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Showing 14 results for Artificial

Fatemeh Nayeri, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Ashraf Alyasin, Firoozeh Nili,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Today there is a rise in the number of newborns conceived by artificial reproductive techniques (ART). Numerous studies have been performed on the perinatal outcome of these pregnancies. However, there is limited data about the condition of health of these newborns in Iran. Objective: Regarding the higher prevalence of probable complications and symptomatic congenital anomalies, we aimed to determine the state of health of newborns born by ART. Materials and methods: A total of 109 newborn who were conceived through ART and 479 newborns of spontaneous conception were enrolled into our study. The study was prospective, case-control study in Tehran, Iran, from March 2003 to March 2004. Both case and control groups were adjusted in regard to race, sex, type of delivery, chronic disease of mother, age of mother, and antenatal steroids administration. All newborns were examined by neonatologist after birth and their outcome were followed until hospital discharge or death. Data pertaining to clinical and laboratory findings of newborns and death were entered into a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Confidence interval was 95%. Results : Prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), twins and triplets, small for gestational age (SGA), need for resuscitation at birth, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and NICU admission were significantly higher among newborns born after ART than those born through spontaneous conception (p<0.05). Regression logistic analysis showed that RDS and NICU admission were more strongly associated with weight at birth and gestational age than with method of conception. However, increased rate of SGA in the case group was associated with multiple pregnancy. Also, there was no significant statistical relationship between the method of conception and the prevalence of congenital anomalies, large for gestational age (LGA), congenital pneumonia, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC), respiratory air leakage syndromes (ALS), hydrops fetalis, hyperbilirubinemia sepsis, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), isseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), cardiac failure, lung hemorrhage, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and hemolysis. Conclusion: Newborns who were conceived by ART were more likely in need of resuscitation at birth regardless of other factors. Furthermore, newborns born after ART were at higher risk of developing prematur birth, LBW, and multiple birth.
Elke Heytens, Reza Soleimani, Petra de Sutter,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)
Abstract

Fertilization is triggered by changes in intracellular calcium concentration. In mammals, these transients in ooplasmic calcium concentration take the form of repetitive spikes, so called calcium oscillations (Ca2+-oscillations). These oscillations are important for relieve of meiotic arrest and to induce all the other events of oocyte activation. Although a surface mediated way of oocyte activation has been proposed, there is now substantial evidence to suggest that the sperm cell induces these Ca2+-oscillations by introducing a sperm specific phospholipase C, PLCζ, in the ooplasm. Ca2+-oscillations are also observed after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a successful technique in human assisted reproduction. In the rare cases that no fertilization is observed following ICSI, this may be due to a deficiency in PLCζ. However, artificial activating the oocytes after ICSI by increasing the calcium concentration can restore fertilization rates in these cases and support further development, as evidenced by successful pregnancies. Further evaluation of the current protocols for assisted oocyte activation is appropriate and investigation of the future application of PLCζ is warranted.
Seyyed Mojtaba Yassini, Mohsen Taghavi Shavazi, Naeimeh Taghavi Shavazi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background: Nowadays artificially assisted reproductive techniques are used to cure infertility. These methods are highly expensive, time-consuming and have low success rates which are usually around 20-40%. One of the best alternate methods for infertility treatment that can be considered is adoption that often decreases the treatment costs and the psychological impact within an infertile couple.
Objective: This study has been done with the aim of determining adoption acceptance rates and the effective factors of adoption in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between October 2009-2010 on 200 infertile couples who had been referred to Infertility Center of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Information gathered through face-to-face interview and questionnaires. The data analyzed through a SPSS software program using ANOVA test.
Results: There was a significant statistical relationship between adoption acceptance value scores and marriage duration of a couple (p=0.002 in men, p=0.004 in women) and presence of adoption backgrounds in male relatives (p=0.004). There was no statistically significant relationship between age, gender, education level, and onus of infertility, the number of previous referrals for an infertility solution and presence of adoption backgrounds in female relatives.
Conclusion: Adoption as an alternative option to infertility treatment need to be more considered as a medical, social and cultural issue.
Liu Xuemei, Yue Jing, Xu Bei, Hu Juan, Ren Xinling, Liu Qun, Zhu Guijin,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Creation of artificial gametes may provide a universal solution for these patients of lacking gametes. Stem cell technology may provide a way to obtain fully functional gametes. Retinoic acid (RA) can initiate meiosis. Several studies have demonstrated that RA can promote sperm cells differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and other cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).
Objective: We sought to determine whether RA could promote differentiation of germ cells from hESCs.
Materials and Methods: hESCs were differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension with all-trans RA (atRA) or without atRA for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, and then compared the expression of VASA, SCP3, GDF9 and TEKT1 by real-time PCR. The statistical differences were evaluated by one way ANOVA.
Results: The expression of germ cell-specific markers including the gonocyte marker VASA, the meiotic marker SCP3, and postmeiotic markers, GDF9 and TEKT1, all increased in the presence and absence of RA as EB differentiation progressed. In addition, the expression of these markers increased an average of 9.3, 6.9, 7.2 and 11.8 fold respectively in the presence of RA, compared to the absence of RA, over 5 days differentiation.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that hESCs may have the potential to differentiate to primordial germ cells (PGCs) and early gametes. And RA can improve germ cells differentiation from hESCs.
Maryam Eftekhar, Sima Janati, Mozhgan Rahsepar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Chemical activation is the most frequently used method for artificial oocyte activation (AOA), results in high fertilization rate.
Objective: This prospective, randomized, unblinded, clinical study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of oocyte activation with calcium ionophore on fertilization  and pregnancy rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in infertile men suffer from teratoospermia.
Materials and Methods: Thirty eight women with teratoospermic partner underwent ICSI with antagonist protocol. A total of 313 metaphase II (MII) oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: In the oocytes of the control group (n=145), routine ICSI was applied. Oocytes in the AOA group (n=168) immediately after ICSI, were entered in culture medium supplemented with 5 μΜ calcium ionophore (A23187) for 5 minutes and then washed at least five times with MOPS solution. In both groups, the fertilization was evaluated 16-18 hours after ICSI.
Results: The number of fertilized oocytes and embryos obtained were significantly different between two groups (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two studied groups regarding the fertilization and cleavage rate (95.33% vs. 84.4%, p=0.11; and 89.56% vs. 87.74%, p=0.76, respectively). Implantation rate was higher in AOA group than in control group, but the difference was not significant (17.64% vs. 7.4%, p=0.14). No significant differences were observed in chemical and clinical pregnancy rate between groups (47.1% vs. 16.7%, p=0.07; and 41.2% vs. 16.7%; p=0.14, respectively).
Conclusion: We didn’t find significant difference in the implantation, fertilization, cleavage and pregnancy rates between the two groups but could significantly increase the number of fertilized oocytes and embryos obtained. Finally oocyte activation with calcium ionophore may improve ICSI outcomes in infertile men suffer from teratoospermia. Further study with more cases can provide greater value.
Mohammad Reza Moein, Serajedin Vahidi, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Nasim Tabibnejad,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background: Male are involved in near 50% of cases of infertility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) playing an important role in decreasing fertility potential. Accurate measurement of ROS seems to be important in evaluation of infertile male patients.
Objective: To compare ROS measurement in neat and washed semen samples of infertile men and define the best method for evaluation of ROS in these patients.
Materials and Methods: We measured the level of ROS in semen samples of thirty five non-azoospermic men with infertility. The semen samples were divided into two parts and the semen parameters and ROS levels in neat and washed samples were evaluated. We also evaluated the presence of pyospermia using peroxidase test.
Results: The differences regarding sperm count and quick motility were significant in neat and washed semen samples. The mean ROS level was significantly higher in neat samples compared with washed spermatozoa (7.50 RLU vs. 1.20 RLU respectively). Difference in ROS levels was more significant in patients with pyospermia compared to whom with no pyospermia (378.67 RLU vs. 9.48 RLU respectively).
Conclusion: Our study confirmed that neat or unprocessed samples are better index of normal oxidative status of semen samples. Because we do not artificially add or remove factors that may play an important role in oxidative equilibrium status.
Marzieh Rahimipour, Ali Reza Talebi, Morteza Anvari, Abolghasem Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Marjan Omidi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)
Abstract


 
Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice.
Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay.
Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively).
Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice.

Ahmed M. Isa, Basim Abu-Rafea, Sahel Al-Asiri, Johara Al-Motawa,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) remains the first thought of infertility treatment.
Objective: To compare the stimulation effects and Pregnancy rate (PR) outcomes of two ovulation induction (OI) medications, human-derived menopausal gonadotrophins (hMGH), Merional (MER), and recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), Puregon (PUR), in a cohort of Saudi infertile patients, for better predictability of treatment results.
Materials and Methods: During a 24-month period, 296 women underwent IUI single treatments. PR’s were correlated with the type of stimulation medication that were prospectively and randomly assigned to each patient, and with the number and size of maturing follicles detected on the hCG injection day.
Results: MER and PUR needed comparable number of days (9.26±4.74 and 9.73±6.27 respectively) before follicles were ready for IUI, although the average amount used from MER, 1199.90 IU, was about double that was used from PUR, 621.08 IU. The overall PR in case of PUR however was nearly double that of MER, 13.28% and 7.14% respectively. The best PR, 16.22%, occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. Three follicles of at least 15-mm diameter on the hCG day had better PR’s than one or two, however when the follicles’ diameters were at least 18-mm, PR was significantly higher, (p=0.013).
Conclusion: MER and PUR had comparable stimulation effects; however PUR had noticeably higher PR. The best PR occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. PR in case of three maturing follicles on the hCG day was better than only one or two, and significantly better when their diameters were at least 18 mm.
Arash Khaki,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (3-2015)
Abstract

Background: Antibiotic therapies used in treatment of many diseases have adverse effects on fertility. This review analyzes previous comparative studies that surveyed the effects of two common groups of antibiotics on male fertility.
Objective: To evaluate histo-pathological effects of fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides on sperm parameters and male reproductive tissue.
Materials and Methods: Articles about the effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on male infertility, sperm parameters, male reproductive tissue, and spermatogenesis in English and Persian languages published on Google Scholar and PubMed databases from January 2000 to December 2013 were assessed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones on sperm parameters, artificial insemination, and male reproductive tract or RCTs comparing aminoglycosides vs. fluoroquinolones were eligible for inclusion. For ascertaining the reliability of study, data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators.
Results: Sperm viability was decreased significantly with streptomycin, gentamicin, and neomycin (p<0.001). Sperm motility was decreased significantly with gentamicin and neomycin (p<0.05). Total sperm count was significantly decreased with ofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and neomycin (p<0.022). There was significant decrease in post-thawing motility with low dose and high dose of ciprofloxacin. Testis weight was decreased with gentamicin and ofloxacin significantly (p<0.011). There was significant decrease in seminal vesicle weight with gentamicin, neomycin, and ofloxacin (p<0.022). Furthermore, changes in epididymis weight, percentage of total apoptotic cells, and diameter of seminiferous tubule were significant with all drugs including streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, and ofloxacin (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Streptomycin has less negative effects on cell’s apoptosis and sperm parameters as compared to other drugs. Gentamicin has more detrimental effects so lesser dosage and duration is recommended. Fluoroquinolones showed negative effects on testis tissue and sperm parameters. Ciprofloxacin has less adverse effects than gentamicin in artificial insemination.
Negar Ghazi, Mohammad Arjmand, Ziba Akbari, Ali Owsat Mellati, Hamid Saheb-Kashaf, Zahra Zamani,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)
Abstract

Background: So far, non-invasive diagnostic approaches such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or blood tests do not have sufficient diagnostic power for endometriosis disease. Lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test contributes to the long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis.
Objective: The present study focuses on the identification of predictive biomarkers in serum by pattern recognition techniques and uses partial least square discriminant analysis, multi-layer feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) modeling tools for the early diagnosis of endometriosis in a minimally invasive manner by 1H- NMR based metabolomics.
Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was done in Pasteur Institute, Iran in June 2013. Serum samples of 31 infertile women with endometriosis (stage II and III) who confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy and 15 normal women were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model was built by using partial least square discriminant analysis, QDA, and ANNs to determine classifier metabolites for early prediction risk of disease.
Results: The levels of 2- methoxyestron, 2-methoxy estradiol, dehydroepiandrostion androstendione, aldosterone, and deoxy corticosterone were enhanced significantly in infertile group. While cholesterol and primary bile acids levels were decreased. QDA model showed significant difference between two study groups. Positive and negative predict value levels obtained about 71% and 78%, respectively. ANNs provided also criteria for detection of endometriosis.
Conclusion: The QDA and ANNs modeling can be used as computational tools in noninvasive diagnose of endometriosis. However, the model designed by QDA methods is more efficient compared to ANNs in diagnosis of endometriosis patients.
Saghar Salehpour, Marzieh Zamaniyan, Nasrin Saharkhiz, Shahrzad Zadeh Modares, Sedighe Hosieni, Samira Seif, Narges Malih, Parinaz Rezapoor, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi,
Volume 14, Issue 9 (9-2016)
Abstract

Background: Recurrent implantation failure is one of the most issues in IVF cycles.Some researchers found that beneficial effects of endometrial Scratching in womenwith recurrent implantation failure, while some authors demonstrated contrary results
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intrauterine. Salineinfusion as a form of endometrial injury, during fresh in vitro fertilization-embryotransfer cycle, among patients with recurrent implantation failure.
Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 63 women undergoing assistedreproductive technology were divided into two groups either local endometrialinjury by intrauterine saline infusion during day 3-5 of the ongoing controlledovarian stimulation cycle, or IVF protocol performed without any other interventionin Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The main outcome measure was clinicalpregnancy rates.
Results: Patients who received intra uterine saline infusion (n=20), had significantlylower clinical pregnancy numbers (1 vs. 9, p<0.05) and implantation rates (4.7% vs.41.6%, p<0.05), compared to controls (n=39). However, there was no significantdifference in miscarriage rates (9.4% vs. 8.7%, p>0.05) and multiple pregnancynumbers (1 vs. 3, p>0.05) between groups.
Conclusion: When intrauterine saline infusion as a form of endometrial injury isperformed during the ongoing IVF cycles it has negative effect on reproductiveoutcomes among patients with recurrent implantation failure.
Ashraf Aleyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Leili Safdarian, Maryam Noorzadeh, Parvin Fallahi, Zahra Rezaeian, Sedighe Hoseinimosa,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Background: There are different methods in endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET).
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the live birth rate in the artificial FET protocol (estradiol/ progesterone with GnRH-agonist) with stimulated cycle FET protocol (letrozole plus HMG).
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 100 women (18-42 years) randomly assigned to two groups based on Bernoulli distribution. Group I received GnRH agonist [Bucerelin, 500μg subcutaneously] from the previous midlutea lcycle, Then estradiol valerat [2 mg/ daily orally] was started on the second day and was increased until the observation of 8mm endometrial thickness. Finally progesterone [Cyclogest, 800 mg, vaginally] was started. Group II received letrozole on the second day of the cycle for five days, then HMG 75 IU was injected on the7PthP day. After observing [18 mm folliclhCG10000 IU was injected for ovulation induction. Trans cervical embryo transfer was performed in two groups. The main outcome was the live birth rate. The rate of live birth, implantation, chemical, and clinical pregnancy, abortion, cancellation and endometrial thickness were compared between two groups.
Results: Implantation rate was significantly higher in group I. Live birth rate was slightly increased in group I without significant difference (30% vs. 26%). The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy was similar in two groups. The abortion rate was lower in letrozole protocol but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean endometrial thickness was not different between two groups.
Conclusion: Letrozole plus HMG method cannot improve pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer but it has only one injection compare to daily injections in artificial method
Marzieh Ghasemi, Masoumeh Kordi, Negar Asgharipour, Habibollah Esmaeili, Maliheh Amirian,
Volume 15, Issue 11 (11-2017)
Abstract

Background: Waiting period of fertility treatment is stressful, therefore it is necessary to use effective coping strategies to cope with waiting period of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment.
Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) with the problem-solving skills training (PSS) on the coping strategies of IUI waiting period, in infertile women referred to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 108 women were evaluated into three groups. The control group received the routine care, but in PRCI group, two training sessions were held and they were asked to review the coping thoughts cards and fill out the daily monitoring forms during the waiting period, and in PSS group problem-solving skill were taught during 3 sessions. The coping strategies were compared between three groups on the 10th day of IUI waiting period.
Results: Results showed that the mean score for problem-focused were significantly different between the control (28.54±9.70), PSS (33.71±9.31), and PRCI (30.74±10.96) (p=0.025) groups. There were significant differences between the PSS group and others groups, and mean emotion-focused were significantly different between the control (32.09±11.65), PSS (29.20±9.88), and PRCI (28.74±7.96) (p=0.036) groups. There were significant differences between the PRCI and the control group (p=0.047).
Conclusion: PSS was more effective to increase problem-focused coping strategies than PRCI, therefore it is recommended that this intervention should be used in infertility treatment centers.
Hüseyin Gurel, Nuri Baspinar, Pınar Peker Akalin, Vahdettin Altunok, Filiz Kazak,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (6-2018)
Abstract

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate metabolic pathway that supplies reducing agents by maintaining the level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
Objective: It was aimed to determine the activity of erythrocyte and spermatozoa G6PD in the breeding and non-breeding seasons in Merino rams. And also, to find out the relation of these parameters with sperm quality parameters for better understanding the role of this enzyme in male fertility.
Materials and Methods: 1.5-2 yr-old healthy, 14 Merino rams were involved. Ejaculate samples were collected using an artificial vagina, in October (the breeding season) and April (the non-breeding season). Blood samples were collected prior to sperm collection. Sperm volume (ml), motility (%), mass activity (1-5), concentration (×106), viability (%), abnormal acrosome morphology (%) and abnormal sperm morphology (%) was evaluated. The activities of spermatozoa and erythrocyte G6PD were determined and the relation of sperm parameters with G6PD activity was evaluated.
Results: Erythrocyte G6PD activity was higher (p≤0.001), whereas spermatozoa G6PD activity was lower (p≤0.001) in the breeding season (1.928±0.231 U/g hemoglobin, 129.65±28.41 U/g protein, respectively) from that in the non-breeding (0.530±0.066 U/g hemoglobin, 562.36±94.92 U/g protein, respectively). There were also significant differences among sperm quality parameters within the seasons. Positive correlation was determined between spermatozoa G6PD activity (r=0.053, p=0.03 and sperm concentration in the breeding season.
Conclusion: Higher spermatozoa G6PD activity in October, where the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids is suggested to be increased, may reflect the increased need of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and thus higher G6PD activity for the oxidative balance.

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