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Showing 22 results for Rashidi

Mahmoud Salami, Zahra Aghanouri, Ali Akbar Rashidi, Mansoor Keshavarz,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome is associated with numerous problems in the development and function of the brain. Learning and memory deficits are among well known effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Objective: This study aimed to examine the spatial working memory of 60-day old rats who were exposed to alcohol during their fetal life and to find the relation between the possible alcohol-impaired spatial memory and gestational period of exposure to alcohol. Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats in different stages of gestation period were administered with ethanol. Using a radial arm maze, the offspring were subjected to spatial working memory training at 60 days of postnatal age. Results: The rats exposed to ethanol during the first 10 days of fetal life indicated lower performances compared to the controls. Those receiving alcohol during the second half of pregnancy period had no problem in maze navigation. Behavior of the animals exposed to alcohol during the first and the second quarter of the gestation period demonstrated that only the latter were weak in solving maze tasks. The groups related to the third and the forth quarter of gestation period had a similar behavior with the control group. Comparison of the animals' performances in all groups revealed that only the second quarter group was the most disadvantaged. Conclusion: Our data indicates that the second quarter of the gestation period is more sensitive to harmful effects of alcohol on the areas of brain involved in learning and memory. Since the hippocampus is central in cognitive functions and this part of brain is highly vulnerable to alcohol effects it can be concluded that the hippocampus is mostly affected in the second quarter of prenatal life. Article
Iraj Rashidi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Taki Tiraihi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)
Abstract

Background: Pentoxifylline (PX) prevents cAMP breakdown by inhibiting the activity of the cAMP-phosphatase and presumably, stimulates sperm motion. Incubation with PX causes hyperactivation of sperm, an important step in achieving fertilization, and leads to changes in membranes associated with sperm capacitation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pentoxifylline on sperm viability, motility and fertilization rate after mouse sperm preservation. Materials & Methods: Epididymal spermatozoa from adult NMRI mice were collected in T6 medium supplemented with 5% BSA and divided into four control and four experimental groups. The control groups included: (1) Fresh sperm sample (2) Preserved sperm sample at room temperature for 18 hours. (3) Preserved sperm sample at incubator 37°C for 18 hours. (4) Preserved sperm sample at 4°C for 18 hours. Experimental groups were the same groups after treatment with 3mmol/L PX. All the samples were assessed according to World Health Organization Criteria. Oocytes from superovulated NMRI female mice were inseminated in-vitro incubated sperm of all the control and experimental groups. After insemination and washing, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate were assessed by the presence of two pronucleus (2PN) and 2-cell stage embryos. To study the acrosomal reaction of control and treated spermatozoa transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used. Results: The results showed that addition of 3mmol PX to preserved mouse spermatozoa at 4 ºC and 37 ºC could increase the motility rate significantly (P<0.05) and also it could enhance abnormal morphology rate. Significant increase of fertilization rate was seen after preservation of treated sperm at 4 ºC (P<0.05), but there was not seen significant difference regarding cleavage rate comparing treated and non-treated spermatozoa (P>0.05). Studies with electron microscopy showed that addition of PX to the preserved spermatozoa prevent early acrosomal reaction. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that addition of pentoxifylline in mouse sperm samples after short time preservation can enhance the motility and fertilization rate, although it can enhance the abnormal morphology. It also can increase the number of intact sperm after preservation Article
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Ashraf Moini, Elham Amirchaghmaghi, Batol Hossein Rashidi, Parvin Jaberi Pour, Elham Azimi Neko,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Although the uterine fibroids are common, their influence on fertility remains controversial. The association of submucosal fibroid with subfertility is well recognized, but debate persists as to whether intramural fibroids can cause infertility and the evidence for its effect on pregnancy in cycles of assisted conception remains unclear.
Objective: The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing uterine cavity on the outcome of ART cycles in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 94 women with uterine intramural fibroids and 184 controls referred to Royan Institute between 2001 and 2002 were enrolled. The intramural fibroids and their location were detected by transvaginal ultrasound performed just before the ART cycle. All patients underwent long standard GnRH agonist protocol. Student t-test and Chi-square test were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age of patients was 33.9 ±3.37 years in myoma group (n=94) and 33.28 ±3.59 years in control group (n=184). The total dose of gonadotropin used, estradiol level on day of hCG administration, the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, number and quality of embryos developed and transferred, the clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were similar in two groups.
Conclusion: The presence of intramural fibroids less than 6 cm not compressing endometrial cavity does not adversely affect clinical pregnancy rate in patients undergoing IVF or ICSI.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Behnaz Attar Shakeri, Batool Hoseini Rashidi, Fatemeh Ramezanzade, Mamak Shariat,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)
Abstract

Background: Recently different studies suggested that discontinuation of gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) at beginning of ovarian stimulation (improvement of ovarian response to gonadotrophins) may have some benefit to poor responder patients in invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Objective:The efficacy of GnRHa stop protocol in poor responder patients in IVF cycles was assessed.
Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial that 40 poor responder patients (less than three mature follicles in a previous cycle) with normal basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were randomly allocated into two protocols: 1) Non-stop protocol: long GnRHa suppression, and start gonadotrophins from day 3 of mense. 2) Stop-protocol: GnRHa is stopped with the onset of menses, and gonadotrophin doses remained similar to group 1.
Results: A significantly higher number of follicles, oocytes, embryos and fertilization rate also shorter stimulation days and lower human menopausal gonadotropins (HMG) ampoules were recorded in the stop protocol compared to the control group. Both protocols resulted in a similar cancellation rate, pregnancy rate, estradiol level and LH level.
Conclusion: Early follicular cessation of GnRHa permitted the retrieval of a significantly higher number of follicles, oocytes and embryos, and can reduce the number of HMG and stimulation days.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehrani Nejad, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Atefeh Larti, Zahra Ezabadi, Nadia Jahangiri, Elham Azimi Nekoo,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (7-2009)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most challenging diseases that constitute 20% - 40% of women searching for their infertility diagnosis. Objective: This study was undertaken in order to compare the outcome of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) in women with endometriosis, and tubal factor infertility as controls.
Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 a retrospective study was carried out in patients with endometriosis (n=80) and tubal infertility (n=57) after treatment with IVF/ICSI. The main outcome measures were ovarian responsiveness, quality of oocytes, implantation, pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using χ2 and student t-tests.
Results: No differences were found in mean number of ampoules of hMG, duration of hMG injection, number of MΙΙ oocytes, number of embryo transferred, and rates of implantation, pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and twin birth between women with endometriosis and tubal infertility and also between women with stages I/II or those with stages III/IV disease with women with tubal factor infertility.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that endometriosis does not seem to have adverse effect on outcome of IVF/ ICSI as compared with tubal infertility.
Sedigheh Soheilykhah, Mahdie Mogibian, Sodabeh Rahimi-Saghand, Maryam Rashidi, Saeideh Soheilykhah, Maryam Piroz,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)
Abstract

Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic complications of pregnancy and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and to help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes
Objective: This prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of GDM in Yazd and to assess the effect of various contributing factors. Materials and Methods: One thousand and seventy one pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-hour blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl then a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100g glucose was performed and diagnosis was established according to American Diabetes Association criteria.
Results: Three hundred and forty two (31.9%) women had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. The overall incidence of GDM was 10.2% (n=110). Seventy six of subjects (7.1%) have one abnormal OGTT. There was a significant association between incidence of GDM and age familial history of diabetes BMI before pregnancy parity history of GDM macrosomic baby still birth during previous pregnancies and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Conclusion: According to high incidence of GDM in our area we recommend screening for GDM in all pregnant women and modification of contributing factors in high risk women.
Elham Pourmatroud, Batool Hosein Rashidi, Maryam Rahmani,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)
Abstract

Background: There is a fundamental correlation between follicles and endometrium in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.
Objective: To assess the relation between perifollicular perfusion and sub endometrial parameters in Doppler ultrasonography and outcome of in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective deh1ive pilot study 10 patients were enrolled. Strict inclusion criteria were considered. Routine long protocol was used for ICSI. On the day of follicle retrieval colour Doppler indices were determined. Sub endometrial pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) and perifollicular perfusion were assessed. After oocyte retrieval the count of metaphase 2 (M2) oocytes emberyo with grade A quality and the result of cycle were evaluated also.
Results: RI and PI indices had a positive correlation. Follicles with ≥18 mm diameter and follicles with >75% perfusion had a direct relation. Also subendometrial RI had a significant relation with follicular status (p-value= 0.04) But there was not a significant triple correlation (between endometrium follicles and outcome).
Conclusion: The mutual effects of vascularization status in two fundamental parts in ART is still unclear. The evaluation with Doppler ultrasonography should focus on two compartments together as one functional part at the same time. It means even in presence of good markers in each part the final decision must be taken by co-evaluation of follicles and endometrium.
Ensieh Tehraninejad, Akram Ghahghaei Nezamabadi, Batool Rashidi, Maryam Sohrabi, Maryam Bagheri, Fedyeh Haghollahi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: General concern is that the pregnancy rate is higher with GnRH-agonist as a protocol of pituitary suppression. GnRH-antagonist protocol provides a shorter period of administration and an easy flexible protocol.
Objective: In this study, the outcomes of GnRH agonist and antagonist in ICSI cycles are compared in normo responder patients.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 300 normoresponders undergoing ICSI were randomly divided to GnRh agonist (n=150) and GnRh antagonist (n=150) groups. The main outcome measurements were chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates (PR).
Results: The mean duration of stimulation were 9.6±1.6 and 8.2±1.6 days in agonist and antagonist groups respectively (p=0.001). The mean number of MII oocyte retrieved in agonist and antagonist groups were 7.7±4.0 and 6.9±4.3 respectively (p=0.03). There was no significant difference between two groups regarding mean number of gonadotrophin ampoules, follicles, occytes, total embryos and good quality embryos, OHSS incidence, and abortion rate. Chemical pregnancy rate was 35.3% in agonist and 39.3% in antagonist group. Clinical pregnancy rate was 35.3% in agonist and 34% in antagonist group. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 45 (31.3%) in agonist and 44 (29.3%) in antagonist group. There was no significant difference between two groups in pregnancy rates.
Conclusion: In this study antagonist protocol was shown to be an easy, safe and friendly protocol in Iranian normoresponder patients, having similar outcomes with standard agonist protocol but shorter period of stimulation.
Batool Rashidi, Roya Nasiri, Haleh Rahmanpour, Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad , Maryam Deldar,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: The differential efficacy between long GnRH agonist with antagonist can partly be due to the preexisting differences in the early antral follicles before ovarian stimulation.
Objective: To compare the effect of pretreatment by estradiol with GnRH antagonist on antral follicular size coordination and basal hormone levels in GNRH antagonist protocol.
Materials and Methods: On cycle day 3 (control/day 3), women underwent measurements of early antral follicles by ultrasound and serum FSH and ovarian hormones then were randomized to receive oral estradiol 4mg/day (n=15) or 3mg cetrorelix acetate (n=15) in luteal phase before subsequent antagonist protocol. Participants were re-evaluated as on control/day 3.
Results: There was a significant reduction of mean follicular sizes in each group after medical intervention (7.63±2.11 Vs. 4.30±0.92 in group A and 8.73±1.96 Vs. 4.13±1.11 in group B) (p=0.0001). The magnitude of follicular size reduction was significantly higher in group B (-4.60±2.04 Vs. -3.33±2.28) (0.027). There was a non significant attenuation of follicular size discrepancies in two groups. FSH and inhibin B levels in the day 3 of the next cycle in both groups were significantly decreased but did not have significant difference between two groups.
Conclusion: Both luteal E2 and premenstrual GnRH antagonist administration reduces the follicular sizes significantly and GnRH antagonist acts more potently than E2 in this way but attenuation of follicular size discrepancies in both treatment is not significant
Zahra Rashidi, Mehri Azadbakht, Mozafar Khazaei,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Cryopreservation has limited successes and in-vitro maturation is used to improve its results. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) plays an important role in follicular development.
Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of HP on in-vitro maturation of oocytes and cell death in cumulus cells derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.
Materials and Methods: Preovulatory follicles were harvested from non-vitrified and vitrified-warmed 6-8 week-old female NMRI mouse ovaries and randomly assigned to following groups: non-vitrified (control), non-vitrified with HP exposure (treatment I), vitrified-warmed (treatment II) and vitrified-warmed with HP exposure (treatment III). The follicles of treatments I and III were subjected to HP (20 mmHg) for 30 min and after that all groups were cultured for 24h and assessed for in-vitro maturation of oocytes. The viability and apoptosis of cumulus cells and oocytes were assessed using supravital nuclear staining and TUNEL assay, respectively.
Results: Oocytes harvested follicles in both control and treatment II had a significantly lower percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII) than the treatment I and III (23.5±3.1, 15.03±4.6 and 32.7±3.2, 25.5±4.6; respectively) (p<0.05). Viability of the cumulus cells reduced in treatment I, II and III (83.4, 83.3 and 77.7%) compared to control (86.9%), (p<0.05). The apoptotic index in cumulus and oocyte complexes in treatments I and III (10.7±0.8 and 15.3±0.8) was higher than in control and treatment II (6.7±0.5 and 9.7±0.5) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that HP had a mild effect on cell death incidence in cumulus cells without any effect on oocyte. However, it can be used as a mechanical force to improve in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.

Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani, Zia Eslami, Fahimeh Rashidi-Meibodi, Alireza Haerian, Pantea Dallalnejad, Marjan Shekari, Amir Moein Taghavi, Solmaz Akbari,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)
Abstract

Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery.
Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW) (birth weight below 2500g- case group) and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group). The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs) were used for periodontal assessment.
Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test). Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042), and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test).
Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.
Leila Roshangar, Jafar Soleimani-Rad, Bahman Rashidi, Hossein Mazochian, Behzad Nikzad, Sara Soleimani Rad,
Volume 11, Issue 10 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background: Endometrial development has an important role in blastocyst adhesion and implantation. During IVF cycles, endometrial development is enhanced by progesterone.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare ultrastructural and morphometrical characteristics of mice uterine endometrium in natural cycle with those in superovulated cycles received progesterone or Sildenafil.
Materials and Methods: In This study, 60 female bulb/c mice were divided into 4 groups: a control and 3 experimental; gonadotropin, gonadotropin+ Sildenafil and gonadotropin+ progesterone. In experimental groups the mice superovulated mated. In the gonadotropin+ progesterone and gonadotropin+ Viagra groups, the mice respectively received 1mg progesterone and 3 mg Sildenafil citrate. Their uterine specimens were prepared for morphometrical and ultrastructural study. Height of the epithelial cells was measured, using motic software. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA.
Results: Microscopy revealed that in control group the cells had numerous apical microvilli and the height of the cells was 20.52±2.43 μm. In gonadotropin+ progesterone group, the granules were found in basal and apical portions and cellular height were 17.91±2.78 μm which were significantly shorter than in the control and gonadotropin groups (p<0.001). In this group, the apical membrane also contained pinopodes. In gonadotropin +Sildenafil group, the granules were found in both apical and basal portions and the height of the cells were 17.60±2.49 μm which were significantly shorter than in the control and gonadotropin groups (p<0.001). In this group, pinopodes appeared slightly extensive than the other groups.
Conclusion: It is concluded that superovulatory drugs in mice stimulate endometrial maturation but injection of Sildenafil is nearly more positive.
Leila Safdarian, Zahra Najmi, Ashraf Aleyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Mandana Rashidi, Sara Asadollah,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: The largest percentage of failed invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, are due to lack of implantation. As hereditary thrombophilia can cause in placentation failure, it may have a role in recurrent IVF failure.
Objective: Aim of this case-control study was to determine whether hereditary thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failures.
Materials and Methods: Case group comprised 96 infertile women, with a history of recurrent IVF failure. Control group was comprised of 95 healthy women with proven fertility who had conceived spontaneously. All participants were assessed for the presence of inherited thrombophilias including: factor V Leiden, methilen tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation, prothrombin mutation, homocystein level, protein S and C deficiency, antithrombin III (AT-III) deficiency and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mutation. Presence of thrombophilia was compared between groups.
Results: Having at least one thrombophilia known as a risk factor for recurrent IVF failure (95% CI=1.74-5.70, OR=3.15, p=0.00). Mutation of factor V Leiden (95% CI=1.26-10.27, OR=3.06, P=0.01) and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation (95% CI=1.55-97.86, OR=12.33, p=0.05) were also risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. However, we could not find significant difference in other inherited thrombophilia’s.
Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failure compared with healthy women. Having at least one thrombophilia, mutation of factor V Leiden and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation were risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. 
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Roya Kabodmehri, Batol Hosein Rashidi, Mina Jafarabadi, Fateme Keikha,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)
Abstract

Background: Estrogen and progesterone are two crucial factors for endometrial preparation in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Studies assessing different forms of estradiol in FET have published already but literature lacks enough surveys on transdermal estrogen application in reproductive medicine. Objective: To investigate the effects of trans dermal estrogen (Oestrogel) on pregnancy rates in patients that candidate for FET cycle. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 100 women undergoing FET cycles referred to Imam Khomeeini Hospital were enrolled in two groups, randomly. Group I received 8 mg/day estradiol valerate (E2 tablet) orally and group II were treated with 6 mg/day transdermal oestrogel gel after suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist. In both groups medication were started in the first day of menstruation cycle and continued until endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Pregnancy rates (chemical, clinical, and ongoing), abortion rate, live birth rate, and frequency of complications were compared between two groups. Results: Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different between two groups (p=0.384). The abortion rate was significantly lower in group II than group I (p=0.035). Ongoing pregnancy and the live birth rates were significantly higher in group II (p=0.035). The rate of complication was not different in two groups. Conclusion: Oestrogel seems to enhance ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates in comparison to estradiol valerate tablet.
Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi, Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani, Farzaneh Vaziri, Arezoo Khabbazian, Salem Mohammadi-Asl,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy.
Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers.
Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samplesincluded 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran.The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consentpaper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed withdental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe.
Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age.
Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period.
Farahnaz Mardanian, Moones Kazeroonizadeh, Bahman Rashidi,
Volume 13, Issue 9 (10-2015)
Abstract

Background: Infertility is an increasing medical and social problem. In vitro fertilization (IVF) has become a common and accessible treatment for a wide variety of indications that have variable outcomes. Natural killer (NK) cells have been identified as relevant immunological factors involved in reproductive success or failure.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of peripheral blood CD56+ (CD56dim and CD56bright) cells and the level of NK cell in patients with IVF failure with those of successful IVF control women.
Materials and Methods: We assessed the level of CD56dim CD16+ and CD56bright CD16- cells in 50 women under IVF treatment and compared between successful IVF and IVF failure with the flowcytometry technique.
Results: Of studied women, 68% did not response to IVF therapy and 32% had successful IVF, the level of CD56dim CD16+ cells in women with IVF failure was significantly higher than successful IVF (p<0.0001) but the level of CD56bright CD16- cells was not significantly different between women with IVF failure and successful IVF (p=0.28).
Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrated that the level of NK cells as a risk factor is associated with pregnancy loss in women with IVF failure. However, number of sample in this study is low and further studies with more sample size are needed to be done. We suggest considering treatment option for women undergoing repeated IVF failure with increased percentage of CD56dim cells and the level of peripheral blood NK cell.
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami, Batool Hossein Rashidi,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications.
Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
Results: In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48).
Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.
Mahmoud Nateghi Rostam, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Azam Habibi, Razieh Nazari, Masoumeh Dolati,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (7-2017)
Abstract

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae) are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran.
Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran.
Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae) and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis).
Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9%) had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2%) in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1%) in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9%) in wet mount, 64 (15.2%) in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3%) in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29), history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84), and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (p=0.00; OR=21.75). The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34) in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection.
Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Mina Farshbaf Taghinejad, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Fedyeh Haghollahi,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (8-2017)
Abstract

Background: Different combination of gonadotropin preparation has been introduced with no definite superiority of one over others in in vitro fertilization (IVF), but individualized regimens for each patient are needed.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant- follicle stimulating hormone (r-FSH) plus recombinant-luteinizing hormone (rLH) versus human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) plus r-FSH on fertility outcomes in IVF patients.
Materials and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial study that was performed from October 2014-April 2016 on 140 infertile patients with a set of inclusion criteria that referred to infertility clinics in Vali- asr and Gandhi Hospital in Tehran. The women were randomly divided into two treatment groups. The first group (n=70) received rFSH from the second day of cycle and was added HMG in 6th day and the 2nd group (n=70), received rFSH from the second day of cycle and was added recombinant-LH in 6th day. Then ovum Pick-Up and embryo transfer were performed. In this study, we assessed the outcomes such as; chemical and clinical pregnancy rate, live birth and abortion rate.
Results: Number of follicles in ovaries, total number of oocytes or M2 oocytes and quality of fetuses has no significant differences between two groups (p>0.05). Total number of fetuses were significantly higher in patients who received rFSH + HMG (p=0.02). Fertility outcomes consisted of: live birth rate, chemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rate were higher in rFSH + HMG group in comparison to rFSH +r-LH group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that in IVF patients, HMG + rFSH used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation have better effects on fertility outcomes, but in order to verify the results, it is recommended to implement studies on more patients.
Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Roya Kabodmehri, Batol Hosein Rashidi, Mina Jafarabadi, Fateme Keikha, Masomeh Masomi, Fedieh Hagholahi,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (January 2018)
Abstract

Background: Estrogen and progesterone are two crucial factors for endometrial preparation in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Studies assessing different forms of estradiol in FET have published already but literature lacks enough surveys on transdermal estrogen application in reproductive medicine.
Objective: To investigate the effects of trans dermal estrogen (Oestrogel) on pregnancy rates in patients that candidate for FET cycle.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 100 women undergoing FET cycles referred to Imam Khomeeini Hospital were enrolled in two groups, randomly. Group I received 8 mg/day estradiol valerate (E2 tablet) orally and group II were treated with 6 mg/day transdermal oestrogel gel after suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist. In both groups medication were started in the first day of menstruation cycle and continued until endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Pregnancy rates (chemical, clinical, and ongoing), abortion rate, live birth rate, and frequency of complications were compared between two groups.
Results: Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different between two groups (p=0.384). The abortion rate was significantly lower in group II than group I (p=0.035). Ongoing pregnancy and the live birth rates were significantly higher in group II (p=0.035). The rate of complication was not different in two groups.
Conclusion: Oestrogel seems to enhance ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates in comparison to estradiol valerate tablet.

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