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Showing 23 results for Sadeghi

Monir Owj, Moid Mohseni, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Maria Sadeghi, Babak Eshrati, Fatemeh Shabani,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Smoking has negative effects on reproductive process. Exposing to cigarette smoking (passive smoking) may exert some effects as the direct smoking.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between ovarian response and passive smoking in women who underwent ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: One hundred-sixty patients who underwent ICSI between 2000 and 2001 were studied in a prospective cohort study. The case group included women whose husbands smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily for 1 year or more. The control group included women with nonsmoking husbands. Women with high FSH level (>12 IU/ml) were excluded. Long standard protocol with GnRH agonist and HMG were used in all patients. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer was carried out in a standard fashion.
Results: Eighty one women were in case group and 82 in control group. Ovarian response variables were not significantly different between two groups but there was a significant relation between passive smoking and fertilization (RR= 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). However pregnancy rate was not significantly different between two groups. Moreover there were no significant differences between heavy and light smokers in ovarian response outcomes.
Conclusion: This study showed no correlation between ovarian response parameters and passive smoking in women underwent ART cycles, whereas fertilization rate is significantly lower in this group compared to control group. It may be related to sperm quality than oocytes. Assessment of nicotin in follicular fluid and cytogenetic evaluation of embryo before transfer are recommended for more information and confirmation.
Maryam –sadat Hosseini, Parviz Gharehkhani, Maryam Sadeghi,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Severe preeclampsia is a quite well-known entity with high incidence of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although little is known about its etiology, inherited disorders of hemostasis and antiphospholipid syndrome have been postulated as common causes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of these two entities with preeclampsia in a group of Iranian patients.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 26 parturients with severe preeclampsia and 26 healthy pregnant women who were matched according to the age, parity, gestational age and previous history of abortion. A 10cc blood sample was obtained and the following factors were measured: factor V Leiden, protein S, protein C, antithrombin III, anticardiolipin antibodies (IgM and IgG) and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant antibody.
Results: We have not found any significant difference in the values of factor V Leiden, antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, and anticardiolipin-IgG between preeclamptic (case) and non-preeclamptic (control) parturients. Meanwhile, lupus anticoagulant antibody was detected in one case and one control. However, anticardiolipin IgM was shown to be significantly higher in the preeclamptic patients. Severe preeclamptic parturients were 4.4 times more likely to develop elevated levels of IgM (OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10, p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results failed to reveal any significant association between preeclampsia and indices of inherited disorders of hemostasis, except for anticardiolipin IgM. Thus, routine screening of these indices are not recommended due to high expenses and shortness of reliability. 
Sahar Almasi-Turk, Amrollah Roozbehi, Elham Aliabadi, Ali Haeri, Yoosef Sadeghi, Ahmad Hosseini,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (7-2009)

Background: The risk of multiple pregnancies often present in programs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an important force for embryo cryopreservation. On the other hand ethical restriction and assurance of potential fertility following chemo/radio therapy has led scientists to focus on female gamete preservation.
Objective: Optimizing vitrification protocol by using less concentrated cryoprotectants (CPAs) in order to decrease CPAs toxicity.
Materials and Methods: Mouse Metaphase-II (M-II) oocytes and four cell-stage embryos were collected. Oocytes Survival Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs FRs DRs) were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos the data obtained from experimental groups (exp.) applying 1.25 1.0 0.75 molar (M) CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of adopting 1.5 M CPAs [largely-used concentration of Ethylen Glycol (EG) and Dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO)].
Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M concentrated CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR FR and DR. As less concentration was applied the more decreased SRs FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos which were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M were close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups.
Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.
Ashraf Moini, Fatemeh Zafarani, Bita Eslami, Maria Sadeghi, Zahra Kamyabi, Nadia Jahangiri,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background: Supplementation of luteal phase with progesterone is prescribed for women undergoing routine IVF treatment.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of three types of progesterone on biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates and abortion and live birth rates.
Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized study was performed at Royan Institute between March 2008 and March 2009 in women under 40 years old, who use GnRH analog down-regulation. One hundred eighty six patients in three groups were received progesterone in oil (100 mg, IM daily), intravaginal progesterone (400 mg, twice daily) and 17-a hydroxyprogestrone caproate (375mg, every three days), respectively.
Results: Final statistical analysis after withdrawal of some patients was performed in 50, 50 and 53 patients in group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. No differences between the groups were found in baseline characteristics. No statistical significance different was discovered for biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancies. Although the abortion rate was statistically higher in group 1 (p=0.025) the live birth rate was not statistically significant between the three groups.
Conclusion: The effects of three types of progesterone were similar on pregnancies rate. We suggest the use of intravaginal progesterone during the luteal phase in patients undergoing an IVF-ET program because of the low numbers of abortions, and high ongoing pregnancy rates.
Korosh Khanaki, Ali Motavalizadeh Ardekani, Alieh Ghassemzadeh, Vahideh Shahnazi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Masoud Darabi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Abotaleb Saremi, Jafar Soleimani-Rad, Ali Reza Imani, Mohammad Nouri, Ali Rahimipour,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Endometriosis is a common chronic inflammation which leads to infertility and chronic pelvic pain in affected women. Secretory phospholipase A2 type IIa (sPLA2IIa) is an acute phase reactant that is markedly increased in inflammatory disorders.
Objective: To assess the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) administration in endometrial cells culture on sPLA2IIa level and cell survival comparing homolog ectopic versus eutopic endometrial cells from endometriosis patients.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissue samples obtained from 15 endometriosis patients were immediately frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, mixed stromal and endometrial gland cells were cultured for 8 days in three different culture media; balanced ω-3/ω-6, high ω-3 and high ω-6 PUFAs ratio. Cell survival was measured using 2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-(phenylamino) carbonyl-2H- tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) method and sPLA2IIa level assessed with ELISA technique.
Results: The sPLA2IIa level was significantly higher in the ectopic endometrial cell culture compared to the eutopic group for each of the three matched treatments (balanced, high ω-3 and high ω-6). Also the sPLA2IIa level in the ectopic endometrial cell group was remarkably increased by each of the three PUFAs treatments compared to control condition (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Cell survival in the eutopic group was significantly decreased by high ω-6 culturing compared to control medium (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The increase in sPLA2IIa level in ectopic endometrial cells by fatty acid treatments (especially high ω-3), strengthens the hypothesis that PUFAs stimulate secretion of cytokines leading to increased sPLA2IIa level.
Ali Reza Navabazam, Fatemeh Sadeghian Nodoshan, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Sayyed Mohsen Miresmaeili, Mehrdad Soleimani, Farzaneh Fesahat,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (5-2013)

Background: Human dental stem cells have high proliferative potential for self-renewal that is important to the regenerative capacity of the tissue.
Objective: The aim was to isolate human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and periapical follicle stem cells (PAFSC) for their potential role in tissue regeneration.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the postnatal stem cells were isolated from dental pulp, preapical follicle and periodontal ligament .The cells were stained for different stem cell markers by immunocytochemistry. To investigate the mesenchymal nature of cells, differentiation potential along osteoblastic and adipogenic lineages and gene expression profile were performed. For proliferation potential assay, Brdu staining and growth curve tests were performed. Finally, all three cell types were compared together regarding their proliferation, differentiation and displaying phenotype.
Results: The isolated cell populations have similar fibroblastic like morphology and expressed all examined cell surface molecule markers. These cells were capable of differentiating into osteocyte with different capability and adipocyte with the same rate. PAFSCs showed more significant proliferation rate than others. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for nanog, oct4, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GADPH) as control gene showed strong positive expression of these genes in all three isolated cell types.
Conclusion: PDLSCs, DPSCs and PAFSCs exist in various tissues of the teeth and can use as a source of mesenchymal stem cells for developing bioengineered organs and also in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with varying efficiency in differentiation and proliferation.
Shahla Sohrabipour, Adele Jafari, Mohamad Kamalinejad, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejd, Taherah Shahrestany, Hamid-Reza Sadeghipour,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: Prepubertal varicocele has the most devastating effects on the testes. Oxidative stress is the major cause leading to infertility in varicocele. The antioxidant properties of Flaxseed (FS) treatment in some oxidative diseases have been reported.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of FS in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele.
Materials and Methods: Forty two male prepubertal rats were divided into 6 groups: the varicocele group were either fed with 10% FS, or with regular diet, or with Vit E, the group with sham operation fed with 10% FS, or had regular diet, and control rats who had not been operated but received regular diet. Varicocele was created by Koksal method. After 6 weeks sperm superoxide anion and H2O2 were evaluated by flowcytometery. Semen total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by Koracevic method and testes malondialdehyde (MDA) by thiobarbituric acid with spectrophotometry was measured.
Results: While superoxide anion and H2O2 were significantly higher in varicocele grop with regular diet (p=0.0001), FS significantly decreased the previously-mentioned parameters (p=0.0001). There were no significant differences for seminal TAC between 6 groups (p=0.07). Left testicular MDA concentration were lower in varicocele or group that were fed with 10% FS compared with other groups (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause sperm oxidative damage. FS as a fat soluble antioxidant can scavenge intracellular ROS production in varicocele.
Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Arash Mohazzab, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Akram Eidi, Abbas Khodadadi, Zeinab Piravar,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a subset of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia, are the foundation of complex process of spermatogenesis and could be propagated in vitro culture conditions for long time for germ cell transplantation and fertility preservation.
Objective: The aim of this study was in vitro propagation of human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and improvement of presence of human Germ Stem Cells (hGSCs) were assessed by specific markers POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), also known as Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) and PLZF (Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger protein).
Materials and Methods: Human testicular cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion (Collagenase IV and Trypsin). Germ cells were cultured in Stem-Pro 34 media supplemented by growth factors such as glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor to support self-renewal divisions. Germline stem cell clusters were passaged and expanded every week. Immunofluorecent study was accomplished by Anti-Oct4 antibody through the culture. The spermatogonial stem cells genes expression, PLZF, was studied in testis tissue and germ stem cells entire the culture.
Results: hGSCs clusters from a brain dead patient developed in testicular cell culture and then cultured and propagated up to 6 weeks. During the culture Oct4 were a specific marker for identification of hGSCs in testis tissue. Expression of PLZF was applied on RNA level in germ stem cells.
Conclusion: hGSCs indicated by SSCs specific marker can be cultured and propagated for long-term in vitro conditions.
Fouad Mehraban, Mehrzad Jafari, Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Hossein Sadeghi, Behzad Joodi, Mostafa Mostafazade, Heibatollah Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 10 (11-2014)

Background: Date Palm Pollen (DPP) and Astragalus genus are used in some countries for the treatment of infertility.
Objective: This study was designed to investigate effects of DPP and Astragalus ovinus (A.Ovinus) on fertility in healthy adult male rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups (n=6) including control and five treatment groups. DPP (120, 240 and 360 mg/kg) and A.ovinus (100, 500 mg/ kg) were orally given to the treatment groups. After thirty-five days, blood samples were taken to determine serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol. Weight of testis and epididymis, sperm count, sperm motility, seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), germinal cell layer thickness (GCLT), sertoli, leydig and spermatogonia cells were also evaluated.
Results: DPP at the of 120 and 240 mg/kg doses significantly raised the ratio of testis or epididymis to body weight, sperm count, sperm motility , and estradiol level compared to the control group (p<0.05). LH and testosterone levels only noticeably increased at 120 mg/kg of DPP (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). STD increased in the three applied doses (p=0.001). A. ovinus extract at the indicated doses produced a significant reduction in the ratio of testis or epididymis to body weight and sperm motility (p<0.05). Sperm count, spermatogonia, leydig cells and FSH level decreased at dose of 500 mg/kg. Furthermore, GCLT, spermatogonia cells, and serum estradiol level increased at 100 mg/kg dose of A. ovinus.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that DPP could improve fertility factors, while A.ovinus can exhibit deleterious effects on gonad and sperm parameters in rats.
Korosh Khanaki, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Masoud Darabi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mahdi Shabani, Ali Rahimipour, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases.
Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells.
Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique.
Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively).
Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis.
Saleh Sandoughdaran, Hamed Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD) for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE). We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction.
Materials and Methods: Erectile function was determined using rat model of apomorphine-induced erections. For evaluating the effect of lithium on penile erection, rats received intraperitoneal injection of graded doses of lithium chloride 30 mins before subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. To determine the possible role of NO pathway, sub-effective dose of N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, was administered 15 min before administration of sub-effective dose of lithium chloride. In other separate experimental groups, sub- effective dose of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, or Sildenafil was injected into the animals 15 min before administration of a potent dose of lithium. 30 min after administration of lithium chloride, animals were assessed in apomorphine test. Serum lithium levels were measured 30 min after administration of effective dose of lithium.
Results: Lithium at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased number of PE (p<0.001), whereas at lower doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg) had no effect on apomorphine induced PE. The serum Li+ level of rats receiving 50 mg/kg lithium was 1±0.15 mmol/L which is in therapeutic range of lithium. The inhibitory effect of Lithium was blocked by administration of sub-effective dose of nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg) (p<0.001) and sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg) (p<0.001) whereas pretreatment with a low and sub-effective dose of L-NAME (10mg/kg) potentiated sub-effective dose of lithium, (p<0.001).
Conclusion: These results suggest acute treatments with lithium cause erectile dysfunction in an in-vivo rat model. Furthermore it seems that the NO pathway might play role in erectile dysfunction associated with lithium treatment. Findings also suggest that Sildenafil may be effective in treatment of lithium-associated erectile dysfunction.
Ali Reza Talebi, Farzaneh Fesahat, Esmat Mangoli, Jalal Ghasemzadeh, Maryam Nayeri, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoshan,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Etiology of more than half of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion. The etiology of more than 50 percent of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions (RSA) cases has been remained unexplained. It is supposed that RSA may have "paternal effect" due to supply 50% of embryonic genomic content by male gamete.
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of sperm apoptosis and protamine deficiency at same time in RSA cases.
Materials and Methods: Forty fertile (control) and 40 unfertile men with RSA (case) were enrolled in this case-control study. Semen analysis was performed in accordance with WHO criteria and sperm apoptosis and protamine deficiency were evaluated by cell apoptosis detection kit and chromomycin A3, respectively.
Results: Results showed significant different between normal morphology and total motility in two groups. Case group had higher percentage of spermatozoa with protamine deficiency and apoptosis compared to controls significantly.
Conclusion: Our results showed that in cases of RSA, in addition to abnormal sperm parameters, we have a high percentage of spermatozoa with protamine deficiency and apoptosis and these two anomalies may consider as important causes of idiopathic recurrent abortions. It should be advised that sperm chromatin and DNA examinations are useful tools in the process of RSA treatments.
Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Ramin Sadeghi, Somayeh Abdolahian, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (3-2016)

Background: Hot flashes are the most common symptoms experienced by women around the time of menopause. Many women are interested in herbal medicines because of fear of side effects of hormone therapy.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes.
Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to January 2015), Scopus (1996 to January 2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2015) were searched along with, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Medlib and Irandoc. Nineteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria.
Results: Overall, studies showed that Anise (Pimpinella anisum), licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra), Soy, Black cohosh, Red clover, Evening primrose, Flaxseed, Salvia officinalis, Passiflora، itex Agnus Castus, Piascledine (Avacado plus soybean oil), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), and valerian can alleviate the side effects of hot flashes.
Conclusion: This research demonstrated the efficacy of herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes, which are embraced both with people and health providers of Iran Therefore, herbal medicine can be seen as an alternative treatment for women experiencing hot flashes.
Fatemeh Akyash, Somayyeh Sadat Tahajjodi, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Ali-Mohammad Abdoli, Habib Nikukar, Behrouz Aflatoonian,
Volume 14, Issue 9 (9-2016)

This paper summarizes the proceedings of a 1 day national symposium entitled “Reproductive biology, stem cells biotechnology and regenerative medicine” held at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 3rd March 2016. Here, we collected the papers that presented and discussed at this meeting by specialists that currently researched about the overlaps of the fields of reproductive biology and stem cells and their applications in regenerative medicine
Fatemeh Akyash, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Somayyeh Sadat Tahajjodi, Habib Nikukar, Ehsan Farashahi Yazd, Mostafa Azimzadeh, Harry D Moore, Behrouz Aflatoonian,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (6-2017)

This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; “human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and good manufacturing practice (GMP)” held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications
Nahid Maleki-Saghooni, Malihe Amirian, Ramin Sadeghi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (8-2017)

Background: Psychological interventions such as counseling for infertile patients seem to increase pregnancy rate.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine if counseling improves pregnancy rate among infertile patients. Thus, randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of counseling on pregnancy rate in infertile patients undergoing ART were pooled in a meta-analysis.
Materials and Methods: The databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Persian databases including SID, Iran Medex, and Magiran were searched from 1997 to July 2016 to identify relevant articles. Included studies were trials on infertile patients (women or couples) receiving counseling independent of actual medical treatment. The outcome measure was pregnancy rate. Out of 620 relevant published trials, a total of nine RCTs were ultimately reviewed systematically and included in a meta-analysis to measure the efficacy of counseling on pregnancy rate. Odds ratio and Risk difference were calculated for pregnancy rate. All statistical analyses were done by Comprehensive Meta-analysis Version 2.
Results: Nine RCTs involving 1079 infertile women/couples were included in the study. The findings from RCTs indicated significant effect of counseling on pregnancy rate so that there was a positive impact of counseling on pregnancy rate (OR= 3.852; 95% CI: 2.492-5.956; p=0.00) and (RD= 0.282; 95%; CI: 0.208-0.355; p=0.00).
Conclusion: Counseling was found to improve patients’ chances of becoming pregnant. So counseling represents an attractive treatment option, in particular, for infertile patients who are not receiving medical treatments.
Sara Darbandi, Mahsa Darbandi, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Abolfaz Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Ashok Agarwal, Safaa Al-Hasani, Mohammad Mehdi Naderi, Ahmet Ayaz, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi,
Volume 15, Issue 10 (12-2017)

Nuclear transfer procedures have been recently applied for clinical and research targets as a novel assisted reproductive technique and were used for increasing the oocyte activity during its growth and maturation. In this review, we summarized the nuclear transfer technique for germinal vesicle stage oocytes to reconstruct the maturation of them. Our study covered publications between 1966 and August 2017. In result utilized germinal vesicle transfer techniques, fusion, and fertilization survival rate on five different mammalian species are discussed, regarding their potential clinical application. It seems that with a study on this method, there is real hope for effective treatments of old oocytes or oocytes containing mitochondrial problems in the near future.
Amin Khoshakhlagh, Reza Salman Yazdi, Farah Taj Navab-Akbar, Azadeh Ghaheri, Shaghayegh Sadeghinia, Farid Dadkhah,
Volume 15, Issue 12 (12-2017)

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) with damaging effects on sperm quality parameters can often cause infertility in men.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for screening and detecting CT in semen samples of infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 465 men referring to the clinical laboratory of Royan Institute were chosen for primary screening and detection of the presence of CT. 93 samples were normozoospermia with normal sperm parameters i.e. sperm number, motility and morphology (Asymptomatic) and 372 had abnormal sperm parameters (Symptomatic) in semen analysis. ELISA test was performed as the screening test. Samples with optical density (OD) >0.200 were selected as the case and asymptomatic samples with OD <0.200 were selected as the control group for the confirmatory test. PCR assay was used to confirm the serological results.
Results: In the case groups (n=62), 4 out of 32 symptomatic samples (12.5%), and 1 out of 30 asymptomatic samples (3.3%) revealed positive results in PCR. No PCR positive sample was observed in the control group (n=34). The final results revealed that considering OD >0.400 as the ELISA positive, the diagnostic value of CT-ELISA positive in symptomatic and asymptomatic infertile patients were 0.019 (7 of 372) and 0.021 (2 of 93), respectively. There was no relationship between the presence of CT infection and different sperm abnormalities.
Conclusion: The anti-CT IgA ELISA test may be introduced as an appropriate tool for screening purpose in the seminal plasma to select suspicious samples for PCR confirmatory tests.
Mahnaz Heidari, Niknam Lakpour, Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Saeideh Shani, Leila Goharbakhsh, Ghazaleh Cheshmi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2018)

Background: Sperm processing methods separate motile sperms with good morphology from dead and abnormal forms of sperms, immature germ cells, and non-sperm cells.
Objective: The propose of this study was to compare the efficacy of upstream and swim-up processing techniques to separate sperms with the high quality especially in relation to sperm chromatin integrity.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study used semen samples from 60 normozoospermic men. Specimens were divided into equal aliquots for processing by swim up (group A), and upstream (group B) methods and compare with control by raw semen (group C). Sperm concentration, morphology, motility, DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were measured in these three groups.
Results: The results revealed that sperm concentration in the swim up samples was significantly greater than upstream samples (p≤0.04). as addition, motile sperm recovery including the percentage of progressive motility and a total number of motile sperm was better in the swim-up compared to an upstream method and raw semen (p≤0.001). The cell debris and seminal fluid were equally removed by both methods and the percentage of normal forms was also similar in both procedures (p≥0.4). In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were not significantly different between the three groups (p≥0.1).
Conclusion: According to results, apparently the upstream method had no significant efficiency to separate good quality sperms compare to swim up. Therefore, swim up seems to be a simple, inexpensive, reliable and widely available method with an efficient yield to separate motile sperm with good morphology and better chromatin integrity for insemination in the infertility clinics.
Aylin Esmailkhani, Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Javid Sadeghi, Behrooz Niknafs, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Laya Farzadi, Nooshafarin Safadel,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2018)

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an infrequent, but one of the most successful bacteria that associated with infertility and are able to spermatozoa immobilization and agglutination.
Objective: The aim of present study was to determine the frequency of S. aureus in semen obtained from infertile male patients in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods: Seminal fluids of 100 infertile men were evaluated. Standard semen examination was done according to World Health Organization guidelines. After isolation and identification of S. aureus isolates according to reference methods, determination of susceptibility against important antibiotics and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify mecA and tst genes.
Results: Data obtained from the present study shows that 16% of infertile male patients were colonized by S. aureus. Ten (62.5%) of the individuals had abnormal seminal fluid sperm motility and morphology and three (18.8%) of them had an abnormal seminal fluid density, whereas after washing with albumin-saline declined to 5 (31.3%), 4 (25%) and 1 (6.3%), respectively. The antibiogram results showed that, except penicillin, other antibiotics have high activity on isolates. Regarding polymerase chain reaction results, mecA sequences were detected in 3 (18.7%) strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains.
Conclusion: It would appear that the S. aureus may be an additional negative factor worsening sperm quality and affecting male fertility. Therefore, it demands that all the patients attending in infertility treatment facilities be investigated thoroughly.

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