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Showing 31 results for Zare

Lida Mohammad Gholizad, Samad Zare, Vahid Nejati, Ali Eyshi Oskooii,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Fertility protection is important in young patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the effects of ABVD and ChlVPP chemotherapeutic protocols for Hodgkin's disease on the spermatozoa fertility indices of male rat.
Materials and Methods: After determining tolerance dose of drugs in pilot study, 24 male rats were divided to four groups: ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycine, vinblastin, dacarbazine) group,   ChlVPP (chlorambucil, vinblastin, procarbazine, prednisolone) group and two control groups one for each treatment group. One half of the lethal dose for fifty percent of population was used for treatment of animals in each protocol. Spermatozoa were used for computer- assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and morphology analyses. Heads of spermatozoa were counted.
Results: Body weight, testis and epididymis weights, spermatozoa number, and live ratio in treated rats were significantly less than their control groups (p<0.05) specifically these parameters in ABVD group was less than ChlVPP group (F= 19.6, p=0.000). Spermatozoa morphology in treated groups were more abnormal than control groups (p<0.05). Evaluation of reproductive system efficacy showed that there was no pregnancy in ABVD group and in ChlVPP group there was only one pregnant female (16.6%).
Conclusion: According to this study results, the ChlVPP had fewer side effects than ABVD in tolerance doses on male rats' reproductive system. More clinical trial studies are suggested on Hodgkin's patients. With equal treatment effectiveness, it will be better to use the most reliable and safe treatment especially in young patients.    
Mohammad Ali Khalili, Najmeh Zare-Zadeh, Hamideh Hashemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: One of the main laboratory tests for evaluation of infertility is semen analysis (SA). However additional tests may be suggested for further diagnosis of male fertility potentials. The seminal fluid contains sperms non-sperm cells and various types of lipids and glucose.
Objective: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to correlate the sperm parameters with concentrations of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL in serum samples of infertile men with abnormal SA.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 infertile men (aged 23-49 years) with abnormal SA were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Sperm concentration and motility was evaluated using Makler chamber. While normal morphology was done after Geimsa staining. Following 12 h of fasting the blood samples were obtained for evaluation of cholesterol triglyceride LDL and HDL levels. The lipid profiles were compared with the rates of normal and abnormal sperm parameters. Chi-square and fisher exact tests were used for data evaluation.
Results: 75.5% and 98% of the subjects with normal levels of triglyceride had abnormal sperm morphology and progressive motility respectively. Also abnormal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were related with abnormal sperm morphology and motility. The levels of LDL and HDL were normal in 80% and 89.3% of the cases respectively. The majority of the patients with normal LDL had abnormal sperm parameters.
Conclusion: The results showed that the concentrations of serum lipids were not generally related with the quality of semen parameters. Further studies on the role of lipid profiles of infertile men with sperm fertilizing potentials are necessary.
Seyed Hassan Eftekhar Vaghefi, Nehleh Zareii Fard, Zhinoosossadat Shahidzadeh, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells conventionally isolated from early embryos. Studies have shown that ES cells serve as a practical model for biomedical studies.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to optimize culture conditions for establishment of ES-like colonies from NMRI mouse blastocysts as well as 2-cell stage embryos.
Materials and Methods: Both expanded blastocysts and 2-cell stage embryos were co-cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF). Plating capacity and formation of Inner cell mass (ICM) were examined daily. The differentiation and growth behavior of ICM cells were examined with various procedures. ICMs derived from initially cultured 2-cell or blastocyst embryos were disaggregated either mechanically or enzymatically and seeded onto MEF with or without leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulted colonies were disaggregated and reseeded onto MEF and the colonies that were morphologically similar to ES cells were evaluated for pluripotency using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression as a stem cell marker.
Results: No morphologically good ES-like colony was isolated from 2-cell embryos after passages while 273 (79%) good-looking ICMs were isolated from 352 blastocysts. Four sets of colonies remained undifferentiated following passages. Enzymatic method of ICM disaggregation was superior to the mechanical method. Besides all ES-like colonies were obtained from the ICMs cultured in presence of MEF and LIF.
Conclusion: Our results show that NMRI mouse ICMs could be isolated and cultured from blastocyst stage embryos with a suitable culture system and ES-like cell colonies remain undifferentiated when cultured with MEF and LIF.
Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Zahra Borzoei, Soghra Bahmanpour, Jaleh Zolghadr, Sedigheh Dehbashi, Hamid Reza Zareh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility.
Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test.
Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038). The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6%) compare to the control (21.2%); however, it was not significant.
Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility
Fatemeh Nayeri, Mamak Shariat, Hosein Dalili, Leila Bani Adam, Fatemeh Zareh Mehrjerdi, Afsaneh Shakeri,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Asphyxia is a medical condition in which placental or pulmonary gas exchange is impaired or they cease all together, typically producing a combination of progressive hypoxemia and hypercapnea.
Objective: In addition to regional differences in its etiology; it is important to know its risk factors.
Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study, all neonates born from May 2002 to September 2005 in Vali-e-Asr Hospital were studied. 9488 newborns were born of which 6091 of the live patients were hospitalized in NICU. 546 newborns were studied as case and control group. 260 neonates (48%) were female and 286 neonates (52%) were male. Among the neonates who were admitted, 182 of them were diagnosed with asphyxia and twice of them (364 newborns) were selected as a control group. The variables consist of; gestational age, type of delivery, birth weight, prenatal care, pregnancy and peripartum complications and neonatal disorders.
Results: Our studies showed that 35 (19.2%) patients had mild asphyxia, 107 (58.8%) had moderate asphyxia and 40 (22%) were diagnosed as severe asphyxia. Mean maternal age was 34.23±4.29yr; (range: 23-38 yr); and mean of parity was 2±1.2; (range: 1-8). Risk factors in our study included emergent Caesarian Section, preterm labor (<37w), low birth weight (<2500g), 5 minute Apgar (less than 6), need for resuscitation, nuchal cord, impaired Biophysical Profile, neonatal anemia, and maternal infertility.
Conclusion: All risk factors listed above play a role in asphyxia. The majority of these factors are avoidable by means of good perinatal care.
Mohammad Baqer Minaei, Mohammad Barbarestani, Saeid Nekoonam, Mir Abbas Abdolvahabi, Nasrin TakZare, Mohammad Hossein Asadi, Azim Hedayatpour, Fardin Amidi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Sperm parameters and motion kinetics are affected by cryopreservation.
Objective: The main purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Trolox as an antioxidant to freezing-thawing procedure on human sperm kinematic parameter.
Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from 20 normal donors and divided into five aliquots prior to cryopreservation. The first aliquot was analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Other aliquots were mixed with cryo-protective agent containing 0, 20, 40, and 80 µmol Trolox and treated samples were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After two weeks samples were thawed and sperm motion kinematics was measured by CASA. Percent motility (Mot), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were compared before and after freeze.
Results: Addition of 40µmol Trolox resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) post thaw VCL, VSL and VAP compared to other groups. Therefore the percentage of post thaw motile spermatozoa were significantly higher (p<0.01).
Conclusion: The supplementation of Trolox significantly improved the post-thawed human semen quality, especially progressive motility and average path velocity.
Soghra Bahmanpour, Tahereh Talaei Khozani, Nehleh Zarei Fard, Mansoureh Jaberipour, Ahmah Hosseini, Tahereh Esmaeilpour,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)

Background: The interaction between follicular cells and oocyte leads to a change in gene expression involved in oocyte maturation processes.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the expression of more common genes involved in follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the expression of genes was evaluated with qRT-PCR assay in female BALB/c mice pups at 3-day of pre-pubertal and 8 week old virgin adult ovaries. The tissue was prepared by H&E staining for normal morphological appearance. The data were calculated with the 2-ΔCt formula and assessed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The p<0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The data showed a significant increase in the level of Stra8 and GDF9 in adult compared with newborn mice ovaries (p=0.049). In contrast, a significant decrease in the level of Mvh, REC8, SCP1, SCP3, and ZP2 was observed in adult mice ovaries compared to those in the newborn mice ovaries (all p=0.049 except SCP1: p=0.046). There was no significant difference in the level of OCT4 and Cx37 expression between adult and newborn mice ovaries.
Conclusion: The modifications in gene expression patterns coordinate the follicular developmental processes. Furthermore, the findings showed higher expression level of premeiotic gene (Stra8) and lower level of meiotic entry markers (SCP1, SCP3, and REC8) in juvenile than newborn mouse ovaries.
Ali Nabi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Ehsan Zare,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: It is estimated that about 50% of causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cases remain unknown. Sperm factors are suggested to have probable role in cases with RPL.
Objective: The goal was to determine the possible relationship between semen bacterial contaminations with unexplained RPL. Also, the correlation between number of bacterial colony and sperm chromatin condensation was examined.
Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 30 fertile men (group A) and 30 infertile (group B) patients with unknown RPL. Semen collection and analysis were done according to WHO manuals. Sperm count and motility were evaluated by Makler chamber. Eosin-Nigrosin and Papanicolaou staining methods were applied for viability and morphology assessment, respectively. The semen samples from both groups were cultured for aerobic bacteria. Aniline blue (AB) and toluidine blue (TB) staining methods were applied for evaluating sperm chromatin condensation.
Results: The numbers of colonies were significantly higher in group B when compared to group A. Also, S. aureus and E. coli showed significant differences between two groups. Both AB+ and TB+ sperm cells showed significant increase in group B compared to group A. There was a significant negative correlation between colony number and progressive motility (p=0.01), sperm viability (p=0.007). In addition, positive correlations were found between colony number and AB (p=0.001) and TB (p=0.004) as well.
Conclusion: Bacterial contaminations in semen of men from RPL couples had significantly higher levels when compared to fertile controls. Presence of microorganisms in semen may be correlated with irregular sperm parameters and quality.
Afsoon Zarei, Mohammad Ebrahim Parsanezhad, Masoumeh Younesi, Saeed Alborzi, Jaleh Zolghadri, Alamtaj Samsami, Sedigheh Amooee, Shahintaj Aramesh,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: The direct effect of hCG on the human endometrium was studied several times.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of intrauterine injection of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) before embryo transfer (ET).
Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total number of 182 infertile patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles were randomly assigned to receive 250μg intrauterine rhCG (n=84) or placebo (n=98) before ET. The implantation and pregnancy rates were compared between groups.
Results: Patients who received intrauterine rhCG before ET had significantly higher implantation (36.9% vs. 22.4%; p=0.035), clinical pregnancy rates (34.5% vs. 20.4%; p=0.044) and ongoing pregnancy rate (32.1% vs. 18.4%; p=0.032) when compared to those who received placebo. The abortion (2.4% vs. 2.0%; p=0.929) and ectopic pregnancy rates (1.2% vs. 1.0%; p=0.976) were comparable between groups of rhCG and placebo, respectively. Conclusion: Intrauterine injection of 250μg of rhCG before ET significantly improves the implantation and pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles
Zahra Shayan, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Najaf Zare, Fariba Moradi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (2-2014)

Background: In recent years, the study of birth intervals has been a main determinant of the levels of fertility in the populations, as it is associated with rates of fertility and population growth.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to firstly apply survival analysis for modeling of first birth interval and secondly to explore its determinants.
Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, the fertility history of 858 women was collected in rural areas of Shiraz (southern Iran) in 2008. We used the survival analysis such as cox regression and alternative parametric models to evaluate the prognostic factors of first birth interval.
Results: Among the explanatory variables of interest, age at marriage, level of women's education, and menstrual status had highly significant effects on the duration of birth interval after marriage (p<0.01).
Conclusion: It is concluded that the suitable parametric models would be a useful tool for fitting to first birth interval, the fact that has been less paid attention to in researches.

Safieh Jamali, Hossein Zarei, Athar Rasekh Jahromi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Infertility as the bitterest life experience can affect sexual function. Many studies have shown agitation, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction as the psychological outcomes resulting from infertility. Many factors, including body mass index, influence the female sexual function.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction and the relationship between sexual function and body mass index in the Iranian infertile women who had attended the infertility clinic.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 502 infertile women who had attended Honoree clinic, Jahrom in Iran between April 2012 and December 2012. The infertile cases were classified into three groups according to the body mass index: 20-24.9 (Group I), 25-29.9 (Group II), and >29.9 and above (Group III). In addition, Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was used in order to assess the sexual problems. Finally, the data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Student’s t-test.
Results: The mean age of women was 30.95±6.80 years. The results showed that 430 subjects (87.1%) had sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, the rate of sexual dysfunction among the infertile women was reported as 23.30%, 31.47%, and 45.23% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Considering body mass index, FSFI score was 21.65±1.70 in the women with normal weight, 18.08±1.52 in overweight women, and 12.21±3.62 in obese women and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was quite high in infertile women, which might be due to the lack of knowledge about marital issues and lack of training in the society. If body mass index is too high, it can have a great effect on fertility. In this study, being overweight and obese based on body mass index had a negative effect on the infertile woman’s sexual function.

Marzieh Mahdavipour, Farah Idali, Saeed Zarei, Saeed Talebi, Ramina Fatemi, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Somayeh Pahlavan, Farzad Rajaei,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. Environmental factors and genetics can affect pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: Conflicting data suggest an association between estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene polymorphisms and RPL. In this study, such association was investigated in Iranian women with RPL.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, blood samples were collected from 244 women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and 104 healthy women with at least two live births. Using polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), we studied -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1 gene in case and control subjects.
Results: The genotypic frequencies of -397C/T and -351A/G polymorphisms on ESR1were not significantly different between RPL and control groups (p=0.20 and p=0.09, respectively). A significantly negative correlation was observed between -397C/T and -351A/G (r=-0.852, p<0.001) in RPL women and complete linkage disequilibrium between the investigated polymorphisms was found (D’: 0.959; r-square= 0.758, p<0.001).
Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the analyzed polymorphisms on ESR1gene are not associated with an increased risk of RPL in the studied population.
Afsoon Zarei, Saeed Alborzi, Nasrin Dadras, Ghazal Azadi,
Volume 12, Issue 9 (10-2014)

Background: Implantation is considered as the rate-limiting step in success of assisted reproduction techniques, and intrauterine insemination cycles. It might be affected by ovarian superovulation and endometrial local scratching.
Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of local endometrial injury on the outcome of IUI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial 144 women with unexplained infertility, mild male factor, and mild endometriosis randomly divided into two study groups through block randomization. The patients were randomly assigned to undergo endometrial biopsy between days 6-8 of the previous menstrual cycle before IUI (n=72, IUI cycles =126) or receive no interventions (n=72, IUI cycles=105).
Results: The pregnancy rate per patient was 17 (23.6%) and 14 (19.4%) in endometrial biopsy and control groups, respectively (p=0.686). The pregnancy rate per cycle was 17/126 (13.5%) and 14/105 (13.3%) in endometrial biopsy and control groups, respectively (p=0.389). The abortion rate was comparable between the two groups (6.9% vs. 9.7%; p=0.764). The ongoing pregnancy rate was found to be comparable between the two study groups, as well (16.7% vs. 9.7%; p=0.325). Endometrial thickness (p=0.609) was comparable between the groups; however ER2R was significantly lower in the endometrial biopsy group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Application of local endometrial injury in the cycle before the IUI cycles is not associated with increased pregnancy rate per patient and per cycle, decreased abortion, and increased endometrial thickness.
Vahideh Shahnazi, Mina Zaree, Mohammad Nouri, Mahzad Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Shabnam Fayezi, Maryam Darabi, Sajjad Khani, Masoud Darabi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2-2015)

Background: The omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement to improve infertility, particularly in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression in primary cultured granulosa cells from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare this effect with those in granulosa cells of PCOS patients.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human granulosa cells were isolated from follicular fluid of normal and PCOS women undergoing IVF by hyaluronidase digestions, followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Cells were cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA (25-100 μM) for 24 hr, and investigated with respect to COX-2 and IGF-1 gene expression by real time-PCR.
Results: In both groups, all doses of the EPA significantly induced IGF-1 mRNAgene expression compared to the untreated control. High doses of EPA in thepresence of recombinant (r) FSH produced a stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and asuppressive effect (p=0.01) on the COX-2 gene expression, which were morepronounced in granulosa cells from PCOS patients.
Conclusion: EPA affect diversely the gene expression of IGF-1 and COX-2 in granulosa cells, which were more pronounced in PCOS compared to control. These findings represent the possible underlying molecular mechanisms for the positive impact of the ω-3 fatty acids on reproduction, especially in patients with PCOS.
Zahra Bakhtiary, Rasoul Shahrooz, Abbas Ahmadi, Leila Zarei,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: One of the affecting factors in disturbance process of spermatogenesis is chemotherapeutic-induced oxidative stress resulted from cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment which leads to diminished sperm quality via interference in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) in reducing the CP-induced side effects on reproductive system.
Materials and Methods: 24 mature male mice were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and were undergone therapy for 35 days. Control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day, IP). CP group were injected CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) as well as CP. In the end of the treatment period, the mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Then, the epididymis was incubated with CO2 in a human tubal fluid medium (1 ml) for half an hour in order to float sperm. Then, the number, motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), DNA breakage (acridine orange staining), nucleus maturity, and sperm morphology (aniline blue staining) were analyzed.
Results: The average (15.87±1.28), motility (35.77±2.75), viability (40±3.03), nucleus maturity (36±2.79) and sperm morphology (61.75±0.85) were decreased significantly in CP group in comparison with control and EP groups, whereas EP caused significant increase of these parameters. Also, the percentage of DNA damage was increased significantly in CP group (41.75±3.75) in comparison with control (2±0.71) and EP groups (22.5±4.13).
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed ameliorating effects of EP on sperm quality of CP treated animals.
Fatemeh Shakarami, Mohammad Taghi Akbari, Shohreh Zare Karizi,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) defined by two or more failed pregnancies before 20 weeks of gestation. Several factors play a role in RPL including thrombophilic conditions which can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) genes are closely related to fibrinolytic process, embryonic development and pregnancy success.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RPL and common polymorphisms in ACE and PAI-1 genes.
Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 100 women with recurrent abortions (at least two) were selected as cases and 100 healthy women with two or more normal term deliveries without a history of abortion as controls. Total genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes. The status of the PAI-1 4G/5G and ACE (D/I) polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Homozygosity for PAI-1 4G polymorphism was seen in 17 cases (17%), and 5 controls (5%) (p=0.006) so patients with homozygote 4G mutation were significantly more prone to RPL in contrast to control group (OR: 4.63, % 95 CI: 1.55-13.84). In addition, 7 patients (7 %), and no one from the control group, were homozygote (I/I) for ACE polymorphism (p=0.034), suggesting no significant associations between ACE D allele or DD genotype and RPL.
Conclusion: Considering these results, because 4G/4G polymorphism for PAI-1 gene could be a thrombophilic variant leading to abortion, analysis of this mutation and other susceptibility factors are recommended in patients with RPL.
Shiva Shahsavari, Zahra Noormohammadi, Shohreh Zare Karizi,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion is one of the diseases that can lead to physical, psychological, and, economical problems for both individuals and society. Recently a few numbers of genetic polymorphisms in kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene are examined that can endanger the life of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: The risk of KDR gene polymorphisms was investigated in Iranian women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Materials and Methods: A case controlled study was performed. One hundred idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients with at least two consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestational age with normal karyotypes were included in the study. Also, 100 healthy women with at least one natural pregnancy were studied as control group. Two functional SNPs located in KDR gene; rs1870377 (Q472H), and rs2305948 (V297I) as well as one tag SNP in the intron region (rs6838752) were genotyped by using PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Haplotype frequency was determined for these three SNPs’ genotypes. Analysis of genetic STRUCTURE and K means clustering were performed to study genetic variation. Results: Functional SNP (rs1870377) was highly linked to tag SNP (rs6838752) (D´ value=0. 214; χ2 = 16.44, p<0. 001). K means clustering showed that k = 8 as the best fit for the optimal number of genetic subgroups in our studied materials. This result was in agreement with Neighbor Joining cluster analysis. Conclusion: In our study, the allele and genotype frequencies were not associated with RSA between patient and control individuals. Inconsistent results in different populations with different allele frequencies among RSA patients and controls may be due to ethnic variation and used sample size.  
Zahra Zare, Malihe Amirian, Nahid Golmakani, Reza Mazlom, Mojtaba Laal Ahangar,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction.
Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS.
Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002).
Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples.
Azam Ghanei, Golnaz Mohammadzade, Ehsan Zarepur, Sedigheh Soheilikhah,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and vanishing testes are uncommon diseases that can result from hormonal and mechanical factors. Classic CAH is determined by ambiguous genitalia and increase in amount of 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. Simultaneous occurrence of CAH and vanishing testes is a rare condition.
Case: A 22-year-old boy, known case of CAH who was diagnosed as female pseudohermaphroditism due to ambiguous genitalia, was referred to Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran with colicky abdominal pain and hematuria. Ultrasonography has been performed and prostate tissue was reported. Karyotyping was done because of uncertainty in primary diagnosis, which revealed 46XY. For finding location of testes, ultrasonography and MRI were done and nothing was found in abdomen, inguinal canal or scrotum. Inhibin B serum level was measured to find out whether testis tissue was present in the body, which was <1 pg/ml and vanishing testis was confirmed.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further sequels and karyotyping for all patients with CAH is recommended. Lifelong treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid replacement is necessary.
Nasrin TakZare, Esmaeil Samizadeh, Saeed Shoar, Masoumeh Majidi Zolbin, Mohammad Naderan, Ali Lashkari, Azam Bakhtiarian,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: There are numerous investigations on wide range of issues that disrupt regulatory spermatogenesis, individuals who are exposed to drug abuse faced infertility and immature spermatogenesis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addiction effects of morphine and its derivatives on rats spermatogenesis.
Materials and Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups, which were exposed either with intravenous morphine, naloxone, naloxone and morphine, sham (with normal saline injection) and a control group without infusion. Spermatogenesis was assessed after three months via histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin staining, using a light microscope based on measurement of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa.
Results: Those rats that received opioids had changes in spermatogenesis function. The population of spermatogenesis cycle cells at spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa stages was significantly decreased in those rats that received opioid in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Histological studies revealed that changes in different groups of opioid application might affect sperm formation. Sperm count in morphine group was (0±0) and in naloxone group, naloxone+morphine, sham and control were 235±3.77, 220±3.81, 247.12±6.10 and 250±6.54, respectively (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Morphine could affect all spermatogenesis stages.

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