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Showing 12 results for Frozen

Leila Alizadeh, Reza Omani Samani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.
Maryam Eftekhar, Elham Rahmani, Soheila Pourmasumi,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)

Background: Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is one of the most important supplementary procedures in the treatment of infertile couples. While general information concerning the outcome of fresh embryo transfer has been documented, paucity of investigations has addressed the clinical factors influenced on pregnancy rates in FET.
Objective: In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis of clinical factors that potentially influence the outcome of FET.
Materials and Methods: We reviewed the data from 372 women who were subjected to FET registered from April 2009-2011 at the Research and clinical center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Baseline data and pregnancy rate were collected. The data were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney tests.
Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was 57.7 and 29.2% in women <35 years old, and women >35 years old, respectively (p<0.0001). Clinical pregnancy rates in women with FSH <10 IU/ml, and FSH >10 IU/ml were 56.3% and 17.5 %, respectively (p<0.0001). Whereas the other clinical parameters consist of reason of fetus freezing, primary IVF protocol, IVF procedure, endometrial thickness, treatment duration to fetal transfer found to be unrelated to FET outcomes (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Female age and basal FSH level are the most important factors influencing the clinical pregnancy rate following FET. 
Maryam Eftekhar, Mozhgan Sayadi, Farideh Arabjahvani,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)

Background: We often see patients with a thin endometrium in ART cycles, in spite of standard and adjuvant treatments. Improving endometrial growth in patients with a thin endometrium is very difficult. Without adequate endometrial thickness these patients, likely, would not have reached embryo transfer.
Objective: We planned this study to investigate the efficacy of intrauterine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) perfusion in improving endometrium, and possibly pregnancy rates in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.
Materials and Methods: This is a non-randomized intervention clinical trial. Among 68 infertile patients with thin endometrium (-7 mm) at the 12th-13th cycle day, 34 patients received G-CSF. G-CSF (300 microgram/1mL) to improve endometrial thickness was direct administered by slow intrauterine infusion using IUI catheter. If the endometrium had not reached at least a 7-mm within 48-72 h, a second infusion was given. Endometrial thickness was assessed by serial vaginal ultrasound at the most expanded area of the endometrial stripe.
Results: The cycle was cancelled in the patients with thin endometrium (endometrial thickness below 7mm) until 19th cycle day ultimately The cycle cancelation rate owing to thin endometrium was similar in G-CSF group (15.20%), followed by (15.20%) in the control group (p=1.00). The endometrial growth was not different within 2 groups, an improvement was shown between controlled and G-CSF cotreated groups, with chemical (39.30% vs. 14.30%) and clinical pregnancy rates (32.10% vs. 12.00%) although were not significant.
Conclusion: Our study fails to demonstrate that G-CSF has the potential to improve endometrial thickness but has the potential to improve chemical and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle.
Robab Davar, Maryam Farid Mojtahedi, Sepideh Miraj,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles.
Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) improves the embryo developmental potential.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100) to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin) was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100), who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate.
Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively).
Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.
Ali Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh Maybodi, Nastaran Aflatoonian, Nasim Tabibnejad, Mohammad Hossein Amir-Arjmand, Mehrdad Soleimani, Behrouz Aflatoonian, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Despite of higher pregnancy rate after frozen embryo transfer (FET) which is accepted by the majority of researches, the safety of this method and its effect on neonatal outcome is still under debate.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy and neonatal outcome of FET compare to fresh cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this study,1134 patients using fresh ET and 285 women underwent FET were investigated regarding live birth as primary outcome and gestational age, birth weight, gender, multiple status, ectopic pregnancy, still birth and pregnancy loss as secondary outcomes.
Results: Our results showed that there is no difference between FET and fresh cycles regarding live birth (65.6% vs. 70.4% respectively). Ectopic pregnancy, still birth and abortion were similar in both groups. The mean gestational age was significantly lower among singletons in FET group compared to fresh cycles (p=0.047). Prematurity was significantly elevated among singleton infants in FET group (19.6%) in comparison to neonates born after fresh ET (12.8%) (p=0.037).
Conclusion: It seems that there is no major difference regarding perinatal outcome between fresh and frozen embryo transfer. Although, live birth is slightly increased in fresh cycles and prematurity was significantly increased among singleton infants in FET group.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Ramesh Baradaran Bagheri, Robabe Hosseinisadat,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (7-2016)

Background: Implantation failure is one of the most important factors limiting success in IVF treatment. The majority of trials have demonstrated favorable effect of endometrial injury on implantation success rate especially in women with recurrent implantation failure, while some studies failed to detect any benefit. 
Objective: The purpose of our trial was to explore whether endometrial injury in luteal phase prior to frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles would improve pregnancy outcomes? 
Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial of 93 consecutive subjects at a research and clinical center for infertility. All women were undergone frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTE) cycles. Women in the experimental group underwent endometrial biopsy with a Pipelle catheter in luteal phase proceeding FET cycle. Primary outcomes were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates and secondary outcomes were chemical, ongoing and multiple pregnancy and miscarriage rates. 
Results: 45 subjects who underwent endometrial injury (EI) were compared with 48 control group which did not include any uterine manipulation. There were no significant differences in baseline and cycle characteristics between two groups. The difference in implantation rate was trend to statistically significance, 11.8% in EI group vs. 20.5% in control group (p=0.091). The chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were lower in EI group compared with control group but not statistically significant. The multiple pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate also were lower in EI group compared with control group. 
Conclusion: Based on results of this study, local injury to endometrium in luteal phase prior to FET cycle had a negative impact on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates.
Ashraf Aleyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Leili Safdarian, Maryam Noorzadeh, Parvin Fallahi, Zahra Rezaeian, Sedighe Hoseinimosa,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: There are different methods in endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the live birth rate in the artificial FET protocol (estradiol/ progesterone with GnRH-agonist) with stimulated cycle FET protocol (letrozole plus HMG).
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 100 women (18-42 years) randomly assigned to two groups based on Bernoulli distribution. Group I received GnRH agonist [Bucerelin, 500μg subcutaneously] from the previous midlutea lcycle, Then estradiol valerat [2 mg/ daily orally] was started on the second day and was increased until the observation of 8mm endometrial thickness. Finally progesterone [Cyclogest, 800 mg, vaginally] was started. Group II received letrozole on the second day of the cycle for five days, then HMG 75 IU was injected on the7PthP day. After observing [18 mm folliclhCG10000 IU was injected for ovulation induction. Trans cervical embryo transfer was performed in two groups. The main outcome was the live birth rate. The rate of live birth, implantation, chemical, and clinical pregnancy, abortion, cancellation and endometrial thickness were compared between two groups.
Results: Implantation rate was significantly higher in group I. Live birth rate was slightly increased in group I without significant difference (30% vs. 26%). The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy was similar in two groups. The abortion rate was lower in letrozole protocol but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean endometrial thickness was not different between two groups.
Conclusion: Letrozole plus HMG method cannot improve pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer but it has only one injection compare to daily injections in artificial method
Abbas Aflatoonian, Mahnaz Mansoori-Torshizi, Maryam Farid Mojtahedi, Behrouz Aflatoonian, Mohammaad Ali Khalili, Mohammad Hossein Amir-Arjmand, Mehrdad Soleimani, Nastaran Aflatoonian, Homa Oskouian, Nasim Tabibnejad, Peter Humaidan,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (2-2018)

Background: The use of embryo cryopreservation excludes the possible detrimental effects of ovarian stimulation on the endometrium, and higher reproductive outcomes following this policy have been reported. Moreover, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist cycles as a substitute for standard human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, minimizes the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in fresh as well as frozen embryo transfer cycles (FET).
Objective: To compare the reproductive outcomes and risk of OHSS in fresh vs frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization triggered with a bolus of GnRH agonist.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized, multi-centre study, 121 women undergoing FET and 119 women undergoing fresh ET were investigated as regards clinical pregnancy as the primary outcome and the chemical pregnancy, live birth, OHSS development, and perinatal data as secondary outcomes.
Results: There were no significant differences between FET and fresh groups regarding chemical (46.4% vs. 40.2%, p=0.352), clinical (35.8% vs. 38.3%, p=0.699), and ongoing (30.3% vs. 32.7%, p=0.700) pregnancy rates, also live birth (30.3% vs. 29.9%, p=0.953), perinatal outcomes, and OHSS development (35.6% vs. 42.9%, p=0.337). No woman developed severe OHSS and no one required admission to hospital.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GnRHa trigger followed by fresh transfer with modified luteal phase support in terms of a small human chorionic gonadotropin bolus is a good strategy to secure good live birth rates and a low risk of clinically relevant OHSS development in in vitro fertilization patients at risk of OHSS.
Maryam Eftekhar, Masrooreh Hoseini, Lida Saeed,
Volume 17, Issue 9 (9-2019)

Background: In vitro fertilization is an important therapy for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The use of new ways of improving clinical results is yet required.
Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of progesterone primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) and compare with conventional antagonist protocol in PCOS.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 PCOS women who were candidates for assisted reproductive technology treatment from August to January 2019 were enrolled in this RCT and were placed into two groups, randomly (n= 60/each). The PPOS group received 20 mg /day Dydrogesterone orally since the second day of the cycle and the control group received antagonist protocol. The pregnancy outcomes including the chemical and clinical pregnancy, the miscarriage rate, and the percent of gestational sacs/ transferred embryos was compared in two groups.
Results: Number of MII oocyte, maturity rate, Number of 2 pronuclei (2PN) and serum estradiol levels on trigger day were statistically lower in PPOS group (p = 0.019, p = 0.035, p = 0.032, p = 0.030), respectively. Serum LH level on trigger day in PPOS group was higher than antagonist group (p = 0.005). Although there wasn’t sever ovarian hyper simulation syndrome in any participants, mild and moderate ovarian hyper simulation syndrome was less in PPOS group (p = 0.001). Also, the chemical and clinical pregnancy rate were higher in the antagonist group, althoughit was not statistically significant (p = 0.136, p = 0.093 respectively).
Conclusion: Our study demonstrate that PPOS does not improve chemical and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with PCOS.
Alamtaj Samsami, Leila Ghasempour, Sara Davoodi, Shaghayegh Moradi Alamdarloo, Jamshid Rahmati, Ali Karimian, Hamide Homayoon,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (12-2019)

Background: The endometrial preparation with stimulating natural cycles for frozen embryo transfer (FET) have benefits like lower cost and ease of use.
Objective: Comparing the clinical outcome of letrozole versus hormone replacement (HR) for endometrial preparation in women with normal menstrual cycles for FET in artificial reproduction techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 167 participants who had frozen embryos and regular ovulatory cycles were randomly divided into two groups for endometrial preparation. One group (82 women) was stimulated with letrozole 5mg/day and the other group (85 women) was hormonally stimulated by oral estradiol valerate (2 mg three times a day). All participants were followed serially by ultrasonography. Any patient who did not reach optimal endometrial thickness was excluded from the study. Implantation, biochemical and clinical pregnancy and abortion rate were reported.
Results: There was no significant difference in the mean age, duration, and primary or secondary infertility, cause of the infertility, number, and quality of transferred embryos between the groups. The mean estradiol level on the day of transfer was 643 ± 217 in the HR group and 547 ± 212 in the letrozole group (P = 0.01), which was significantly different. The clinical pregnancy rate was 38.7 in the letrozole group, higher than the HR group (25.3) but not significantly different (P=0.06).
Conclusion: For endometrial preparation in women with a normal cycle, letrozole yields higher pregnancy rate although it is not significant; due to its cost, ease in use, and lower side effects, letrozole is a good choice.
Wan Tinn Teh, Alex Polyakov, Claire Garrett, David Edgar, John McBain, Peter Rogers,
Volume 18, Issue 7 (7-2020)

Background: Studies have suggested that embryo-endometrial developmental asynchrony caused by slow-growing embryos can be corrected by freezing the embryo and transferring it back in a subsequent cycle. Therefore, we hypothesized that live birth rates (LBR) would be higher in frozen embryo transfer (FET) compared with fresh embryo transfers.
Objective: To compare LBR between fresh and FET cycles.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 10,744 single autologous embryo transfer cycles that used a single cleavage stage embryo was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare LBR between FET and fresh cycles, after correcting for various confounding factors. Sub-analysis was also performed in cycles using slow embryos.
Results: Both LBR (19.13% vs 14.13%) and clinical pregnancy (22.48% vs 16.25%) rates (CPR) were higher in the fresh cycle group (p < 0.00). Multivariate analysis for confounding factors also confirmed that women receiving a frozen-thawed embryo had a significantly lower LBR rate compared to those receiving a fresh embryo (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.86, p < 0.00). In the sub-analysis of 1,154 cycles using slow embryos, there was no statistical difference in LBR (6.40% vs 6.26%, p = 0.92) or CPR (8.10% vs 7.22%, p = 0.58) between the two groups.
Conclusion: This study shows a lower LBR in FET cycles when compared to fresh cycles. Our results suggest that any potential gains in LBR due to improved embryo-endometrial synchrony following FET are lost, presumably due to freeze-thaw process-related embryo damage.

Robab Davar, Masrooreh Hoseini, Lida Saeed,
Volume 18, Issue 8 (8-2020)

Background: Endometrial thickness is regarded as an indicator of the receptivity of the endometrium. Patients preparing for frozen embryo transfer need some interventions in case their endometrium is thin.
Objective: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of oral administration of estradiol valerate with its vaginal type in women with inappropriate endometrial thickness.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study comprised of 79 women (cycles) who had undergone frozen-thawed embryo transfer. On the 13th day of the cycle, vaginal sonography was performed in case the thickness of the endometrium was < 7 mm; in the oral group, the patients continued using oral estradiol valerate tablet. However, in the vaginal group, the participants applied estradiol valerate tablet vaginally. Finally, the chemical and clinical pregnancy rate, also, early miscarriage rate were compared between the two groups.
Results: The early miscarriage rate was lower in the vaginal group in comparison with the oral group (p = 0.040). Women in the vaginal group showed a lower rate of chemical pregnancy compared to the oral group, but this difference was not statistically significant (25.0 vs. 34.4%, p = 0.440). The rate of clinical pregnancy in the two groups was not statistically significant, although the vaginal group had a higher pregnancy rate (22.5% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.464), especially in women older than 34 years (37.5% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.355).
Conclusion: Vaginal administration of estradiol tablet in women with thin endometrium leads to a lower rate of early miscarriage.

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