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Showing 25 results for Abnormality

Seyed M Kalnatar, Ahmad Ebrahimi, Mehrdad Solimani, Hossein Fazli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2003)

Background: The high fertilization failure after IVF treatment cycles could be related to chromosomal abnormalities. This study was carried out to assess the frequency of chromosomal abnormality on human oocytes lacking signs of fertilization 18-20 h after insemination . Materials and Methods: On day one, 18-20 h after insemination (IVF), fertilization was confirmed when two pronuclei (normal IVF) or more pronuclei (poly pronucleus FR) were present. Chromosomal analysis of unfertilized oocytes was carried out within 20-24 h of collection. All oocyte did not sign of pronuclei were collected from total fertilization failure, TFF (FR=0) or partial fertilization failure, PFF (FR=10-90%). Chromosomal preparation was carried out as described by Tarkowski�s techniques. The average of finding between two groups was compared by X2 test. Results: Chromosome spreading permitted adequate analyzing in 348 unfertilized oocytes. In 33.6% chromosomal aneulpoidy was observed with the following frequencies; hypo-hyploidy, 22/348 (6.4%), hyper-hyploidy, 42/348 (12.2%) and diploidy, 52/348 (15%). The frequency of aneuoplidy was significantly higher in TFF group 33/80 (41%) than PFF group 83/268 (31%), p<0.01, X2. The most frequent numerical aberration was observed in chromosome group, G of the human karyotyped. Conclusion: Since cytogentic analysis of failed fertilized oocytes and sperm function tests are very helpful for direct information on low success rate of fertilization, further studies analyzing on both gametes function in TFF cycles will be needed.
Ali Khosrowbeygi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Yaghoub Deldar,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in male infertility. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant status of seminal plasma by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared to normozoospermic males, and their correlations with seminal parameters. Materials and Methods: 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities divided in three categories: asthenozoospermic (n=15), asthenoteratozoospermic (n=16) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n=15), according WHO criteria, participated in the study. The control group consisted of 25 males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Commercially available colorimetric assays were used for measuring SOD activity and TAC. Results: TAC evaluation showed significantly lower values in the total case group (n=46) versus control group (1.05±0.04 mmmol/ml vs. 1.51±0.07 mmol/ml, p<0.05). Catalase activity also showed significantly lower values in the total case group (n=46) versus control group (14.40± 0.93 U/ml vs. 21.33±1.50 U/ml). But this difference was not significant for SOD activity (5.31±0.56 U/ml vs. 6.19±0.83 U/ml). Both catalase activity and TAC in asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic, oligoasthenoteratozoospermic subjects were significantly lower than normozoospermic males, but SOD activity did not show a significant difference between these groups. Both catalase activity and TAC showed a positively significant correlation with progressively motile sperms and normal sperm morphology, but these correlations with SOD activity were not significant. Conclusion: Decreasing seminal plasma antioxidant status especially catalase activity and TAC may have significant role in etiology of sperm abnormality. Article
Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance.
Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss.
Sayee Rajangam, Preetha Tilak, Aruna N, Rema Devi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background: Division of Human Genetics (DHG) is a referral center for karyotyping and counseling to the couples as well as to the individuals referred with bad obstetric history and infertility.
Materials and Methods: From 1972 to 2003, overall 1666 couples and 131 female partners with bad obstetric history (BOH) such as; spontaneous abortions, live births with congenital malformations and still born and 73 infertile male partners have been referred for chromosomal analysis.
Results: The chromosomal abnormality was found in 4.4% (83) of the sample studied. Chromosomal abnormality was seen in 56 couples (3.4%), 15 female (11.5%) and 12 male (16.4%) partners. The numerical chromosomal abnormality were seen in 34 (41%) and the structural abnormalities in 49 (59%) cases. The numerical chromosomal abnormalities were associated with sex chromosomes as follows (the number of cases are shown in parenthesis): 47, XXY (9); 46, XY/ 47, XXY (2); 46, XY/ 48, XXXY (1); 46, XY/ 47, XYY (2) and X mosaicism; 45, X/ 46, XX (14); 46, XX/ 47, XXX (6). The structural anomalies were 40 translocations and 9 duplication/ deletion/ marker/ iso chromosome for the X chromosome; Male: 46,XY/ 47,XY+ mar (1); Female: 45,X/ 47,XX+mar (1); 46,XX/ 47,XX+mar (1); 47,XX+frag (1); 46,X,Xq- (2); 46,X,Xp- (1); 46,X,Xp+ (1); 45,X/46,X,i(Xq)(1). The frequently involved chromosomes in the translocations were 4, 11, 15 and X. There were three X; autosomal translocations and a unique combination of translocation 1; 15 in the parents of a female carrier and 13; 14 in a non- consanguineous couple. On the whole, 57.5% of the females (23/ 40) were translocation carriers. Non-significant chromosome polymorphisms were observed in 79 cases (4.2%).
Conclusion: The current study has demonstrated the presence of the chromosomal abnormality and its influence in reproductive failure. On an average, in this study one in 56 couple and one in 12 males with infertility or one in 15 females with BOH has had a chromosomal abnormality as the genetic cause. The identification of chromosomal abnormality as the etiology has facilitated the counseling and appropriate management.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad1, Tayebeh Naderi, Shohreh Irani, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Mullerian disorders are present in 5-25% of infertile women. Myoma, polyp and endometrial adhesions are among other involved factors in infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of pregnancy occurrence in infertile women after the diagnostic-surgical hysteroscopy on selected infertile cases including those with abnormal uterine.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen women with at least 12 months infertility who had abnormal uterine cavity and patients who had at least 4 unsuccessful ART cycles with no confirmed diagnosis of uterine cavity problem, underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and if required hysteroscopic surgery. Follow up sonography and HSG performed 2-3 months later and all subjects were followed for pregnancy occurrence for 12 months.
Results: Mean age of subjects was 32.65 ± 6.2 years and mean of infertility duration was 8.33 ± 5.25 years. Based on the sonography and HSG performed prior to the hysteroscopy, respectively 69.6% and 41.8% of the subjects had abnormality. In 65.2% of the cases, hysteroscopy showed septum, myoma, endometrial adhesion and irregularity and all of them underwent hysteroscopic operation. Among the operated cases, in 27 cases pregnancy occurred during the first 6 postoperative months and in 2 cases during the second 6 postoperative months of whom one case was EP. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the rate of pregnancy occurrence between those who had abnormal hysteroscopy and those who were normal (p= 0.63). This can show the variation of infertility causes and the fact that infertility is not just due to uterine problems. Therefore, the repetition of therapeutic measures and longer follow up of infertile cases are necessary.
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Farzaneh Goharzad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Materials and Methods: A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated. Results: As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma.
Conclusion: Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia.
Neveen Ashaat, Ahmed Husseiny,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Missed abortion (Silent miscarriage) is defined as intrauterine fetal death before twenty weeks gestation. One of the most common causes of early missed abortions (before 10 weeks gestation) is cytogenetic abnormalities.
Objective: To asses if there is a correlation between chromosomal aberrations (especially in chromosome 7) and missed abortion among at least two generations.
Materials and Methods: After exclusion of direct causes of missed abortion, this study included 60 women (the study group) who had first trimestric missed abortion and 30 healthy women who did not suffer from any diseases during their pregnancy and had apparently normal outcome (the control group). All cases were diagnosed; the blood and tissue samples were collected from the mothers and abortuses from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity Hospital, Ain Shams University. Cytogenetic analyses were performed by using conventional technique and G/T banding techniques and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis with a whole chromosome 7 painting probe (WCP7) and a 7q subterminal probe (7q36, qter), prepared by chromosome micro dissection technique was used for confirming the specific chromosomal abnormality.
Results: Chromosomal analysis by G-banding technique was carried out in all families through three generations including the abortuses. We found highly statistical significant difference between maternal and abortal abnormal karyotype (p?0.005), where abnormal maternal karyotype was detected in 20% cases, 8.33% of them had insertional translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7 (46, XX, ins. (1; 7) (p32; q32.35). This insertion has appeared in two families and among two generations, and in one family among three generations.
Conclusion: Chromosome 7 insertional translocation is a possible autosomal dominant inherited trait and may cause missed abortion.
Najmeh Jouyan, Elham Davoudi Dehaghani, Sara Senemar, Ashraf Shojaee, Hossein Mozdarani,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Chromosome abnormality (CA) including Sex chromosomes abnormality (SCAs) is one of the most important causes of disordered sexual development and infertility. SCAs formed by numerical or structural alteration in X and Y chromosomes, are the most frequently CA encountered at both prenatal diagnosis and at birth.
Objective: This study describes cytogenetic findings of cases suspected with CA referred for cytogenetic study.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 4151 patients referred for cytogenetic analysis were cultured for chromosome preparation. Karyotypes were prepared for all samples and G-Banded chromosomes were analyzed using x100 objective lens. Sex chromosome aneuploidy cases were analyzed and categorized in two groups of Turners and Klinefelter’s syndrome (KFS).
Results: Out of 230 (5.54%) cases with chromosomally abnormal karyotype, 122 (30%) cases suspected of sexual disorder showed SCA including 46% Turner’s syndrome, 46% KFS and the remaining other sex chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of classic and mosaic form of Turner’s syndrome was 33% and 67%, this was 55% and 45% for KFS, respectively.
Conclusion: This study shows a relatively high sex chromosome abnormality in this region and provides cytogenetic data to assist clinicians and genetic counselors to determine the priority of requesting cytogenetic study. Differences between results from various reports can be due to different genetic background or ethnicity.
Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Tahereh Mirjalili, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Maryam Shams Lahijani, Mohamad Hasan Sheikhha, Alireza Talebi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychomotor stimulant with high abuse and addictive potential. MA is a neurotoxic drug which is widely abused by females of childbearing age, raising serious public health concerns in terms of exposure of the fetus to the drug. Neurotoxic effects of MA on adult are well known, such as dopaminergic nerve terminal degeneration and cell death in regions of brain in some doses.
Objective: In the present study, we examined effect of prenatal MA exposure on mouse fetuses.
Materials and Methods: In this study, forty 8-12 week-old NMRI female mice were used which were mated with male mice in serial days. When sperm plug was observed it was designated as gestational day (GD) 0. Pregnant mice were individually housed in plastic cages. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: in first group 10 mg/kg /day MA, in second group 5 mg/kg /day MA and in third group saline were injected subcutaneously from GD 6 to GD 14, corresponding to organogenesis period, while fourth or control group were without injection. On GD 14 fetuses were removed and accomplished chromosome preparation from fetal liver. Then fetal were fixed in formalin for brain hematoxilin and eosine staining and TUNEL assay.
Results: We observed morphological abnormality including exencephal fetus in 5mg/kg MA group and premature fetuses in 10 mg/kg MA group. Also brain histological study showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in fetal brain in both experimental groups. Fetal liver karyotyping analysis was normal in fetuses of all groups and TUNEL assay in fetal striatum did not show significant difference in number of apoptotic cells between groups.
Conclusion: From our results, it could be concluded that chronic abuse of MA by pregnant females during organogenesis period can cause teratogenic effect and brain hemorrage in fetus.
Mahnaz Yavangi, Mohammad Ali Amirzargar, Nasibeh Amirzargar, Maryam Dadashpour,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: During the month of Ramadan, millions of Muslims abstain from food and drink daily from dawn to sunset and people actually experience repeated cycles of fasting and refeeding. Menstruation is a normal physiological process that its regularity is controlled by hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Etiology of menstrual dysfunction includes weight loss, hypoleptinemia, abnormal eating behaviors, exercise, and psychological stressors.
Objective: To investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on menstrual cycles.
Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed on 80 female college students resident in a dormitory of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics and menstrual calendar was filled by all participants. All analyses were performed using the statistical software SPSS for Windows version 11.5.
Results: We found 11.3%, 30%, and 16.3% of participates had abnormal menstrual pattern three months before, during and three months after Ramadan, respectively. In participates who fast more than 15 days, menstrual period had significantly more abnormality than participants who fast less than 15 days. Considering our results we demonstrated that menstrual abnormalities during Ramadan month reach to their peak and three months after Ramadan reduce but do not return to previous condition.
Conclusion: This study confirms that menstrual abnormalities including oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea and hypermenorrhea increased during Ramadan especially in participates with more than 15 days of fasting.
Atefeh Asgari, Safieh Ghahremani, Solmaz Saeedi, Ebrahim Kamrani,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: Different studies show that chromosomal balance translocation in the parents can cause recurrent spontaneous abortions. Incidence of chromosomal translocation abnormalities in couples with repeated abortions is from 0% to 31%.
Objective: The purpose of this research was studying the presence or absence of chromosomal abnormalities and heteromorphism in couples with recurrent abortions and also the role of this anomaly in the abortions.
Materials and Methods: This study is a cross sectional descriptive study which have investigated 75 couples who had three abortions or more, and 65 couples who had two abortions that referred by gynecologist to the lab of Beheshti Hospital in Hamedan for cytogenetical investigation. Also 40 healthy individuals without history of abortion investigated as control group.GTG bonding technique (staining banding with gymsa and trypsin) is used in this study.
Results: Frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and heteromorphism among couples with three or more abortions were reported respectively 5.3% and 9.3%. This frequency in couples with two abortions was respectively 3.07%and 6.15%. The frequency of chromosomal heteromorphism in control group was 7.5% and no chromosomal abnormalities were observed in them.
Conclusion: This study shows that chromosomal abnormality can be one reason of recurrent spontaneous abortions and more abortion increases the probability of this anomaly. Also, existence of chromosomal heteromorphism in the general population without clinical abortion symptoms shows that chromosomal heteromorphism cannot be the reason of these spontaneous abortions.
Sara Masihi, Mojgan Barati, Razieh Mohamadjafari, Marzieh Hashemi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: Fetal nasal bone assessment is a non-invasive procedure that helps provide even greater assurance to patients undergoing their first trimester risk assessment for aneuploidies. Absence or presence of this factor is different in some races.
Objective: The study was aimed to evaluate nasal bone in the first trimester of pregnancy in the indigenous population of Khuzestan Province, and to monitor its value in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 2314 pregnant women between 17-43 years old who referred for first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. Gestational age was between 11-13w + 6 days. Nuchal translucency (NT), fetal heart rate (FHR), crown rump length (CRL), and maternal age and maternal blood serum factors (Free βHCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and nasal bone were assessed. Finally the risk of trisomies was calculated. The statistical tests are based on the relationship between chromosomal abnormality and the presence or absence of the nasal bone.
Results: In 114 cases we could not examine the nasal bone. Also, in 20 cases missed abortion happened without knowing the karyotype. 2173 cases were delivered normal baby, and in seven cases chromosomal abnormalities were diagnosed. Nasal bone was absent in all three cases with trisomy 21 and six of 2173 cases with normal phenotype (0.3%). With use of the Fisher exact test (p=0.0001), a significant correlation was found between the absence of the nasal bone and the risk of chromosomal abnormality.
Conclusion: Inclusion of the nasal bone in first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies achieves greater detection rate especially in Down syndrome
Mohammad Hasanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Fatemeh Baghbani, Iman Namazi, Salmeh Mirzaee,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed.
Case: Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement.
Conclusion: six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.
Fatima Ammar-Khodja, Zohra Hamouli, Fella Boukerbout, Karima Djerroudib,
Volume 12, Issue 12 (12-2014)

Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples worldwide. Within 50% of cases, man provides reproductive function disorders (1). The cause of infertility in men with oligospermia and azoospermia seems to be due to underlying genetic abnormalities (2). Chromosomal abnormalities are one of the causes of human infertility as they interfere with spermatogenesis. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and specific translocations in infertile men is multiplied by 10 compared with the normal population (3). Hundred patients aged between 26 and 50 years (the middle age 35 years old), oriented by specialized medical structures, are included in our study. All patients were referred for sterility (no spontaneous pregnancy despite >1 year unprotected intercourse). Only couples with infertility primary, in which men had a review of abnormal sperm: azoospermia or severe oligospermia (concentration sperm cells <5×106 ml and mobility <40%) were included in the study. 20 metaphases for each patient were analyzed by GTG banding technique (Giemsa Trypsin G bands). In our sample, there were 76 patients (76%) with an ordinary karyotype of which 5 have a known etiology. The most frequent medical history was a mumps orchitis, testicular ectopia, right and left inguinal testicles, or a bilateral varicocele. For patients without obvious etiology, it was important to mention the environmental and other genetic factors unidentified within the limits of the used technique. The chromosome abnormality rate was 24%; the numerical type 21% and structural type 3%. The chromosomal aberrations found in this study, were gonosomal (21/24: 87.5%) and autosomal 3/24: 12.5%). In 64.2% (18/28) of patients the azoospermia was determined by aneuploidy 47, XXY (Figure 1). Subjects 47, XXY (18/100 patients: 18%) had clinical signs or a complete picture mentioning Klinefelter syndrome. Aneuploidy 47, XYY was identified in three patients with the oligoasthénospermia (Figure 2). The Robertsonian translocations 45,XY,der (13)(14) (Figure 3) and reciprocal translocation 46, XY t(3q-10q) (Figure 4) explain oligozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratospermia. These findings are in accordance with those from other surveys and confirm that the XXY aneuploidy is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in azoospermic individuals. The correlation is established between the karyotypic abnormalities and sperm characteristics. A review of the literature of somatic chromosome investigations in infertile males has shown that 10-15% of azoospermic males and 4-5% of oligozoospermic males have an abnormal karyotype. In the first group, sex chromosome abnormalities predominate (mainly 47,XXY), whereas in the latter, autosome anomalies (i.e. Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations) are the most frequent. However, the prevalence of somatic chromosomal abnormalities in male sterile population has been reported and varies in different studies and populations. For example, the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in Dutch or Italian infertile population is respectively 3.1% and 3.95 (4). In Iran, cases with an abnormal karyotype were 13.96% (5). The frequency of chromosome abnormalities appears higher in some Ammar-Khodja et al 836 Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol. 12. No. 12. pp: 835-836, December 2014 countries. Thus, this frequency in infertile men from western Mexico and eastern Turkey is respectively 18.9% and 23.26% (6, 7). In Estonia, total chromosome alterations were revealed in 47.8% of infertile men (8). Interestingly, our present study shows a higher percentage of chromosomal abnormalities (24%) in comparison with previous reports where the range was between 10 and 15% (9). These frequency variations can be explained by the choice of recruitment criteria based on the results of spermiograms (azoospermia or severe oligospermia: concentration sperm cells <5×106 ml). The abnormal gonosome number (XXY) in patients with azoospermia was higher than in patients with severe oligozoospermia. Our results confirm the data of different literature sources that certify that sex chromosome abnormalities are the privilege of azoospermia. Indeed Klinefelter's syndrome in its homogeneous form (47, XXY) representing the most common aneuploidy (85.7%: 18/21). 47,XYY is a sex chromosomal abnormality observed in humans, with a prevalence of 0.1% of male births. This abnormality can be characterized by oligoasthenoszoospermia and it’s relatively uncommon and can miss clinically because of its variable clinical presentations (10). Our study reported a higher percentage of 3%. The reciprocal translocations are the most frequent structural chromosomal anomalies in oligozoospermia). In our study, two patients with Robertsonian translocation 45, XY, der (13)(14) were suffering from oligospermia. The balanced translocation 46, XY t(3q)(10q) has been identified in one patient with oligoasthenozoospermia. Acknowledgments We thank the Pr Guichaoua (Department of Reproductive Biology: Conception Hospital, Marseille), the Dr. Zerouala (Private Clinic Algiers), the clinic personnel and the patients involved in this research. We thank Dr. Farid Cherbal for reading the manuscript.
Ali Shalizar Jalali, Gholamreza Najafi, Mohammadreza Hosseinchi, Ashkan Sedighnia,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)

Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice.
Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days.
Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration.
Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects.
Mona Farhadi, Homa Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Abass Shockravi, Mosaeeb Foroozanfar, Kazem Parivar,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: Different investigation showed that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8- methoxypsoralen reduce birth rates in the rats.
Objective: In this study we worked out the effect of methoxsalen together with ultraviolent A (UVA) radiation on mature Balb/C mice spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: The LD50 standard was determined 160 mg/kg and the UVA dose which causes erythema was calculated 0.046 J/cm2. A sub-lethal dose of 80 mg/kg of methoxsalen solution was injected intrapritoneally to mature mice and after one hour they were exposed to UVA radiation for 20 minutes. Experiments applied included methoxsalen alone, methoxsalen with UVA, UVA alone, sham group (a group received Tween 80), and control group (N=6). In all experimental groups except UVA alone group, injections were carried out, during two consecutive weeks. Serial cross sections (5 µm thickness) were prepared for morphological and histological studies. Tunica albuginea diameter, and number of type A and type B spermatogonia and histological investigation of the testes were measured.
Results: Microscopical and statistical analyses showed significant anomalies among the experimental groups compared to control and sham group. These anomalies included decrease the body weight; increase the relative testis weight; and decrease the number of spermapogonia (type A and B), primary spermatocytes, spermatids and sperms in experimental groups I and II compared to control group. Our results showed the number of spermatozoa in experimental group I was 22.6±2.12, in experimental group II was 33.6±2.05 and in control group was 44.3±2.77 (p<0.05). Moreover in some experimental groups (I and II) shrinkage of seminiferous tubules and release of primary spermatocyte and spermatids were observed to the lumen of them.
Conclusion: It is concluded from the results of this work that treatment with methoxsalen with UVA can damage and disorganize seminiferous tubules and decrease spermatogenic cells.
Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Davood Nasiry Zarrin Ghabaee, Ramezan Ali Naeimi, Seyed Javad Seyedi, Seyed Abdollah Mousavi,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (4-2016)

Background: Aphallia or penile agenesis is a rare malformation accompanying with no phallus. This anomaly is extremely rare with abnormality of urogenital system and psychological consequences. Its outbreak is estimated 1 out of 10-30 million births.
Case: Reviewing 3 cases of male external genitalia agenesis, which associated with multiple anomalies of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and genitourinary system.
Conclusion: Aphallia has psychosocial consequences and a guarded prognosis. This study showed that if the kidney failure is due to its obstruction, these patients will be born in more favorable conditions and the future treatment measures will be directed to keep the external genitalia (male) through timely diagnosis and prenatal surgery and timely bladder drainage
Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Wannisa Sukhorum, Apichakan Sampannang, Chanwit Maneenin, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (7-2016)

Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. 
Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. 
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS), n=7). CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day) for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL), corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. 
Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl), corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml), acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%), and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18%) were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g), testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml), and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml) of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05) than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. 
Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein.

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