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Showing 19 results for Najafi

Fahime Sadat Kamali, Rasoul Shahrooz, Golamreza Najafi, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 0, Issue 12 (December 2019)
Abstract

Background: Paraquat (PQ), as a pyridine compound, is widely used worldwide to control annual weeds. The oxidative stress caused by PQ can cause deleterious changes in the testicular tissue.
Objective: An investigation on the protective effects of Crocin (CCN) against PQ-induced oxidative damages and apoptotic indices in testicular tissue. 
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight adult male albino mice (20-25 gr) were divided into four groups (n = 7/each). The control group received 0.1 ml/day of normal saline by intraperitoneal injection (IP); sham-control group received PQ 5 mg/kg/day, IP, and the experimental groups received PQ (CCN+PQ) and CCN-sole (200 mg/kg/day, IP), respectively, for 35 continuous days. At the end of the treatment period, the testes were dissected out and used for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. The expressions of tumor suppressor p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), and caspase-3 were considered as hallmark factors of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated as key biomarkers for oxidative stress.
Results: The PQ significantly (p< 0.02, p< 0.01) diminished the spermatogenesis indices and SOD, increased MDA levels, and enhanced the apoptosis-related gene expression. However, the co-administration of CCN and PQ significantly (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.02) ameliorated the spermatogenesis ratio, upregulated the SOD level as well as bcl-2 expression, and reduced the MDA content and apoptosis vs the PQ-sole group.
Conclusion: This study showed that the antioxidant properties of CCN enable to ameliorate the PQ-induced destructive effects by upregulating the testicular structure, antioxidant and apoptotic status.
Nasrin Sheikh, Iraj Amiri, Marzieh Farimani, Rezvan Najafi, Jafar Hadeie,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)
Abstract

Background: It is established that sperm DNA integrity is essential in fertilization and normal embryo and fetal development. Routine semen analysis gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. Therefore, the evaluation of sperm DNA integrity, in addition to routine sperm parameters, could add further information on the quality of spermatozoa and reproductive potential of males.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of sperm DNA damage in fertile and infertile males and its correlation with semen parameters.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 45 infertile men selected from couples attending the infertility clinic with a history of infertility of ≥1 years and 75 healthy volunteers of proven fertility (initiated a successful pregnancy) served as the control group. After routine sperm analysis, DNA damage was determined using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay method.
Results: The mean of DNA damage (comet value) in the sperms of infertile males was significantly higher than that of fertile males (12.9±7.59 vs. 48.77±24.42, p&lt;0.001). A significant negative correlation was observed between DNA damage and sperm motility in fertile group (p<0.02, R=-0.263). In infertile males, significant negative correlations were observed between DNA damage with sperm motility (p<0.002, R=-0.45) and morphology (p<0.03, R=-0.317). There was no significant correlation between sperm concentration and sperm DNA damage in both groups.
Conclusion: These results indicate that sperm DNA damages in infertile males is significantly higher than fertile males and sperms with abnormal morphology and low levels of motility has more abnormal DNA damages than motile and normal sperms.
Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Mehdi Sahmani, Reza Najafipour, Laya Farzadi, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Masoud Darabi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Maghsod Shaaker, Mohammad Noori,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Peroxisome proliferative-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that involved in cellular lipid metabolism and differentiation. The subtype γ of the PPAR family (PPAR?) plays important roles in physiologic functions of ovaries.
Objective: To determine correlation between PPARγ protein level in granulosa cells and pregnancy rate in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-five samples of granulosa cells were collected from women referred to an IVF treatment center. PPARγ protein expression level in granulosa cells was determined in comparison with β-actin level as control gene with Western blot test. Laboratory pregnancy was determined by a rise in blood ?-hCG level fourteen days after embryo transfer. Correlation analyses were used to test for associations between the oocytes and pregnancy occurrence as outcome variables and PPARγ protein expression level.
Results: Correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between granulosa cells PPARγ protein level with IVF parameters including number of matured oocytes and the ratio of fertilized to matured oocytes. Comparison of granulosa cells PPARγprotein level with positive and negative laboratory pregnancy revealed also no significant relationship.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, PPARγ protein level in granulosa cells could not be directly correlated to the success rate of IVF.
Tohid Najafi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Jalil Pakravesh, Khadijeh Foghi, Fatemeh Fadayi, Gelareh Rahimi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in female infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endometrial tissue of women with unexplained infertility.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study a total of 18 endometrial tissues obtained from 10 women with unexplained infertility and 8 normal and fertile women by endometrial biopsy, 6 to 10 days after LH surge. Specimens were fixed in 4% paraformaldhyde fixative and frozen sectioned for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation using monoclonal anti-human eNOS antibody. Hematoxilin and Eosin was used for Histological dating. Results: Localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was seen in glandular and luminal epithelium, vascular endothelium and stroma in both fertile women and women with unexplained infertility. Although there were differences in immunoreactivity of glandular epithelium (p=0.44), vascular endothelium (p=0.60) and stroma (p=0.63) but only over-expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium (p=0.045) of women with unexplained infertility compared to fertile women was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that changes in luminal expression of eNOS may influence receptivity of endometrium.
Ataollah Ghahiri, Aida Najafian, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Alireza Najafian,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: About 75% of the symptomatic patients who involved with endometriosis have pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Pentoxifyllin is one of the drugs that according to its mechanism could be effective for pain relief of endometriosis which has been used for endometriosis treatment recently.
Objective: We conducted a comparative study for detecting the effect of pentoxifylin (as an immonomodelator) in preventing recurrence endometriotic pain with pentoxifylin plus a combined contraceptive pill with low dose estrogen (LD) and also the LD pill alone.
Materials and Methods: This was a comparative clinical trial on 83 patients with the chief complaint (CC) of pain (dysmenorrheal /or pelvic pain) and with the end diagnosis of endometriosis, in an operative laparoscopy. Patients, dividing to 3 groups, were treated with pentoxifylin, pentoxifylin+LD and LD alone for 10 months. The severity of pain (dismenorhea and/or pelvic pain) was detected by visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. The severity of endometriosis in the patients was: I in class I and II in class II and III in class III. The groups were matched for the pain. The number of the patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 28, 28 and 27 respectively.
Results: The pain was reduced in the groups of pentoxifylin+LD (p<0.001) and LD alone (p=0.00). The pain relief was not significant in the group of pentoxifylin alone (p=0.136). After treatment, the severity of pain was not significantly different between the LD group and the LD+penthoxyfillin group, but there was difference between these two groups and the group of penthoxyfillin alone.
Conclusion: This study showed that penthoxyfillin actually could not have any effect on the pain relief of endometriosis. It also made it clear that penthoxyfillin could not increase the efficacy of LD when used with this medication.

Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Parvaneh Najafizadeh, Farzaneh Dehghani, Mohammadreza Panjeh Shahin, Sommaye Hamzei Taj,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background: Olive ( Olea europea ), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenolic compounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects.
Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats.
Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive ( Olea europaea ) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured.
Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone .
Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males.
Ghodrat Ebadi Manas, Shapour Hasanzadeh, Golamreza Najafi, Kazem Parivar, Parichehr Yaghmaei,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)
Abstract

Background: Pyridaben, a pyridazinone derivative, is a new acaricide and insecticide for control of mites and some insects such as white flies, aphids and thrips.
Objective: This study was designed to elucidate how pyridaben can affect the sperms' morphological parameters, its DNA integrity, and to estimate the effect of various quantities of pyridaben on in vitro fertilization rate.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 80 adult male Balb/C strain mice were used. Animals were divided into control and two test groups. Control group received distilled water. The test group was divided into two subgroups, viz, high dose (212 mg/kg/day) and low dose (53 mg/kg/day) and they received the pyridaben, orally for duration of 45 days. The spermatozoa were obtained from caudae epididymides on day 45 in all groups. Sperm viability, protamin compression (nuclear maturity), DNA double-strand breaks, and in vitro fertilizing (IVF) ability were examined.
Results: The pyridaben treatment provoked a significant decrease in sperm population and viability in epididymides. The data obtained from this experiment revealed that, the pyridaben brings about negative impact on the sperm maturation and DNA integrity in a time-dependent manner, which consequently caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in IVF capability. Embryo developing arrest was significantly (p<0.05) higher in treated than the control group.
Conclusion: Theses results confirmed that, the pyridaben is able to induce DNA damage and chromatin abnormalities in spermatozoa which were evident by low IVF rate.
Tayebeh Amirshahi, Gholamreza Najafi, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)
Abstract

Background: Bleomycin (BL) is a glycopeptide antibiotic obtained from the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus which is routinely used for treatment of human cancers. Royal jelly (RJ) is a production from the hypo pharyngeal, mandibular and post cerebral glands of nurse bees. RJ consists of 66% water, 15% sugars, 5% lipids, and 13% proteins, essential amino acids and vitamins.
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult male wistar rats (220±20gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10). Control group (CG) received normal saline 10 ml/kg twice a week with Intraperitoneal (I.P) for 48 days (0.3 ml/rat(. Royal Jelly group (RJG) received jelly (100 mg/kg daily) for 48 days orally. Bleomycin group (BLG) received BL (10 mg/kg twice a week) with I.P for 48 days. Royal Jelly+ Bleomycin group (RJ+BLG) received royal Jelly (100 mg/kg /day) orally concomitant with BL administration. Sperm count, motility, and viability were investigated and chromatin quality and DNA integrity were also analyzed. Serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were measured as well.
Results: BL caused decline significantly (p<0.05) sperm count, sperm viability, motility as well as testosterone concentration compared to control group while significant (p<0.05) increases in immature sperm, sperm with damaged DNA and MDA concentration were announced in BL in comparison with CG and RJ+BLG. Royal jelly improved Bleomycin-induced toxicity on sperm parameters and testosterone and MDA concentrations.
Conclusion: The present results support the idea that BL adversely affects sperm parameters and MDA and the RJ with antioxidant properties has positive effects on these parameters.

Ali Shalizar Jalali, Gholamreza Najafi, Mohammadreza Hosseinchi, Ashkan Sedighnia,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (1-2015)
Abstract

Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity.
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice.
Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days.
Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration.
Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects.
Zahra Shayan, Zahra Pourmovahed, Fatemeh Najafipour, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Fatemeh Mohebpour, Sedighe Najafipour,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)
Abstract

Background: Nowadays, infertility problems have become a social concern, and are associated with multiple psychological and social problems. Also, it affects the interpersonal communication between the individual, familial, and social characteristics. Since women are exposed to stressors of physical, mental, social factors, and treatment of infertility, providing a psychometric screening tool is necessary for disorders of this group. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factor structure of the general health questionnaire-28 to discover mental disorders in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 220 infertile women undergoing treatment of infertility were selected from the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility with convenience sampling in 2011. After completing the general health questionnaire by the project manager, validity and, reliability of the questionnaire were calculated by confirmatory factor structure and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Results: Four factors, including anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and physical symptoms were extracted from the factor structure. 50.12% of the total variance was explained by four factors. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained 0.90. Conclusion: Analysis of the factor structure and reliability of General Health Questionnaire-28  showed that it is suitable as a screening instrument for assessing general health of infertile women.
Parvin Sabeti, Fardin Amidi, Seyed Mahdi Kalantar, Mohammad Ali Sedighi Gilani, Soheila Pourmasumi, Atefeh Najafi, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (6-2017)
Abstract

Background: Teratoasthenozoospermia (TA) is a severe form of male infertilitywith no clear etiology.
Objective: To compare the level of intracellular anion superoxide (O2–), heat shockprotein A2 (HSPA2) and protamine deficiencies in ejaculated spermatozoa betweenteratoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men.
Materials and Methods: In this case- control study, semen samples of 20 infertilemen, with TA (with normal morphology lower than 4%_ and total motility lowerthan 40% ) as the case group and 20 normozoospermic fertile men as the controlgroup were evaluated for intracellular O2– and HSPA2 by flow cytometry andprotamine deficiency by Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) test.
Results: The rate of CMA3+ spermatozoa in the case group was higher thancontrols (p=0.001). The percentages of HSPA2+ spermatozoa in the cases weresignificantly lower than controls (p=0.001). Also, intracellular O2– levels in the casegroup were significantly higher than controls (p=0.001) and had positivecorrelations with sperm apoptosis (r=0.79, p=0.01) and CMA3 positive sperm(r=0.76, p=0.01), but negative correlations with normal morphology (r=-0.81,p=0.01) and motility (r=-0.81, p=0.01). There was no significant correlation betweenintracellular O2– and HSPA2 in the case group (r=0.041, p=0.79).
Conclusion: We suggest that the increase in intracellular O2–, decrease inspermatozoa HSPA2+, and high percentages of spermatozoa with immaturechromatin might be considered as etiologies of infertility in TA patients.
Zohreh Ghorashi, Mohammad Najafi, Effat Merghati Khoei,
Volume 15, Issue 12 (12-2017)
Abstract

Background: Islamic doctrine and related teachings play a seminal role in constructing the sexual performance of followers, women in particular.
Objective: The aim was to explore women’s understandings of Islamic Shiite principles related to their sexuality.
Materials and Methods: In a qualitative content analysis approach, four individual interviews and seven focus groups conducted in Rafsanjan, a big city in Kerman province in Iran. Content analysis was used to extract meanings and themes.
Results: Three major themes were emerged describing the sexual concepts and religious-related teachings concerning women's sexual understandings and performances: “unconditional sexual submission” (Tamkin), “paradox between virtue and unconditional sexual submission” and “misconceptions”.
Conclusion: Religious teachings have a basic and comprehensive role in sexuality construction and sexual health of women. However, occasional inconsistency between beliefs, learning and sexual expectations, practices, and situations would lead to jeopardize the psychological and somatic health of women. Religious-related misconceptions have essential role in creating sexual problems.
Elham Azizi, Mohammad Naji, Maryam Shabani-Nashtaei, Aligholi Sobhani, Atefeh Najafi, Fardin Amidi,
Volume 16, Issue 11 (November 2018)
Abstract

Background: Vitamin D has multifaceted function in human reproductive physiology. It has been revealed that vitamin D is involved in spermatogenesis, and semen quality can be linked to vitamin D status in men.
Objective: Evaluating the correlation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in serum with basic and advanced semen parameters and essential determinants of spermatozoa function.
Materials and Methods: Participants were categorized, based on semen parameters, into normozoospermic (NS) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Serum level of 25-OHD was measured. Apoptotic status of spermatozoa, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species content of semen were assessed.
Results: Difference of 25-OHD concentration in serum of NS men versus OAT ones did not meet significance threshold. DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species content of semen and mitochondrial membrane potential state revealed significant difference between NS and OAT subjects. There were no significant differences in basic and functional semen parameters when men were stratified based on serum 25-OHD level. Taking both 25-OHD and semen categories (NS and OAT) into consideration did not indicate any significant difference in studied parameters. Total motility of spermatozoa was positively correlated with serum concentration of 25-OHD in all studied subjects. In addition, normal morphology of spermatozoa in NS men revealed a positive and significant correlation with levels of 25-OHD in serum.
Conclusion: Vitamin D may affect motility and morphology of spermatozoa. Lower content of serum vitamin D may affect fertility of men and should be considered in examination of men with abnormal spermogram.

Narges Yousefalizadegan, Zahra Mousavi, Tayebeh Rastegar, Yasaman Razavi, Parvaneh Najafizadeh,
Volume 17, Issue 5 (May 2019 2019)
Abstract

Background: Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) has long been used in industry, and its application has recently been increasing in the form of nanoparticle.
Objective: The present study was an attempt to assess the effects of MnO2 nanoparticles on spermatogenesis in male rats.
Materials and Methods: Micro- and nanoparticles of MnO2 were injected (100 mg/kg) subcutaneously to male Wistar rats (150 ± 20 gr) once a week for a period of 4 weeks, and the vehicle group received only normal saline (each group included 8 rats). The effect of these particles on the bodyweight, number of sperms, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, diameter of seminiferous tubes, testosterone, estrogen, follicle stimulating factor, and the motility of sperms were evaluated and then compared among the control and vehicle groups as the criteria for spermatogenesis.
Results: The results showed that a chronic injection of MnO2 nanoparticles caused a significant decrease in the number of sperms, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, diameter of seminiferous tubes (p < 0.001) and in the motility of sperms. However, no significant difference was observed in the weight of prostate, epididymis, left testicle, estradiol (p = 0.8) and testosterone hormone (p = 0.2).
Conclusion: It seems that the high oxidative power of both particles was the main reason for the disturbances in the function of the testis. It is also concluded that these particles may have a potential reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Further studies are thus needed to determine its mechanism of action upon spermatogenesis.
Fahime Sadat Kamali , Rasoul Shahrooz, Golamreza Najafi, Mazdak Razi,
Volume 17, Issue 11 (November 2019)
Abstract

Background: Paraquat (PQ), as a pyridine compound, is widely used worldwide to control annual weeds. The oxidative stress caused by PQ can cause deleterious changes in the testicular tissue.
Objective: An investigation on the protective effects of Crocin (CCN) against PQ-induced oxidative damages and apoptotic indices in testicular tissue. 
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight adult male albino mice (20-25 gr) were divided into four groups (n = 7/each). The control group received 0.1 ml/day of normal saline by intraperitoneal injection (IP); sham-control group received PQ 5 mg/kg/day, IP, and the experimental groups received PQ (CCN+PQ) and CCN-sole (200 mg/kg/day, IP), respectively, for 35 continuous days. At the end of the treatment period, the testes were dissected out and used for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. The expressions of tumor suppressor p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), and caspase-3 were considered as hallmark factors of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated as key biomarkers for oxidative stress.
Results: The PQ significantly (p< 0.02, p< 0.01) diminished the spermatogenesis indices and SOD, increased MDA levels, and enhanced the apoptosis-related gene expression. However, the co-administration of CCN and PQ significantly (p< 0.01, p< 0.01, p< 0.02) ameliorated the spermatogenesis ratio, upregulated the SOD level as well as bcl-2 expression, and reduced the MDA content and apoptosis vs the PQ-sole group.
Conclusion: This study showed that the antioxidant properties of CCN enable to ameliorate the PQ-induced destructive effects by upregulating the testicular structure, antioxidant and apoptotic status.
Masoud Najafi, Mohsen Cheki, Peyman Amini, Abdolreza Javadi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa,
Volume 17, Issue 12 (December 2019)
Abstract

Background: Testis is one of the most sensitive organs against the toxic effect of ionizing radiation. Exposure to even a low dose of radiation during radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology, or a radiological event could pose a threat to spermatogenesis. This may lead to temporary or permanent infertility or even transfer of genomic instability to the next generations.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of treatment with three natural antioxidants; resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid, and coenzyme Q10 on radiation-induced spermatogenesis injury.
Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI mice (6-8 wk, 30 ± 5 gr) were randomly divided into six groups (n=5/each) as 1) control; 2) radiation; 3) radiation + resveratrol; 4) radiation + alpha lipoic acid; 5) radiation + resveratrol + alpha lipoic acid; and 6) radiation+ Q10. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg resveratrol or 200 mg/kg alpha lipoic acid or a combination of these drugs. Also, Q10 was administered at 200 mg/kg. All treatments were performed daily from two days before to 30 min before irradiation. Afterward, mice were exposed to 2 Gy 60Co gamma rays; 37 days after irradiation, the testicular samples were collected and evaluated for histopathological parameters.
Results: Results showed that these agents are able to alleviate some toxicological parameters such as basal lamina and epididymis decreased sperm density. Also, all agents were able to increase Johnsen score. However, they could not protect against radiation-induced edema, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and hyperplasia in Leydig cells.
Conclusion: This study indicates that resveratrol, alpha-lipoic acid, and Q10 have the potential to reduce some of the side effects of radiation on mice spermatogenesis. However, they cannot protect Leydig cells as a source of testosterone and seminiferous tubules as the location of sperm maturation.
 
Nayere Khadem Ghaebi, Malihe Mahmoudiniya, Mona Najaf Najafi, Elnaz Zohdi, Matin Attaran,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (February 2020)
Abstract

Background: The use of frozen embryo transfer (FET) is increasing worldwide in the treatment of infertility by in vitro fertilization. Different methods of endometrial preparation for FET have been suggested.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes after treatment with letrozole and those after treatment with the combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and estradiol in FET.
Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was conducted on 142 infertile women with a history of previous FET failure. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 71 each). The GnRH group received 500 µg of buserelin plus 4mg estradiol (which increased to 8 mg if endometrial thickness was less than 5 mm), and the letrozole group received 5 mg of letrozole plus 75 IU of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone). At least two high-quality embryos were transferred to each subject in both groups. The outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate and fetal heart rate detection.
Results: Subjects in the study groups had similar demographic characteristics and baseline clinical condition. Mean endometrial thickness in the letrozole and GnRH agonist groups were 8.90 ± 0.88 mm and 8.99 ± 0.85 mm, respectively (p = 0.57). The number of positive results of the beta human chorionic gonadotropin test and detection of fetal heartbeat were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion: The administration of letrozole and GnRH may produce similar pregnancy outcomes in FET.
 

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