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Nasrin Khanmohammadi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Manouchehr Safari, Hamid Reza Sameni, Behpour Yousefi, Behnaz Jafari, Sam Zarbakhsh,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

 L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant with the ability to promote the growth in vitro embryo.
Objective: The goal was to evaluate the effect of LC on some indicators of embryo development and blastocyst quality including zona pellucid (ZP) thickness, the hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers.
Materials and Methods: Mouse embryos were randomly divided into five groups and incubated with different concentrations of LC (I; 0, II; 0.5, III; 1, IV; 2 and V; 4 mg/ml) from 2-cell to hatched blastocyst. The percentage of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts was calculated. Blastocysts ZP thickness was measured and the number of blastocyst cells was counted using Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining.
Results: The results showed concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of LC had an antioxidant effect as in this group, the percentage of blastocysts and hatched blactocysts (p=0.01), the ZP thickness (p=0.00) and the number of blastocyst inner cell mass were significantly more favorable than the control group (p=0.03); and concentration of 4 mg/ml of LC had a toxic effect on embryo development and blastocyst quality (p=0.00).
Conclusion: The results suggest that LC may increase the number of blastocyst cells, which probably helps to expand the blastocyst and thinning of the ZP thickness and, therefore, creating a successful hatching for implantation
Atefeh Arabameri, Hamidreza Sameni, Ahmadreza Bandegi,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (9-2017)

Background: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP) on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress.
Materials and Methods: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1) Control group, 2) Control group+saline, 3) Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4th, 5th and 6th groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively. Then serum corticosterone, 17-beta-estradiol, malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing antioxidant power levels were measured. The ovarian sections were stained by H&E, PAS, and TUNEL methods and were studied with optical microscopy.
Results: Stress increased the blood serum corticosterone levels and 17-beta-estradiol reduced significantly (p<0.001) and EIP prevented from this changes (p<0.01). EIP significantly increased the number of ovarian follicles, oocytes and oocytes diameter in neonatal rat following stress (p<0.01). EIP also significantly decreased the number of atretic follicles, TUNEL+granulosa cells, malondialdehyde levels and increased ferric reducing antioxidant power, total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in neonatal rats following stress. The dose of 200 mg/kg EIP was more effective.
Conclusion: This Study showed that the Iranian Propolis significantly could prevent oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the ovary of the neonatal rat the following stress.
Hamid Reza Sameni, Sara Sadat Javadinia, Manouchehr Safari, Mohammad Hasan Tabrizi Amjad, Nasrin Khanmohammadi, Houman Parsaie, Sam Zarbakhsh,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (February 2018)

Background: Quercetin is a flavonoid with the ability to improve the growth of embryos in vitro, and actinomycin D is an inducer of apoptosis in embryonic cells.
Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on the number of viable and apoptotic cells, the zona pellucida (ZP) thickness and the hatching rate of preimplantation embryos exposed to actinomycin D in mice.
Materials and Methods: Two-cell embryos were randomly divided into four groups (Control, Quercetin, actinomycin D, and Quercetin + actinomycin D group). Blastocysts percentage, hatched blastocysts, and ZP thickness of blastocysts was measured. The number of blastomeres was counted by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining and the apoptotic cells number was counted by TUNEL assay.
Results: The results showed that the use of quercetin significantly improved the growth of embryos compared to the control group (p=0.037). Moreover, quercetin reduced the destructive effects of actinomycin D on the growth of embryos significantly (p=0.026).
Conclusion: quercetin may protect the embryos against actinomycin D so that increases the number of viable cells and decreases the number of apoptotic cells, which can help the expansion of the blastocysts, thinning of the ZP thickness and increasing the hatching rate in mouse embryos.

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