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Showing 12 results for Blood Pressure

Fatemeh Vahid Roudsari, Sedigheh Ayati, Hossein Ayatollahi, Habibollah Esmaeily, Maliheh Hasanzadeh, Masoud Shahabian, Leila Pour Ali,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder unique to pregnancy and has long been recognized as an important contributor of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is suggested that cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) have an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and may cause generalized endothelial dysfunction.
Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of maternal serum TNF-α in severe and mild preeclampsia versus normal pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 37 women with preeclampsia (17 mild and 20 severe preeclampsia) and 41 normotensive pregnant women with similar gestational age at third trimester of pregnancy. All the preeclamptic cases had blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria ≥ 300 mg in a 24-h urine sample. Maternal serum TNF-α concentration was compared in all of them.
Results: The level of TNF-α concentration was not statistically different between the studied groups. No significant correlation was found between preeclampsia and control group as they were compared in the view of maternal serum TNF-α concentration.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that serum TNF-α is not significantly associated with preeclampsia.
Sedigheh Soheilykhah, Mahdie Mogibian, Sodabeh Rahimi-Saghand, Maryam Rashidi, Saeideh Soheilykhah, Maryam Piroz,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic complications of pregnancy and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and to help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes
Objective: This prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of GDM in Yazd and to assess the effect of various contributing factors. Materials and Methods: One thousand and seventy one pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-hour blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl then a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100g glucose was performed and diagnosis was established according to American Diabetes Association criteria.
Results: Three hundred and forty two (31.9%) women had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. The overall incidence of GDM was 10.2% (n=110). Seventy six of subjects (7.1%) have one abnormal OGTT. There was a significant association between incidence of GDM and age familial history of diabetes BMI before pregnancy parity history of GDM macrosomic baby still birth during previous pregnancies and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Conclusion: According to high incidence of GDM in our area we recommend screening for GDM in all pregnant women and modification of contributing factors in high risk women.
Ashraf Moini, Fatemeh Javanmard, Bita Eslami, Najmeh Aletaha,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a condition associated with chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and androgen excess. Women with this syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MBS) in women with PCOS referred to Arash Hospital in different ages and body mass index (BMI).
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gynecologic Clinic at Arash Hospital affiliated with Tehran University. A total of 282 women with PCOS ages between 15-40 years were included. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its components in this population were the main outcomes. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory tests (FBS, TSH, HDL-C, serum prolactin, triglycerides and total cholesterol) were measured in this population.
Results: The prevalence of MBS in PCOS women was 22.7% (64 cases). The rate of central obesity, FBS more than 110 mg/dl, triglycerides more than 150 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) less than 50 mg/dl, and blood pressure ?130/85 mmHg in PCOS women was 31% (87), 3.2% (9), 33% (93), 68.8% (194), and 10.6% (30), respectively. The risk of MBS was increased in older and the obese women (BMI ?30 kg/m2). Conclusion: The present sample showed women with PCOS have a high prevalence of MBS and its individual components, particularly decreased HDL-C.
Shokoufeh Bonakdaran, Zahra Mazloom Khorasani, Behrooz Davachi, Javad Mazloom Khorasani,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is a frequent metabolic disturbance in PCOS. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem. Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D has a role on insulin sensitivity so may contribute to reduction of hyperandrogenemia.
Objective: The aim was to determine the effects of vitamin D treatment in metabolic components and ovulation evidence in PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Fifty one untreated PCOS patients were randomly divided into three groups and treated with calcitriol, metformin, or placebo. Before and 3 months after treatment, ovulation evidence was assessed by ovarian trans abdominal sonography. Plasma fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and androgen levels were measured before and after treatment. A 75gr glucose test was performed before and after treatment and two set of results was compared.
Results: Three patients did not continue this study. Only 11 patient (22.9%) had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). Metformin caused a significant decrease in weight (p=0.027), insulin level (p=0.043), and insulin resistance (p=0.048). Systolic blood pressure and PTH significantly improved after calcitriol (p=0.029, p=0.009 respectively). An improvement in ovulation was detected after calcitriol and seven patients, without evidence of ovulation before treatment, illustrated ovulation after 3 months. Difference with calcitriol in ovulation was significant versus other two methods (p=0.02). Conclusion: Calcitriol treatment in PCOS may be prior to metformin in ovulation induction.
Mohammad Hossein Gozashti, Ahmad Gholamhosseinian, Fatemeh Musavi, Mahdieh Mashrouteh,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients.
Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, lipid profile and apo-lipoprotein. Blood pressure and demographic variables of each subject were obtained.
Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in PCOS patients compared to control group. Triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in PCOS; contrariwise, high-density lipoprotein was lower from that of healthy volunteers. Cystatin and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS in comparison with healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among measured determinants, only PCOS status was independently associated with cystatin C.
Conclusion: Cystatin C was positively correlated with PCOS status concentrations but not with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, or any of the lipid profile variables or demographic characteristics. Indeed, no correlation was found between cystatin C and CRP levels. Therefore, cystatin C might be related to PCOS beyond its use as a marker of the renal function.
Zhongyu Qu, Yanhui Zhu, Jingjing Jiang, Yuhua Shi, Zijiang Chen,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is highly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are extensive ethnic differences in the clinical manifestations, pathological changes, and ovarian changes in women with PCOS.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NAFLD in Chinese women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Non-pregnant women with PCOS (N= 602) and matched controls without PCOS (N=588) were recruited. Basal endocrine, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin release level, lipid level, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Liver biochemical and B-hepatitis and C-hepatitis indices were determined.
Results: NAFLD was significantly more prevalent in women with PCOS than controls (32.9% vs. 18.5%) and included 113 (57.1%) mild, 75 (37.8%) moderate and 10 (5.1%) severe cases. Luteinizing hormone was significantly lower in PCOS women with NAFLD than without NAFLD. In the PCOS group, NAFLD prevalence and severity increased with BMI. The liver index was significantly higher (p<0.001), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the PCOS group than controls. Insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, diabetes mellitus, abnormal glucose tolerance, liver dysfunction, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome were significantly more prevalent in the NAFLD group than controls.
Conclusion: Chinese women with PCOS have a high prevalence of mostly mild and moderate NAFLD, not significantly associated with hyperandrogenism that increased significantly with BMI. Insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities are important factors associated with NAFLD. Chinese women with BMI ≥24 kg/mP2P should be screened for NAFLD.
Maryam Asgharnia, Roya Faraji, Fatemeh Salamat, Babak Ashrafkhani, Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil Heirati, Samira Naimian,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: Amniotic fluid is an indicator of placental function on the fetal development. The amniotic fluid index is the most commonly used method of measuring amniotic fluid.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of a borderline versus normal AFI.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 235 pregnant women referred to Alzahra Medical Center between 2009-2011. Women with a singleton pregnancy in third trimester were enrolled into this study; of these subjects, 141 cases were in normal AFI group and 94 cases in borderline AFI group. Adequate information was obtained from the patients' medical record and the groups were compared on maternal and fetal complications. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS.
Results: The mean maternal age in borderline AFI group was 25.96±5.92 years and in normal AFI group was 27.88±6.5 years (p=0.023). Maternal outcomes such as preterm delivery and labor induction in women with borderline AFI were considerably higher than those in normal group (p=0.01 and p=0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of high blood pressure, preeclampsia, diabetes and neonatal respiratory distress. The borderline AFI group had higher rate of neonatal complications such as Apgar score of less than 7 (p=0.004), IUGR (0.0001), LBW (0.001), and crucial need to NICU (0.003).
Conclusion: Findings indicated that there are statistical differences between adverse outcomes in borderline AFI group and normal group.
Rahele Alijahan, Sadegh Hazrati, Mehrdad Mirzarahimi, Farhad Pourfarzi, Peymaneh Ahmadi Hadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity as well as the long-term health consequences and cognitive outcomes.
Objective: Present study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with preterm birth in Ardabil, Iran.
Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted between Nov 2010 and July 2011 in all three maternal hospitals in Ardabil. All the live newborns during the study period were investigated. Of 6705 live births during the study period 346 births occurred in <37 weeks were taken as a case and 589 term neonates were taken as a control group. Data were obtained through review of prenatal and hospital delivery records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to obtain magnitude of association between independent variables and preterm birth.
Results: The prevalence rate of preterm birth was 5.1%. History of previous preterm birth (OR=12.7,CI: 3.9-40.4, p<0.001), hypertension (OR=7.3, CI:2.1-25.4, p=0.002), Oligohydramnios (OR=3.9, CI:1.6-9.5, p=0.002), spouse abuse (OR=3.7, CI:1.1-11.8, p=0.024), preeclampsia (OR=3.6, CI:1.3-10.3, p=0.014), premature rupture of membrane (OR=3.1, CI:1.9-4.9, p=0.000), bleeding or spotting during pregnancy (OR=2.0, CI:1.0-3.8, p=0.037), Hyperemesis Gravid arum (OR=2.0, CI: 1.1-3.8, p=0.015), urinary tract infection in 26-30 weeks , (OR=1. 8 CI:1.0-3.2, p=0.04), diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmg (OR=1.5, CI: 0.99-2.2, p=0.049) were determined as significant risk factors for preterm birth.
Conclusion: Early detection and treatment of diseases or disorders among pregnant women especially hypertension, Oligohydramnios, preeclampsia, bleeding or spotting, Hyperemesis Gravid arum, urinary tract infection, and low diastolic blood pressure as well as the improving health care quality delivered to pregnant women may reduce preterm prevalence rate. 
Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Dalili, Seyed Amin Hashemi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)

Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease.
Objective: In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones.
Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling.
Results: The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997).
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia.
Parvin Layegh, Zohreh Mousavi, Donya Farrokh Tehrani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mohammad Khajedaluee,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (4-2016)

Background: Insulin resistance has an important role in pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Yet there are certain controversies regarding the presence of insulin resistance in non-obese patients. 
Objective: The aim was to compare the insulin resistance and various endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in obese and non-obese PCOS women.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed from 2007-2010, 115 PCOS patients, aged 16-45 years were enrolled. Seventy patients were obese (BMI ≥25) and 45 patients were non-obese (BMI <25). Presence of insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities were compared between two groups. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. 
Results: There was no significant difference in presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.3) between two groups (p=0.357). Waist circumference (p<0.001), waist/hip ratio (p<0.001), systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic (p<0.001) blood pressures, fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and insulin (p=0.011), HOMA-IR (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.001) were all significantly higher in obese PCOS patients. There was no significant difference in total testosterone (p=0.634) and androstenedione (p=0.736) between groups whereas Dehydroepiandrotendione sulfate (DHEAS) was significantly higher in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.018). There was no case of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in non-obese patients, whereas they were seen in 31.3% and 39.4% of obese PCOS women, respectively.
Conclusion: Our study showed that metabolic abnormalities are more prevalent in obese PCOS women, but adrenal axis activity that is reflected in higher levels of DHEAS was more commonly pronounced in our non-obese PCOS patients.
Maryam Asgharnia, Fariba Mirblouk, Soudabeh Kazemi, Davood Pourmarzi, Mina Mahdipour Keivani, Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil Heirati,
Volume 15, Issue 9 (9-2017)

Background: Preeclampsia is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It has been indicated that increased uric acid might have a predictive role on preeclampsia.
Objective: We aimed to investigate the relationship between the level of uric acid with maternal and neonatal complications in women with preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 160 singleton preeclamptic women at more than 28 wk gestational age were included. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, liver and uric acid tests, and maternal and neonatal complications were assessed. The severity of preeclampsia, placental abruption, preterm labor, thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), HELLP syndrome, eclampsia and required hospitalization in the ICU was considered as the maternal complication. Fetal complications were: small for gestational age (SGA), intrauterine fetal death, hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit, and Apgar score <7 at five minutes.
Results: Of our participants, 38 women had severe preeclampsia (23.8%). The mean level of uric acid in women with severe preeclampsia was significantly higher than non-severe preeclampsia (p=0.031), also in those with an abnormal liver test (p=0.009). The mean level of uric acid in women with preterm delivery was significantly higher than women with term delivery (p=0.0001). Also, the level of uric acid had no effect on neonatal hospitalization in neonate invasive care unit. Based on logistic regression, the incidence of severe preeclampsia not affected by decreased or increased serum levels of uric acid.
Conclusion: With higher level of uric acid in server preeclampsia we can expected more complications such as hepatic dysfunction and preterm delivery. Thus serum uric acid measurement can be helpful marker for severe preeclampsia.
Zahra Momeni, Ali Dehghani, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Moslem Koohgardi, Maryam Dafei, Masoud Mohammadi,
Volume 17, Issue 11 (11-2019)

Background: Cardiovascular diseases could be preventable; as a result, understanding the risk factors was regarded as the major priority for healthcare providers.
Objective: The main objective of this research was to achieve a deeper insight into the effect of long-term use of low-dose oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.
Materials and Methods: This research was a retrospective cohort conducted (historical and prospectively) conducted on 100 women with normal menstrual cycles aged 15 to 35 yr, who were referred to the healthcare centers in Yazd, Iran. The participants were categorized into two groups: The OCP group was consuming the pills for 0-3, 4-23, and 24-36 months, and the non-OCP group. Participants were followed up for a minimum of 3 months and a maximum of six months
Results: The highest level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), homocysteine, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure was observed in the OCP group in the duration of 24 to 36 months. The Tukey’s test demonstrated that there were comprehensible differences in the LDL (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.01), triglyceride (p < 0.001), and homocysteine levels (p < 0.001), also systolic blood pressure (p = 0.04).
Conclusion: It was realized that the long-term consumption of low-dose OCP can augment the incidence of some risk factors (systolic blood pressure, homocysteine levels, cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglyceride) and lead to developing cardiovascular diseases amongst the healthy women.

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