±0.41 and 1.16±0.75 per one mm 2 in left and right testicles respectively after 8 months, and these cells demonstrated an ALP positive feature. In test groups, the serum levels of LH and FSH reduced into 1.12±0.01 and 2.03±0.05 ng/ml respectively after 8 months. Although testosterone level diminished by the time in the test animals, and this decreasing was significant (p=0.031) after 8 months (3.08±0.10 ng/ml).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that following varicocele induction major alterations occur in GE, which may lead to loss of GE cells physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems.
Tahereh Mirjalili, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Maryam Shams Lahijani, Mohamad Hasan Sheikhha, Alireza Talebi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychomotor stimulant with high abuse and addictive potential. MA is a neurotoxic drug which is widely abused by females of childbearing age, raising serious public health concerns in terms of exposure of the fetus to the drug. Neurotoxic effects of MA on adult are well known, such as dopaminergic nerve terminal degeneration and cell death in regions of brain in some doses.
Objective: In the present study, we examined effect of prenatal MA exposure on mouse fetuses.
Materials and Methods: In this study, forty 8-12 week-old NMRI female mice were used which were mated with male mice in serial days. When sperm plug was observed it was designated as gestational day (GD) 0. Pregnant mice were individually housed in plastic cages. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: in first group 10 mg/kg /day MA, in second group 5 mg/kg /day MA and in third group saline were injected subcutaneously from GD 6 to GD 14, corresponding to organogenesis period, while fourth or control group were without injection. On GD 14 fetuses were removed and accomplished chromosome preparation from fetal liver. Then fetal were fixed in formalin for brain hematoxilin and eosine staining and TUNEL assay.
Results: We observed morphological abnormality including exencephal fetus in 5mg/kg MA group and premature fetuses in 10 mg/kg MA group. Also brain histological study showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in fetal brain in both experimental groups. Fetal liver karyotyping analysis was normal in fetuses of all groups and TUNEL assay in fetal striatum did not show significant difference in number of apoptotic cells between groups.
Conclusion: From our results, it could be concluded that chronic abuse of MA by pregnant females during organogenesis period can cause teratogenic effect and brain hemorrage in fetus.
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Stefania A Nottola, Abbas Shahedi, Guido Macchiarelli,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

The use of ovarian stimulation for infertility treatment is associated with side effects of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and potential cancer risk. This is also true in high risk women such as those polycystic with ovary (PCO) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes was primarily developed to make IVF safe for women with PCO and at high risk of OHSS. The application of IVM of oocytes to assist clinical infertility treatment remains poor because of the reduced developmental competence of oocytes after IVM, despite several decades of research. Reduced meiotic maturation and fertilization rates, as well as low blastocyst production reveal short-term developmental insufficiency of oocytes when compared with in vivo-matured counterparts. In this review, the structural role of human oocytes, revealed by different technical approaches, to the success of IVM technology is highlighted.
Roshangar Leila, Seddighe Abdollahifard, Abbas Majdi, Armin Zarrintan, Alia Ghasemzade, Laaia Farzadi, Sara Soleimani Rad, Jafar Soleimani Rad,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)

Background: More than 40% of infertilities are due to endometriosis. Ultrustructural and histochemical study of endometrium will help to clarify the etiology of endometriosis.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and occurrence of apoptosis in endometrial cells of women with or without endometriosis.
Materials and Methods: In the present case-control study, endometrial specimens from 12 women without endometriosis (as control) and 12 women with endometriosis (as case) were examined. Specimens for control group were obtained from the patients that were referred to gynecology hospital for hysterectomy due to various reasons. In case group the endometriosis was diagnosed according to laparoscopy and endometrial samples were taken using pippel biopsy. The specimens from both case and control groups were processed for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), TUNEL reaction technique and morphometric studies.
Results: The results show that endometrial epithelium lost its continuity in women with endometriosis and endometrial cells have euchromatic nucleus in comparison to those from non-endometriosis. There were several apoptotic cells in the luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium and stroma from endometrium of control group. However, apoptotic cells were rarely seen in the endometrium from women with endometriosis. The difference in number of apoptotic cells between two groups statically was significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Regarding the ultrastructural characteristics of endometrial epithelial cells and comparison of apoptotic occurrence in control and case groups it is concluded that endometrial cells in endometriosis group have higher potential to survive and possibly implant.
Siti Syairah Mohd Mutalip, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar Singh, Aishah Mohd Shah, Mashani Mohamad, Vasudevan Mani, Siti Nooraishah Hussin,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is being used in medical treatments, but AAS also was identified to have the risks of adverse effects towards patients and consumers health.
Objective: Present study was conducted to observe the effects of testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol (forms of AAS) intake during onset of puberty on the rat testicular histology.
Materials and Methods: Juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=42) were divided into seven groups and were injected subcutaneously with medium dose of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) (control), testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol for six weeks (PND 41-87). The animals were weighed daily and sacrificed on PND 88. Testes were removed, weighed, and prepared for histological assessment and finally specimens were observed under microscope.
Results: The results showed an insignificant increase in mean daily body weight with highest and lowest body weight gained was of 177.6±1.69 gr and 140.0±12.26 gr respectively. There was significant decrease in the testes absolute weight (p≤0.01) in all experimental groups except in the nandrolone 2.5 mg/kg/week treated group. Testicular histology of rats treated with AAS also showed slight changes in the uniformity of arrangements of seminiferous tubules.
Conclusion: Data from present study suggests that AAS have been initiating the adverse effects on testicular normal functions in rats during onset of puberty.
Ademola Ayodele Oremosu, Edidiong Nnamso Akang, Catherine Chukwumuanya Adigwe, Iniebehe Essien Okoko, Onyemaechi Okpara Azu,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Long term alcohol use has been implicated in men with sexual disorders including suppression of testosterone levels as well as testicular morphological changes.
Objective: This research investigated the ability of Telfairia occidentalis (T.O.) to attenuate the damaging effects of alcohol on the testicular parameters.
Materials and Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 170-190 grams were divided into 6 groups, A to F and treated with distilled water (DW) for the period of 8 weeks (positive control group A), ethanol for 2 weeks followed with DW for 6 weeks (group B) (negative control), ethanol alone for 2 weeks (group C) while others received ethanol for 2 weeks, followed with 200 (group D), 400 (group E) and 600 mg/kg (group F) of T.O. for 6 weeks.
Results: Testicular histological sections showed that ethanol produced marked loss of testicular germ cells after two weeks of administration. T.O (200 mg/kg body weight) was not able to attenuate this microanatomical distortion when compared with control groups, but at 400 mg/kg body weight, T.O reversed the ethanol`s effects with resultant significant increase in sperm count and motility (p<0.05), serum testosterone levels (p<0.05), and testicular weight (p<0.05). However, at 600 mg/kg dosage, there was marked depletion of testicular germ cells with atrophied seminiferous tubules and a decrease in semen parameters and testicular weight.
Conclusion: Our result suggests that T.O promotes the regeneration of testicular germ cells and improves semen quality at a certain critical dose. Hence, T.O has a potential of reversing ethanol induced testicular damage.
Ghodrat Ebadi Manas, Shapour Hasanzadeh, Golamreza Najafi, Kazem Parivar, Parichehr Yaghmaei,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Pyridaben, a pyridazinone derivative, is a new acaricide and insecticide for control of mites and some insects such as white flies, aphids and thrips.
Objective: This study was designed to elucidate how pyridaben can affect the sperms' morphological parameters, its DNA integrity, and to estimate the effect of various quantities of pyridaben on in vitro fertilization rate.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 80 adult male Balb/C strain mice were used. Animals were divided into control and two test groups. Control group received distilled water. The test group was divided into two subgroups, viz, high dose (212 mg/kg/day) and low dose (53 mg/kg/day) and they received the pyridaben, orally for duration of 45 days. The spermatozoa were obtained from caudae epididymides on day 45 in all groups. Sperm viability, protamin compression (nuclear maturity), DNA double-strand breaks, and in vitro fertilizing (IVF) ability were examined.
Results: The pyridaben treatment provoked a significant decrease in sperm population and viability in epididymides. The data obtained from this experiment revealed that, the pyridaben brings about negative impact on the sperm maturation and DNA integrity in a time-dependent manner, which consequently caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in IVF capability. Embryo developing arrest was significantly (p<0.05) higher in treated than the control group.
Conclusion: Theses results confirmed that, the pyridaben is able to induce DNA damage and chromatin abnormalities in spermatozoa which were evident by low IVF rate.
Ozra Nasrolahi, Fereshteh Khaneshi, Fatemeh Rahmani, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties.
Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses.
Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels.

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