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Showing 23 results for Sheikhha

Seyed Saeid Mazloomy, Mahdieh Shirvani-Anarak, Abbas-Ali Dehghani, Nasim Tabibnejad, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background:   Objective:   Materials and Methods:   Results:   Conclusion:   Key Words:   AIDS, Pregnant women, Knowledge, Attitude There is an urgent need for HIV prevention efforts, such as health education and focusing on   the pregnant women in developing world. Health educators should tailor education programs for women at risk, particularly those with lower education, to enhance their knowledge about HIV and to improve their attitude about AIDS. The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was not significantly different in different age   groups (p=0.151), while it had a significant relationship with their education (p=0.000). There was a correlation between general knowledge and attitude in pregnant women (p=0.033) (r=0.126). The attitude about AIDS in pregnant women was fairly good and there was a significant difference in this regard related to their education (p=0.000), while there was not significant difference regarding their age (p=0.410) (Mean =19.8). In a cross sectional study, a total of 120 pregnant women, who referred to   family health clinics in Yazd, were selected by simple random sampling. Information was collected via a special designed questionnaire containing 22 questions for evaluating knowledge and 6 questions for evaluating attitude. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test with SPSS software. The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's knowledge about HIV/AIDS, their   perception of risk, risk behavior and management, and their attitudes towards AIDS. Since AIDS is not only a vital medical problem, but also a socioeconomic complication,   therefore increasing people's knowledge and replacing their unhealthy behavior by a healthy one is of important consideration. Women, specially in reproductive ages of their life, have a special situation regarding the probability of pregnancy and infection of their fetus.
Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance. Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Inversion of the uterus is very uncommon. Patients may present with pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, or hemodynamic shock. Case: We report a case of 35 years old women (virgin) who was admitted with profuse vaginal bleeding and cramps of uterus. In the vaginal examination at litothomy position a mass of 58 cm in size was protruded from the vagina. At first myomectomy was performed and after that laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy was done. Conclusion: Early diagnosis, immediate treatment of shock, and replacement are essential in uterine inversion.
Zia Eslami, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyedhasani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Carriers of translocations may have an increased risk of an unbalanced progeny due to imbalances and delays in meiosis. Case: A 24-year-old pregnant Iranian female was referred to the Genetic Department of Yazd Clinical and Research Centre for Infertility because of her pregnancy history. She had three previous pregnancies, two of which ended in abortion. The one live born infant was a girl who had multiple abnormalities and died when she was 11 days old. The cytogenetic analysis showed that the woman is a carrier of chromosomal translocation 46, XX, t (3; 22) (q21; q12), while her husband’s karyotype was found to be normal. The karyotype of her mother showed the same translocation. The risk of further miscarriages was high, and the proband was monitored closely during her pregnancy. After nine months of pregnancy, a normal baby girl weighted 3460 gr was delivered by Caesarean section. Three hours after birth, the baby suffered from jaundice and respiratory distress. The baby’s phenotype was normal. She received routine treatment successfully and after 15 days she was discharged from the hospital in a good condition. The baby’s karyotype showed the same translocation as her mother and grandmother. Conclusion: To our knowledge, no translocation with such breakpoints t (3; 22) (q21; q12) has been described previously in the women with RPL.
Seyed Morteza Seifati, Kazem Parivar, Abbas Aflatoonian, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is a complex trait and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that exposure to environmental contaminants is a risk factor for endometriosis. Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 (GSTM1) is one of the genes involved in detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds.
Objective: Several studies have indicated an association between GSTM1 null mutation and endometriosis. In this study, the possible association between the GSTM1 gene null genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis in woman from central and southern Iran was investigated.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and one unrelated premenopausal women with endometriosis and 142 unrelated healthy premenopausal women without endometriosis were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from Peripheral blood in all subjects. GSTM1 null genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: There was no significant difference between frequencies of GSTM1 null genotype in case and control groups (50.5% Vs. 52.1%, p=0.804). Furthermore, this genotype was not associated with severity of endometriosis in our sample (p=0.77).
Conclusion: further studies involving gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, particularly combination of GSTM1 and other GST gene family polymorphisms are needed.
Farnaz Sohrabvand, Shahrzad Sheikhhassani, Maryam Bagheri, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Maryam Shabihkhani, Mamak Shariat, Manijeh Nasr Esfahani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

  Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory disorders and infertility with high LH to FSH ratio. In order to prevent further increase of LH and follicle atresia, different regimens for ovulation induction have been recommended using FSH alone.   Objective: This study was performed in PCOS patients to compare ART outcomes in cycles induced by FSH alone, using either recombinant or urinary products.   Materials and Methods: In a randomized trial, from 623 patients who underwent down regulation with GnRH analogue in a long protocol, 160 PCOS patients were randomly divided into two groups of 80. Group A received 150 IU/d recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) and group B 150 IU/d urinary FSH (Fostimon). Results: 33 cases (41.2%) in group A and 36 (45%) in group B achieved clinical pregnancy, which was not significantly different (p=0.67). Total number of oocytes retrieved (13.03±5.56 vs. 14.17±4.89, p=0.17), quality and number of embryos (7.42±3.35 vs. 7.63±3.28, p=0.68) and OHSS rate were similar in group A compared to group B. Endometrial thickness which was 9.66±1.67 mm in group A and 10.36±1.35 mm in group B, showed a significant difference (p=0.004). Conclusion: It seems that in PCOS patients, both pure FSH products used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation have similar effects on ART outcome and can be used according to availability and patient acceptance without significant difference.
Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Hossein Pashaiefar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Tahereh Jahaninejad, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Meiotic genes are very important candidates for genes contributing to female and male infertility. Mammalian MutL homologues have dual roles in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) after replication errors and meiotic reciprocal recombination. The MutL homologs, MLH1 and MLH3 , are crucial for meiotic reciprocal recombination and human fertility. In this study the functional polymorphisms of MLH3 C2531T was investigated in Iranian women with unexplained infertility.
Objective: Investigating the association between a common SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) C2531T in the MLH3 gene and female infertility.
Materials and Methods: In total, 105 women with unexplained infertility as case group and 100 women with at least one child and no history of infertility or abortion as controls were recruited for this association study. The MLH3 C2531T polymorphism was tested by tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (4P-ARMS-PCR) method.
Results: The MLH3 2531C and T alleles frequencies were 43.33% and 56.67% among infertile patients, and 61.5% and 38.5% among normal controls, respectively. In the patient and control subjects the CC (Pro 844 Pro) genotype frequency of MLH3 C2531T was 4.76% and 25%, the CT (Pro 844 Leu) genotype was 77.15% and 73%, and the TT (Leu 844 Leu) genotype was 19% and 2%, respectively (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: The presence of the polymorphic allele T leads to an increased risk of 2.09 times (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.38-3.16; p=0.0001) for developing infertility in relation to the control group. Therefore, our data suggest that the MLH3 C2531T polymorphism can be associated with the risk of unexplained infertility in Iranian women.
Tahereh Mirjalili, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Maryam Shams Lahijani, Mohamad Hasan Sheikhha, Alireza Talebi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)
Abstract

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent psychomotor stimulant with high abuse and addictive potential. MA is a neurotoxic drug which is widely abused by females of childbearing age, raising serious public health concerns in terms of exposure of the fetus to the drug. Neurotoxic effects of MA on adult are well known, such as dopaminergic nerve terminal degeneration and cell death in regions of brain in some doses.
Objective: In the present study, we examined effect of prenatal MA exposure on mouse fetuses.
Materials and Methods: In this study, forty 8-12 week-old NMRI female mice were used which were mated with male mice in serial days. When sperm plug was observed it was designated as gestational day (GD) 0. Pregnant mice were individually housed in plastic cages. Pregnant mice were divided into four groups: in first group 10 mg/kg /day MA, in second group 5 mg/kg /day MA and in third group saline were injected subcutaneously from GD 6 to GD 14, corresponding to organogenesis period, while fourth or control group were without injection. On GD 14 fetuses were removed and accomplished chromosome preparation from fetal liver. Then fetal were fixed in formalin for brain hematoxilin and eosine staining and TUNEL assay.
Results: We observed morphological abnormality including exencephal fetus in 5mg/kg MA group and premature fetuses in 10 mg/kg MA group. Also brain histological study showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in fetal brain in both experimental groups. Fetal liver karyotyping analysis was normal in fetuses of all groups and TUNEL assay in fetal striatum did not show significant difference in number of apoptotic cells between groups.
Conclusion: From our results, it could be concluded that chronic abuse of MA by pregnant females during organogenesis period can cause teratogenic effect and brain hemorrage in fetus.
Ali Reza Navabazam, Fatemeh Sadeghian Nodoshan, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Mehrdad Soleimani, Farzaneh Fesahat,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)
Abstract

Background: Human dental stem cells have high proliferative potential for self-renewal that is important to the regenerative capacity of the tissue.
Objective: The aim was to isolate human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and periapical follicle stem cells (PAFSC) for their potential role in tissue regeneration.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the postnatal stem cells were isolated from dental pulp, preapical follicle and periodontal ligament .The cells were stained for different stem cell markers by immunocytochemistry. To investigate the mesenchymal nature of cells, differentiation potential along osteoblastic and adipogenic lineages and gene expression profile were performed. For proliferation potential assay, Brdu staining and growth curve tests were performed. Finally, all three cell types were compared together regarding their proliferation, differentiation and displaying phenotype.
Results: The isolated cell populations have similar fibroblastic like morphology and expressed all examined cell surface molecule markers. These cells were capable of differentiating into osteocyte with different capability and adipocyte with the same rate. PAFSCs showed more significant proliferation rate than others. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for nanog, oct4, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GADPH) as control gene showed strong positive expression of these genes in all three isolated cell types.
Conclusion: PDLSCs, DPSCs and PAFSCs exist in various tissues of the teeth and can use as a source of mesenchymal stem cells for developing bioengineered organs and also in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with varying efficiency in differentiation and proliferation.
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Saeede Soleimanian, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Azam Rasti, Maryam Golzade, Hamid Hoseini Fahraji,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background: It has been hypothesized that Y-q microdeletion can account for significant proportion of infertility in men. There are three nonoverlapping regions referred to as the "azoozpermia factors" AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc from proximal to distal part of Y-q. These have been defined as spermatogenesis loci, this region deletions have been shown to be involved in male azoospermic or severe oligoozospermic infertility.
Objective: Evaluation the rate of Y-chromosome microdeletions in infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 25 azoospermic infertile men candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were selected as case group. For control group, 25 normoozoospemric men were selected. All cases and controls had normal 46XY karyotype. DNA extraction and molecular analysis were done on blood samples. Multiplex-PCR method was done to identify the presence of microdeletion in AZFa, AZFb or AZFc loci. Eight STS primers that include two controls were selected to determine Y-chromosome microdeletions.
Results: 20% (5/25) of all patients have at least one microdeletion in more than one region of AZF loci. Totally 17 microdeletions was observed, one case had deletions in three AZF regions, and 4 cases had deletions in two AZF regions. The rate of deletions was 42% (7/17) for AZFc, 35% (6/17) for AZFa and 23% (4/17) for AZFb.
Conclusion: The molecular DNA analysis could help us to know the real cause of infertility and can give good information for good decision for example in men whit microdeletions who want to undertake ICSI procedure the deletions will be passed to their son.
Saeede Soleimanian, Seyyed Mahdi Kalantar, Mohamad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohamad Ali Zaimy, Azam Rasti, Hossein Fazli,
Volume 11, Issue 5 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background: In human, about 25% of implanted embryos are losing 1-2 week following attachment to the uterus. A subset of this population will have three or more consecutive miscarriages which define as repeated pregnancy loss (RPL). Introducing the assisted reproductive technologies (ARTS) made a chance for infertile couples to solve their childless problem.
Objective:  This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of Y-chromosome AZF region's micro-deletions in male partners of couples with recurrent miscarriage (RM).
Materials and Methods:  Thirty male partner of couples with RM and thirty infertile males, who referred to the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were recruited to this study. In addition, 30 healthy men were screened as a control group from the same center. After DNA extraction using salting out method, the multiplex-PCR was done for amplifying 8 known STSs proximal to the AZF region of the Y-chromosome. The results were compared between the groups using Fisher's exact t-test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:  Of the 30 infertile males, 5 (16.6%) cases were associated with the AZF region micro-deletions of DYF87S, DYF84S1, DYF83S1 and DYF51S1, STSs. But in the fertile and RM male groups was found no deletions similar to those, of the infertile males (p=1.0). Instead 4 (13.3%) cases of the RM group males had different micro-deletions included DYS220 (AZFb, sY129), DYS262, DYF8551, and DYF8651, STSs. The AZFc locus of Y-chromosome micro-deletions have a significant role in RM (p=0.045).
Conclusion:  It seems that the Y-chromosome AZF region's micro-deletions are associated with RM, and we recommend adding this AZF region STSs into infertility analyzing panels.
Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Tahere Jahaninejad, Hossein Pashaiefar, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Mahnaz Zahraei,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)
Abstract

Background: About 15% of couples have infertility problems which 40% of them are related to the male factors. Genetic factors are candidate for about 10% of male infertility conditions. Among these, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions on the Yq are considered most important for spermatogenesis. Microdeletions of these regions are thought to be involved in some cases of azoospermic or oligospermic infertile men.
Objective: We studied the prevalence of AZF microdeletions among Iranian infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligospermia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men were selected for case group and 50 men with normal spermogram as control group. The molecular study of Y chromosome microdeletions was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method by using of 13 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from AZF region.
Results: Four (8%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions among case group, deletion in AZFc region was the most frequent (80%) followed by AZFb (20%), in AZFa and AZFd region we did not detect any deletions. No deletion was detected in control group; the ratio of Y chromosome microdeletion in azoospermic men was higher than this ratio in oligospermic men [19% (3/16) among azoospermic men and 3% (1/34) among oligospermics]. Serum FSH level in men with microdeletions was higher than this level in men with no deletions (p=0.034).
Conclusion: Because of relatively high prevalence of microdeletions on the long arm of Y chromosome among Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic patients, screening of this microdeletion may be advised to infertile men particularly azoospermic and oligospermic men before using assisted reproductive treatments.
Robab Davar, Nasim Tabibnejad, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)
Abstract

Background: Despite extensive progress in IVF techniques, one of the most difficult problems is the variability in the response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Recent studies show the effects of individual genetic variability on COH outcome.
Objective: To evaluate the correlation between LHβ G1502A polymorphisms in exon 3 of the LH gene and ovarian response to COH.
Materials and Methods: A total of 220 women treated with a long protocol for ovarian stimulation were studied. Three genotypes of GG, GA and AA were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.
Results: In total, 34 (17%) patients were poor responders, 154 (77%) were normal responders and 12 (6%) were hyper responders. The most frequent genotype was GA (55.5%) whereas 44.5% of patients showed GG genotype and there was no patient with AA genotype. In total 54.5% of normal responders, 61.8% of poor responders and 50% of hyper responders showed GA genotype.
Conclusion: Our results did not establish a significant relationship between this polymorphism and the ovarian response. Therefore it is still very difficult to use the genotype of patients for prediction of the ovarian response to stimulation.
Eskandar Taghizadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Reza Mahdian, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Ehsan Farashahi-Yazd, Saeed Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Zahra Shahbazi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (5-2015)
Abstract

Background: Sulfatase 1 ( SULF1 ) function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics.
Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique.
Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05) regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls.
Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001).
Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1 genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.
Maryam Eftekhar, Soheila Pourmasumi, Parvin Sabeti, Abbas Aflatoonian, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)
Abstract

Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement.
Anahita Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Azam Ghanei,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (8-2016)
Abstract

Background: With the prevalence of 6-10%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered the most common endocrinological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. It has been suggested that genetic factors participate in the development of PCOS. Follicular development has been considered as one of the impaired processes in PCOS. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) gene is a candidate gene in follicular development and its variants may play role in pathogenesis of PCOS.
Objective: To investigate whether BMP-15 gene mutations are present in Iranian women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 5 ml venous blood samples was taken from 70 PCOS women referring to Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between January to December 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood sample by salting out method. Then a set of PCR reactions for exon1 of BMP-15 gene was performed using specific primers followed by genotyping with direct sequencing.
Results: Two different polymorphisms were found in the gene under study. In total 20 patients (28.6%) were heterozygote (C/G), and 2 patients (2.86%) were homozygous (G/G) for c.-9C>G in 5´UTR promoter region of BMP-15 gene (rs3810682). In addition, in the coding region of exon1, three patients (4.3%) were heterozygote (G/A) for c.A308G (rs41308602). Two PCOS patients (2.86%) appeared to have both c.-9C>G (C/G) and c.A308G (G/A) variants simultaneously.
Conclusion: Our research detected two polymorphisms of BMP-15 gene among PCOS patients, indicating that even though it cannot be concluded that variants of BMP-15 gene are the principal cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome; they could be involved in pathogenic process in development of PCOS.
Farzaneh Fesahat, Fatemeh Montazeri, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Hojjatollah Saeedi, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (6-2017)
Abstract

Background: Selection of the best embryo for transfer is very important in assistedreproductive technology (ART). Using morphological assessment for this selectiondemonstrated that the correlation between embryo morphology and implantationpotential is relatively weak. On the other hand, aneuploidy is a key genetic factorthat can influence human reproductive success in ART.
Objective: The aim of this lab trial study was to evaluate the incidence ofaneuploidies in five chromosomes in the morphologically high-quality embryosfrom young patients undergoing ART for sex selection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 97 high quality embryos from 23 women at theage of 37or younger years that had previously undergone preimplantation geneticscreening for sex selection were included in this study. After washing, the slides ofblastomeres from embryos of patients were reanalyzed by fluorescence in-situhybridization for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21.
Results: There was a significant rate of aneuploidy determination in the embryosusing preimplantation genetic screening for both sex and three evaluated autosomalchromosomes compared to preimplantation genetic screening for only sexchromosomes (62.9% vs. 24.7%, p=0.000). The most frequent detectedchromosomal aneuploidy was trisomy or monosomy of chromosome 13.
Conclusion: There is considerable numbers of chromosomal abnormalities inembryos generated in vitro which cause in vitro fertilization failure and it seems thatmorphological characterization of embryos is not a suitable method for choosing theembryos without these abnormalities.
Anahita Mehdizadeh, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hassan Sheikhha, Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Azam Ghanei,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (9-2017)
Abstract

Background: Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common endocrinological disorder of women in their reproductive age. Androgen metabolism is impaired in PCOS and, thus, CYP19 gene which is involved in this pathway can be a candidate gene. Previous studies have shown a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP19 in hyperandrogenism and PCOS in some racial groups.
Objective: This study was designed to elucidate the role of CYP19 gene in PCOS in Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 70 PCOS women and 70 non-PCOS women as normal control were selected. Following the informed consent, 5 ml blood was taken from individuals and subsequently, genomic DNA was extracted by salting out method. Furthermore, a set of polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was carried out using specific primers for SNP rs.2414096 followed by enzyme digestion, with HSP92II.
Results: Genotype frequencies of SNP rs. 2414096 in PCOS women were as follows: AA (14.4%), AG (44.3%), and GG (41.4%) while in normal group, genotypes were 24.3%, 52.8%, and 22.9%, respectively. Allele frequencies in PCOS group were 49.3% for A and 50.7% for G, whereas normal group had a different percentage of A (36.4%) and G (63.6%). The calculations for both genotypic and allelic frequencies showed statistical significance difference.
Conclusion: Variants of SNP rs. 2414096 in CYP19 could play a role in the development of PCOS in Iranian women.
Ali Nabi, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Mojgan Moshrefi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Ehsan Zare Mehrjardi, Hamid Reza Ashrafzadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (Jun 2018)
Abstract

Abstract Background: Asthenozoospermia is one of the etiologies for male factor infertility. It was shown that any abnormality in protamines genes, reduction of protamines transcript and protamines deficiency may play a key role in asthenozoospermia. Objective: The aim of the current study was the evaluation of protamine-1 and 2 genes (PRM1 and PRM2) polymorphisms in asthenozoospermic men. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the samples were corresponded to asthenozoospermic specimens of infertile men. The normozoospermic samples were considered as the control group. DNA sequence amplification was performed using four PRM1 and PRM2 primers, designed from 5' to 3' flank regions. The human PRM1 and PRM2 gene sequences were screened in search of potential mutations in highly prevalent polymorphism regions in asthenozoospermia versus normozoospermia. Results: Totally, nine highly prevalent polymorphism regions between the forward and reverse primers were screened. Three of them corresponded to PRM1 and six to PRM2. The most prevalent polymorphism regions in PRM1 were related to 102G>T (rs35576928), 49C>T (rs140477029) and 139C>A (rs737008). In the PRM2, 6 highly prevalent polymorphisms regions were screened, including 248C>T (rs779337774), 401G>A (rs545828790), 288C>T (rs115686767), 288G>C (rs201933708), 373C>A (rs2070923), and 298G>C (rs1646022). The allele frequencies of three upper mentioned single nucleotide polymorphisms in asthenozoospermic men including 373C>A, 298G>C and 139C>A was higher than the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the frequency of some altered genotypes in asthenozospermia was slightly higher than control group. We proposed more extensive studies to be sure that; these genotypes can precisely be related to diagnosis of asthenozoospermia, as the molecular markers.

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