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Showing 42 results for Elisa

Mansour Ebrahimi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (7-2004)

Background: Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been described as an alternative to radioimmunoassay for the mammalian and nonmammalian steroids detection. In this study, a simple and rapid ELISA is described and validated for 4-pregnen-3,20, dione (progesterone). Materials and Methods: A general procedure for preparation of the acetylcholinesterase labelled steroid is described which is applicable to any steroid. Use of acetylcholinesterase tracer increased the sensitivity of assay so that reliable measurements of each steroid could be achieved with only 10 ?l of plasma. Results: Typical standard curves for progesterone steroids showed a workable range (detection limit) from 0.8 to 400 pg/well and the sensitivity of the assay taken as the concentration of steroid that induced 90% of B/B0, was 1.5 pg. Inter-assay variations that gave approximately 50% displacement was 9.2% for 10 replicates and intra-assay co-efficient of variation was less than 10% over the central part of the standard curve between 3 and 200 pg/well. There was a strong positive correlation (r>0.999) between the amount of steroid added to plasma and the amount measured. Conclusion: Method described here was applied to measure progesterone in plasma and this methodology could be of great interest to researchers measuring steroid hormones.
Soheila Arefi, Mahmoud Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Ali Reza Mousavi, Mahnaz Heidari, Ahmad Ali Bayat, Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Auto antibodies to zona-pellucida (AZA) seem to be important autoantibodies implicated in reproduction, with substantial role in both endocrine and reproductive functions of the human ovary. There are some debates on the relation of AZA with infertility, repeated In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempts, and outcome of it. Objective: In this study, we assessed the presence of AZA in the follicular fluids (FFs) of women who underwent intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in relation to etiology of infertility and multiple puncture of ovaries. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, follicular fluids were evaluated from 96 infertile women, (19-40 years old, 31.5�5.1), who were candidates for ICSI based on the etiology of infertility. From these 80 women had explained infertility whereas 16 had unexplained infertility. All FFs were evaluated for presence of AZA by ELISA test. Results: Twenty patients (20.8%) were positive for AZA in follicular fluid. In patients with unexplained infertility, AZA antibody in follicular fluid, was significantly higher than the group with proven etiology of infertility (p=0.001). In addition, 20.4 % of patients who had been punctured previously showed AZA in their FFs which is statistically similar to the patients who were punctured for the first time. Conclusions: The high incidence of AZA in infertile women, especially women with unexplained infertility has to be considered. Relation of the presence AZA and repeated puncture of ovaries is still debatable. Determinations of AZA are highly recommended in evaluation of infertile couples especially in patient with unexplained infertility
Seyed Mahmood Ghoraishian, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammd Seyed Hasani, Mohammad Ghafourzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Recurrent abortion is a critical problem in which many factors play a crucial role such as anticordiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody. This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of anticardiolipin antibody and antiphospholipid antibody in pregnancy failures in women with the history of recurrent pregnancy loss. In 154 women with the history of two or more recurrent pregnancy losses, serum anticardiolipin and serum antiphospholipid were measured using ELISA method. The positive IgG anticardiolipin and IgG antiphospholipid were detected in 12. 34% (19 patients) and 6.5% (10 patients) of patients respectively. Although 16 out of 19 patients with positive IgG anticardiolipin were negative for IgG antiphospholipid and 7 out of 10 patients with positive IgG antiphosphplipid were negative IgG anticardiolipin, but there was a significant correlation between IgG anticardiolipin and IgG antiphaspholipid ( r = 0.222 p=0.000). Our data concluded that anticardiolipin antibody is found to be more important than anti phospholipid antibody in recurrent abortion.
Parvin Gharabaghi, Seddighe Abdollahifard, Manizheh Gharabaghi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: The value of serial measurement of serum ß subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (ßHCG) and ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy has well established.
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of raising level of serum ßHCG, single measurement of progesterone (P) and estradiol (E2) in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: Serum levels of ßHCG and estradiol were measured by Radio Immuno Sorbent Assay (RIA) and progesterone level was measured by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques in 43 symptomatic women with ectopic pregnancy and 42 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy in Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. These values were compared by T-test. By determining cut-off levels of these parameters the efficiency and sensitivity of them in prediction of ectopic pregnancy was estimated.
Results: The mean serum levels of ßHCG, estradiol and progesterone in patients with ectopic pregnancies (940 ± 552 mlu/ml, 593 ± 237 pg/ml, 5.83 ± 3.41 ng/ml, respectively) were significantly lower than these levels in normal intrauterine pregnancies (4620 ± 2030 mlu/ml, 1627 ± 435 pg/ml, 24.8 ± 6.08 ng/ml, respectively). The average rate of ßHCG rising was 8.2% for 24 hours in patients with ectopic pregnancy (EP) and 32.8% in normal intrauterine pregnancies (NIUP).
Conclusions: In this study single measurement of serum progesterone level has the greatest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98%) in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.
Mohammad Nouri, Aliyeh Ghasemzadeh, Laya Farzadi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to deleterious effects on a range of sperm parameters. Vitamins E and C are capable of reducing ROS levels and lipid peroxidation. Objective: The aim of study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation as indicated by Malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamins E and C in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men and their relationships with semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Forty men with normozoospermic and 60 infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermic semen profiles were randomly selected. Semen analysis was done according to the WHO standard. Sex hormonal profiles were measured by ELISA methods. The level of vitamins (C and E) and MDA were measured by HPLC and tiobarbiotic acid, respectively. Results: MDA concentration in the spermatozoa (0.10.06 nmol/ml) and seminal plasma (1.90.35 nmol/ml) of asthenoteratozoospermic were significantly higher than in normozoospermic males (p<0.001).The level of vitamins E and C in seminal plasma of normozoospermic were significantly higher than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). However, the amount of vitamin C in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic was significantly less than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value of MDA of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were more than vitamins C and E. The level of vitamin C of spermatozoa had more diagnostic value when compare to vitamins C and E in seminal plasma. Conclusion: The level of MDA in seminal plasma and spermatozoa and vitamin C in spermatozoa may be a diagnostic tool for etiology of infertility in the asthenoteratozoospermic patients.
Javad Mohiti-Ardekani, Nasim Tarof, Abbas Aflatonian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Leptin is an adipokine that circulates in a free form and bound to a soluble leptin receptor. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have increased insulin resistance and high incidence of obesity.
Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate levels of leptin and free leptin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and note any relationships with insulin resistance and adiposity.
Materials and Methods: We assessed the correlation of metabolic parameters with the levels of free leptin and it’s bound form in 27 PCOS women (aged 26±5.6 years) and 27 healthy women with normal menstrual cycle as controls (aged 25 ±4 years).Total leptin and insulin levels were measured using ELISA. Free leptin form was purified by Gel filtration chromatography and their collected fractions were measured by a sensitive ELISA-Kit. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).
Results: In PCOS patients and control group a correlation between leptin and body mass index (BMI) was found. A significant difference was found between leptin and free leptin levels in PCOS subjects and controls (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between free and total leptin with insulin resistant in PCOS subjects (r=0.78 p=0.00, r=0.84 p=0.003) and control groups respectively (r=0.86 p=0.00, r=0.69 p=0.00).
Conclusion: Total and free leptin forms are correlated significantly with BMI in patients with PCOS and in controls. Total and free leptin forms showed significant correlations with insulin resistance but no significant difference was seen in the two groups investigated.
Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Hiroaki Shibahara, Ayustawati , Yuki Hirano, Tatsuya Suzuki, Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony , Mahtab Zainalzadeh, Mitsuaki Suzuki,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Leptin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by white adipose tissue in proportion to body energy. Although the participation of leptin in female reproduction is well established any role in male reproductive function is at best tenuous.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the leptin concentration in human seminal plasma and then the relationships between seminal leptin and semen parameters were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were provided from 71 men; normozoospermic (n=22) asthenozoospermic (n=31) and oligoasthenozoospermic (n=18) referring to Jichi Medical University Hospital for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment. After liquefaction all sperm specimens were evaluated for sperm parameters and motility characteristics by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system. After semen analysis concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of all groups were measured by ELISA.
Results: The mean concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of normozoospermic asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men were 0.75+/-0.09 ng/ml 0.8+/-0.14 ng/ml and 0.8+/-0.15 ng/ml respectively. A trend was observed for a lower leptin concentration in seminal plasma of normozoospermic men compared with asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men. There was a significant negative correlation between seminal plasma leptin concentration with sperm motility (p<0.05) and Curvilinear Velocity of the sperm kinetic parameter (p<0.01).
Conclusion: It was demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between seminal leptin with the sperm motility.
Masoomeh Kazemi, Sahraei Hedayat, Mahnaz Azarnia, Dehghani Leila, Hossein Bahadoran,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function.
Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.
Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.
Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05). Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.
Amir Mehdizadeh, Ali Rahimipour, Laya Farzadi, Masoud Darabi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Maghsod Shaaker, Amir-Mansour Vatankhah, Zahra Golmohamadi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Follicular fluid (FF) plays an important role in oocytes and embryo development, which may contribute to IVF/ICSI success rate.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) level in FF and the success rate of IVF/ICSI.
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, FF samples, FF samples were obtained from 100 patients referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent IVF and the remaining 21 underwent ICSI. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I and CETP were measured using enzymatic, turbidometric and ELISA methods respectively.
Results: Analysis of the subgroups with different levels of CETP showed a significant lower level of CETP in the subgroup with the lowest number of mature oocytes (p<0.05). The level of CETP was also considerably lower (18%, p=0.05) in subjects with<50% oocytes fertilization ratio than subjects with >70% of this ratio.
Conclusion: While no association was found for pregnancy, the amount of CETP in FF was associated positively to the maturity and the percentage of oocyte fertilization.
Maryam Khodadadi, Shiva Basavaiah, Saeid Abediankenari,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Main function of corpus luteum is progesterone synthesis that is significantly accompanied with an increase in levels of mRNA encoding of steroidogenic enzymes known as luteal markers.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate effects of lithium chloride on the release of steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes in gonadotropin-stimulated rats.
Materials and Methods: Immature 23 days old Wistar rats were divided into 10 groups; each group comprised of 8 rats, and induced with single injection of pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and followed by single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Then, rats were given lithium chloride (LiCl) or saline at 12 hours post-hCG injection. Ovaries were collected in 4-hour interval from 8-24 hour post-hCG injection. Expression pattern of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) genes were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol were measured by ELISA.
Results: Our results showed that hCG stimulation of progesterone was markedly diminished and transcript levels of key steroidogenic enzymes were altered in the hormone-stimulated rats following LiCl treatment.
Conclusion: These results suggest that critical steps in the function of corpus luteum are disrupted by lithium. It is concluded that LiCl is an effective factor for suppressing of steroid genes expression.

Korosh Khanaki, Ali Motavalizadeh Ardekani, Alieh Ghassemzadeh, Vahideh Shahnazi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Masoud Darabi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Abotaleb Saremi, Jafar Soleimani-Rad, Ali Reza Imani, Mohammad Nouri, Ali Rahimipour,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Endometriosis is a common chronic inflammation which leads to infertility and chronic pelvic pain in affected women. Secretory phospholipase A2 type IIa (sPLA2IIa) is an acute phase reactant that is markedly increased in inflammatory disorders.
Objective: To assess the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) administration in endometrial cells culture on sPLA2IIa level and cell survival comparing homolog ectopic versus eutopic endometrial cells from endometriosis patients.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissue samples obtained from 15 endometriosis patients were immediately frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, mixed stromal and endometrial gland cells were cultured for 8 days in three different culture media; balanced ω-3/ω-6, high ω-3 and high ω-6 PUFAs ratio. Cell survival was measured using 2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-(phenylamino) carbonyl-2H- tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) method and sPLA2IIa level assessed with ELISA technique.
Results: The sPLA2IIa level was significantly higher in the ectopic endometrial cell culture compared to the eutopic group for each of the three matched treatments (balanced, high ω-3 and high ω-6). Also the sPLA2IIa level in the ectopic endometrial cell group was remarkably increased by each of the three PUFAs treatments compared to control condition (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Cell survival in the eutopic group was significantly decreased by high ω-6 culturing compared to control medium (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The increase in sPLA2IIa level in ectopic endometrial cells by fatty acid treatments (especially high ω-3), strengthens the hypothesis that PUFAs stimulate secretion of cytokines leading to increased sPLA2IIa level.
Sedigheh Borna, Mamak Shariat, Mohaddese Fallahi, Leila Janani,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: Our information regarding immunity to toxoplasmosis among reproductive age women is indeterminate and there is significant variation between reported results; it is necessary to perform a Meta-analysis study on subjects to obtain required findings and develop preventive measures accordingly.
Objective: Estimation level of immunity to toxoplasmosis in reproductive ages.
Materials and Methods: All published papers in main national and international databases were systematically searched for some specific keywords to find the related studies up to 2012. we selected only original articles that either reported percentage of positive anti Toxoplasma IgG or total anti toxoplasma antibody by using ELISA or IFAT method (provided that the titer ≥1.20 is considered positive for IFAT) in childbearing age women and the full text of papers were found too.
Results: Studies involved a total of 13480 participants. The maximum and minimum reported prevalence rates of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method were 21.8% and 54%; using ELISA serological method were 23% and 64%, respectively. The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody using IFTA serological method was 34.5% (95% CI: 28.5-40.5); using ELISA method was 37.6% (95% CI: 30.4-44.9). The overall estimation for prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma total antibody was 39.9% (95% CI: 26.1-53.7).
Conclusion: In Iran, screening is not routinely performed yet. The incidence of toxoplasmosis is too high to justify routine screening. Prenatal screening can help to identify mothers susceptible to infection. Screening for the presence of antibodies allows primary prevention of toxoplasmosis infection where eating habits and hygiene practices have clearly been identified as risk factors.
Dian Dayer, Roshan Nikbakht, Manijeh Kadkhodai Elyaderani,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Some studies propose that changes in leptin concentrations (above or under the normal range) result in infertility. Therefore, we investigated serum and follicular fluid leptin concentrations in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Objective: To study serum and follicular fluid leptin concentrations in infertile women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a case-control study. The case group consisted of 30 infertile women with PCOS who were admitted to the Infertility Department of Imam Khomainy Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. The control group consisted of 30 healthy fertile women adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) with the case group. On day 14 of the menstrual cycle, 5 ml of blood was obtained from subjects in both groups. Serum and follicular fluid leptin concentrations were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A Biovendor kit was used for the measurement of leptin concentrations. All data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software (version 17.0, Nie, Bent & Hull, USA).
Results: There was a significant correlation between BMI and serum leptin concentrations in both the control (p=0.005, r=0.516) and case groups (p=0.006, r=0.547). In the case group, serum leptin concentrations were consistent with follicular fluid leptin concentrations (p<0.001, r=0.839). Comparison of serum leptin concentrations between the case and control groups revealed no significant difference (p=0.56).
Conclusion: Infertility among women with PCOS was not a consequence of changes in leptin concentrations.
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Maryam Radan,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability.
Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased .Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups.
Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent.
Julio Elito Júnior, Leandro Gustavo Oliveira, Marcelo Octávio Fernandes Silva, Edward Araujo Júnior, Luiz Camano,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the most important cause of maternal death in the first trimester accounting for 9 - 13% of all pregnancy-related deaths (1). Despite the use of transvaginal sonography and high sensitive quantitative beta-hCG assays for diagnosis, nearly 40-50% of all EPs may be initially misdiagnosed (2). Therefore, several biomarkers have been investigated for early diagnosis of EP. Activin A, a dimeric glycoprotein belonging to the TGF-β superfamily, has been highlighted among these “new biomarkers” (3). Florio et al reported that serum activin A levels can be markedly lower in women with tubal EP than those levels found either during normal intrauterine pregnancy or spontaneous miscarriage (4). The authors showed that a cut-off value of 0.37 ng/mL have 100% and 99.6% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively for predicting EP. Conversely, Kirk et al demonstrated in another elegant study that activin A has much lower sensitivity and specificity when used as a single biomarker for the diagnosis of EP (5). Bearing on these considerations, it is clear that this subject still needs to be carefully evaluated and it prompted us to develop this project where we compared serum activin A levels in women at first trimester of normal pregnancy to women with tubal EP. The study group was comprised of 5 women with EP. The diagnosis criteria was based on visualization of an adnexial mass by transvaginal scan associated with positive test for β-hCG in women with a suspected EP (amenorrhea, bleeding and pain). For this study were included only those cases in which the gestational age was established between 5-6 weeks gestational age. In all patients the mass was confirmed to be a tubal EP without signs of rupture by pathologist analysis. The control group was comprised of 10 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy at 5-6 weeks gestational age confirmed by transvaginal scan (evaluated by gestational sac measurements and/or crown-rump length). This work has been approved by the Ethics Committee of The Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). Informed consent was obtained from all participants before the blood samples were collected. All blood samples of patients with EP were collected before surgery by peripheral venous puncture and immediately centrifuged at 1000g for 10 minutes; the supernants were stored at -80oC until processing. For the determination of serum activin A levels a commercially available assay for ELISA was used (activin A- Catalog number: Dy338; R&D systems, Inc. Minneapolis, USA). All activin A measurements and analysis were performed in duplicate at the same time. The limit of detection of the kit was less than 0.133 ng/mL. Data were presented as mean and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was performed using Prism software (version 4.02, Graph Pad Software Inc., San Diego, CA). The two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and results were considered significant when p<0.05. The mean gestational age was 5.2±0.14 for the EP group and 5.2±0.19 for the normal intrauterine pregnancy group. The mean of activin A serum levels was 0.26±0.714 ng/mL and 0.37±161.4 ng/mL for women with EP and for women with normal pregnancy, respectively (p=0.206). The Figure 1 depicts all cases studied.
Nasser Amirjannati, Farhad Yaghmaei, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mahboubeh Nasiri, Hamed Heidari-Vala, Zahra Sehhat,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility.
Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.
Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001).
Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum.
Rehana Rehman, Rakhshaan Khan, Mukhtiar Baig, Mehwish Hussain, Syeda Sadia Fatima,
Volume 12, Issue 9 (10-2014)

Background: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an advanced technique employed in assisted reproductive clinics for treatment of infertile couples. The reproductive endocrinologists try their level best to identify factors that enhance success rate after ICSI.
Objective: To compare estradiol progesterone ratio on ovulation induction day amongst pregnancy outcome groups following ICSI.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 323 couples of Assisted Reproductive Clinic in Islamabad from June 2010 till August 2011. Down regulation of females aged 18-40 years with gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist was followed by calculated stimulation with gonadotrophin injections (COS). Oocytes pickup was done 36 hours after ovulation induction by 16G adapter and double lumen oocyte aspiration needle under general anesthesia. Oocytes were fertilized in vitro, graded and only blastocysts were transferred seven days after ovulation induction. Serum estradiol and progesterone were measured by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay on ovulation induction day, ratio was compared in three groups of females; no conception with βhCG 5-25 mIU/ml, preclinical abortion with βhCG >25 mIU/ml and no cardiac activity on transvaginal scan and clinical pregnancy with βhCG >25mIU/ml and cardiac activity on transvaginal scan.
Results: Females having high estradiol/ progesterone ratio were able to achieve clinical pregnancy shown by a positive βhCG and cardiac activity on transvaginal scan. These females also had significantly high number of oocytes, endometrial thickness and implantation rate.
Conclusion: A high estradiol/progesterone ratio on the day of ovulation induction predicts the success of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection.
Mustafa Yen, Orkide Donma, Ferdag Yildizfer, Ozlem Ekmekci, Asli Karatas Kul, A. Esat Imal, Zafer Keser, Emin Cagil, Murat Mengi, Hakan Ekmekci, Sezai Sahmay, Metin Donma,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Possible roles of anti-inflammatory factors as well as total antioxidative capacity in reproductive processes of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are still being investigated and the contributions by some of them remain controversial.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between anti-inflammatory parameters and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) of the body during IVF. In this respect, adiponectin, interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), fetuin A and TAC analyses have been performed.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective, non-randomized, controlled clinical study, sera obtained from 26 fertile (Group-1), and 26 infertile women before (Group-2) and after (Group-3) IVF treatment were analyzed. IL-1RA, IL-10, fetuin A, adiponectin and insulin were determined by ELISA. TAC was determined spectrophotometrically. Mann-Whitney U test, paired sample t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test as well as Pearson correlation analysis by SPSS were performed for statistical analysis.
Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were determined as 30.8% and 23.1%, respectively, in pregnant group. For the pregnant, significant indirect correlations were detected between fetuin A and adiponectin (r=-0.843; p=0.035) as well as IL-10 (r=-0.846; p=0.034) in Group 2. The correlation between adiponectin and IL-10 doubled in pregnant compared to non-pregnant (r=0.929; p=0.007 vs. r=0.478; p=0.033). The correlations between fetuin A and TAC in pregnant were noted both in Group 2 (r=0.892; p=0.017) and Group 3 (r=0.875; p=0.022). No correlation of fetuin A with these parameters was detected in non-pregnant group.
Conclusion: Fetuin A, TAC, IL-10, adiponectin and their associations may be important from their predictive values for IVF success point of view. Parameters with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant property appear to improve pregnancy in women undergoing IVF.
Korosh Khanaki, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Masoud Darabi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mahdi Shabani, Ali Rahimipour, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases.
Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells.
Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique.
Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively).
Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis.
Rezvaneh Ghasemnezhad, Fahime Mohammadghasemi, Masoumeh Faghani, Mohammad Hadi Bahadori,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: Ischemia reperfusion (IR) is the main pathology of torsion of testis and it is a common urologic emergency. There is some evidence that shows oxytocin (OT) plays role in ischemia reperfusion.
Objective: To evaluate this hypothesis that OT can decrease germ cell apoptotic index in testis under acute ischemia reperfusion in a rat model.
Materials and Methods: 20 adult rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, IR, OT and IR+ OT (OTA). Testicular ischemia was achieved by 720° torsion of the left testis for 2 hr. Then, torsion was removed and reperfusion was performed. Immediately after induction of reperfusion 0.03 µg/kg OT were administered intraperitoneally to the IR+ OT. Three hours after surgery left testis was removed and evaluations were made by Johnson’s score, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry for study of maturity of spermatogenesis, endocrine profiles, apoptosis and quantitative studies, respectively.
Results: The results showed in addition tissue edema and congestion, a significant reduced in Johnson’s score were detected in IR group in comparison with controls (p=0.01), and apoptotic index increased significantly (p=0.001). Administration of OT in OT+IR group, increased Johnson’s score but it was not statistically significant. Germinal epithelium thickness was increased significantly (p=0.03), although apoptotic index decreased significantly in comparison with the IR group (p=0.04). However there was not significant difference in serum levels of testosterone, FSH and LH in none of groups (p=0.07).
Conclusion: These results suggested that OT can decrease apoptotic index and improves complication of acute ischemic reperfusion in testis in a rat model.

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