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Showing 8 results for Chlamydia Trachomatis

Maryam Afrakhteh, Atossa Mahdavi, Hadi Beyhaghi, Afshin Moradi, Sima Gity, Shirin Zafarghandi, Zahra Zonoubi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common causes of illness in the world and have far-reaching health, economic and social consequences for many countries. Failure to diagnose and treat STIs at an early stage may result in serious complications and sequels.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients who remain symptomatic after completion of their first episode of treatment for STI.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 49 patients suffering from symptoms or signs of sexually transmitted infections despite their first complete anti STI treatment. Conducting physical exam and smear preparation from vaginal discharge, diagnosis was confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on every patient’s first-voided urine sample.
Results: Among the etiologic factors investigated in this study, Chlamydia was reported in 17 patients. Trichomoniasis, Candidiasis, Gonorrhea and nonspecific germs were next organisms with 11, 9, 6 and 6 patients, respectively. Sixteen specimens were PCR positive (32.65%), while 33 patients had negative PCR results (67.34%) for Chlamydia trachomatis.
Conclusion: Gonorrheal infection was the most prevalent infection in patients with completed treatment (6/10), which must be remembered in patients follow ups, because this prevalence warrants empirical therapy for Gonorrheain similar clinical conditions. Chlamydia trachomatis was the responsible organism in approximately a quarter of patients (17/75) who despite their full compliance on anti-Chlamydial treatment still suffered from signs and symptoms of STI. This rate also recommends empirical therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis in the similar clinical signs and symptoms.
Swapnil Singh, Shilpa Bhandari, Pallavi Agarwal, Priya Chittawar, Ratna Thakur,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)
Abstract

Introduction: Chlamydia is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to tubal factor infertility.
Background: This study aims to define the role of chlamydial antibody detection in predicting presence, nature and type of tubal pathology in laparoscopy.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 200 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopy as a part of infertility work-up. Preoperatively, serological determination of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis was done by Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Findings of laparoscopy were evaluated against presence or absence of chlamydial antibodies in serum.
Results: Out of 200 patients,10 patients tested positive for chlamydial antibody. Chlamydial antibody was found positive in 20% and 22.7% of patients with tubal pathology and peri-hepatic adhesions of patients, respectively. The sensitivity of chlamydial antibody for diagnosing tubal pathology was found to be 20%, while specificity was 100%. The positive chlamydial antibody test was not statistically associated with involvement of one or both tubes and site of tubal block.
Conclusion: Chlamydia antibody test does not appear to be good screening test for tubal pathology especially in Indian subcontinent. In view of its high specificity, this test can be used to identify patients with higher chances of tubal pathology requiring operative intervention.
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami, Batool Hossein Rashidi,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications.
Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48).
Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.
Mahtab Sattari, Mehdi Ghiami Rad, Aaliye Ghasemzadeh, Zahra Mohammadoghli Reihan,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)
Abstract

Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%.. Chlamydia is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis (anti-C. trachomatis) antibodies in infertile women at Alzahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group) and 100 pregnant women (control group).the frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA.
Results: The frequency of anti-C. trachomatis IgG in pregnant and infertile women was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. The frequency of anti- C. trachomatis IgM in pregnant and infertile women was 2% and 5.44%.Our results showed the significant high rate of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgG (p=0.035), IgM (p=0.004) (p<0.05) in infertile women. Also, no significant relation was seen in the frequency of antibody between urban and rural women, IgG (p=0.690), IgM (p=0.486). The highest prevalence of positive cases was seen among the 21-30 years of age groups. There was not a significant relationship between age of infertile women and the amount of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, IgG (p=0.437), IgM (p=0.132). There was no significant relationship between tubal factor infertility and the frequency of anti C. trachomatis antibodies, IgG (p=0.208), IgM (p=0.082) (p>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients.
Behnaz Molaei, Farnaz Mohmmadian, Maryam Eftekhar, Robabeh Hatami, Atefe Tirkan, Mahsa Kiani,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence ofgGonorrheal and cChlamydial infections, and determination of related risk factors inmarried women complaining about vaginal discharge attending gynecological OPDin Zanjan in 2013-2014.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive/analytic study, 100 women aged 18-49years with vaginal discharge were evaluated for signs and symptoms of gonococcaland chlamydial infections through interviews. Then cervical discharge samples andblood samples were collected from each subject for the detection of Nisseriagonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis by bacterial culture and serological tests,respectively. The data from the questionnaires and experimental tests werestatistically analyzed.
Results: The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Nisseria gonorrhoeae were 16% and 4%, respectively. There was no significant relationship between the history of fertility and childbirth, contraception methods, previous history of vaginal infections, previous history of urinary tract infections, number of coitus per weekly and self-reported symptoms (itching, burning, abdominal pain) with incidence of Nisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Conclusion: According to results obtained through laboratory tests, the prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections increased, which makes it necessary to put emphasis on education and further preventive and therapeutic programs.
Fatemeh Joolayi, Tahereh Navidifar, Razieh Mohammad Jaafari, Mansour Amin,
Volume 15, Issue 11 (11-2017)
Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the main cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. In women, this infection can lead to tubal infertility.
Objective: In this study we investigated C. trachomatis among infertile and fertile women with both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA methods in Ahvaz, Iran.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted at the Infertility Clinic of University Jahad, Ahvaz, Iran from January to August 2017. A total of 225 vaginal swabs and blood samples (100 infertile and 125 fertile women) were collected. Detection of C. trachomatis DNA was performed from vaginal swabs by amplification of MOMP gene. Also, anti C. trachomatis immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G antibodies in the serum samples were recognized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Results showed that, 6 (6%) infertile and 2 (1.6%) fertile women were positive for IgM (p=0.21). Also, PCR was positive for C. trachomatis infection in 5 infertile (5%) and 2 fertile women (1.6%) (p=0.35). We did not find any seropositive immunoglobulin G in both groups.
Conclusion: In this study, no significant difference was found between fertile and infertile groups for C. trachomatis infection. Also, the correlation between IgM and PCR results revealed a relatively strong agreement and seems both PCR and IgM assays are appropriate for the accurate diagnosis of C. trachomatis infections.
Amin Khoshakhlagh, Reza Salman Yazdi, Farah Taj Navab-Akbar, Azadeh Ghaheri, Shaghayegh Sadeghinia, Farid Dadkhah,
Volume 15, Issue 12 (12-2017)
Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) with damaging effects on sperm quality parameters can often cause infertility in men.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for screening and detecting CT in semen samples of infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 465 men referring to the clinical laboratory of Royan Institute were chosen for primary screening and detection of the presence of CT. 93 samples were normozoospermia with normal sperm parameters i.e. sperm number, motility and morphology (Asymptomatic) and 372 had abnormal sperm parameters (Symptomatic) in semen analysis. ELISA test was performed as the screening test. Samples with optical density (OD) >0.200 were selected as the case and asymptomatic samples with OD <0.200 were selected as the control group for the confirmatory test. PCR assay was used to confirm the serological results.
Results: In the case groups (n=62), 4 out of 32 symptomatic samples (12.5%), and 1 out of 30 asymptomatic samples (3.3%) revealed positive results in PCR. No PCR positive sample was observed in the control group (n=34). The final results revealed that considering OD >0.400 as the ELISA positive, the diagnostic value of CT-ELISA positive in symptomatic and asymptomatic infertile patients were 0.019 (7 of 372) and 0.021 (2 of 93), respectively. There was no relationship between the presence of CT infection and different sperm abnormalities.
Conclusion: The anti-CT IgA ELISA test may be introduced as an appropriate tool for screening purpose in the seminal plasma to select suspicious samples for PCR confirmatory tests.
Farnaz Mohammadzadeh, Mahrokh Dolatian, Masoumeh Jorjani, Maryam Afrakhteh, Hamid Alavi Majd, Fatemeh Abdi, Reza Pakzad,
Volume 17, Issue 9 (9-2019)
Abstract

Abstract
Background: Chlamydia Trachomatis is one of the most common pathogens transmitted through the genital tract in humans that leads to urogenital infection. 
Objective: Given the high prevalence of chlamydia infection and its adverse effects on the health of women and men, the present meta-analysis was conducted to determine the rate of treatment failure with azithromycin.
Materials and Methods: Databases including MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest, and Science Direct were searched for articles published between 1991 and 2018. The quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Heterogeneity was determined using the I2 and Cochrane Q-Test. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to compare the prevalence rates on different levels of the variables. 
Results: A total of 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria were ultimately assessed. The pooled estimate of azithromycin failure rate was 11.23% (CI 95%: 8.23%-14.24%). Also, the azithromycin failure rate was 15.87% (CI 95%: 10.20%-21.54%) for the treatment of urethritis, 7.41% (CI 95%: 0.60%-14.22%) for cervicitis, and 7.14% (CI 95%: 10.90%-3.39%) for genital chlamydia. The pooled estimate of failure rate difference was 2.37% (CI 95%: 0.68%-4.06%), which shows that azithromycin has a higher failure rate in the treatment of chlamydia compared to doxycycline and other examined medications. The meta-regression results showed that the patient's age contributes significantly to the heterogeneity for azithromycin treatment failure rate (β = 0.826; p = 0.017).
Conclusion: Azithromycin has a higher failure rate than doxycycline and other studied medications in treating urogenital chlamydia infections. 

Key words: Azithromycin, Chlamydia trachomatis, Urogenital, Treatment failure, Meta-analysis. 
Abstract
Background: Chlamydia Trachomatis is one of the most common pathogens transmitted through the genital tract in humans that leads to urogenital infection. 
Objective: Given the high prevalence of chlamydia infection and its adverse effects on the health of women and men, the present meta-analysis was conducted to determine the rate of treatment failure with azithromycin.
Materials and Methods: Databases including MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest, and Science Direct were searched for articles published between 1991 and 2018. The quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Heterogeneity was determined using the I2 and Cochrane Q-Test. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to compare the prevalence rates on different levels of the variables. 
Results: A total of 21 articles that met the inclusion criteria were ultimately assessed. The pooled estimate of azithromycin failure rate was 11.23% (CI 95%: 8.23%-14.24%). Also, the azithromycin failure rate was 15.87% (CI 95%: 10.20%-21.54%) for the treatment of urethritis, 7.41% (CI 95%: 0.60%-14.22%) for cervicitis, and 7.14% (CI 95%: 10.90%-3.39%) for genital chlamydia. The pooled estimate of failure rate difference was 2.37% (CI 95%: 0.68%-4.06%), which shows that azithromycin has a higher failure rate in the treatment of chlamydia compared to doxycycline and other examined medications. The meta-regression results showed that the patient's age contributes significantly to the heterogeneity for azithromycin treatment failure rate (β = 0.826; p = 0.017).
Conclusion: Azithromycin has a higher failure rate than doxycycline and other studied medications in treating urogenital chlamydia infections. 




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