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Showing 16 results for Mousavi

Soheila Arefi, Mahmoud Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Ali Reza Mousavi, Mahnaz Heidari, Ahmad Ali Bayat, Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Auto antibodies to zona-pellucida (AZA) seem to be important autoantibodies implicated in reproduction, with substantial role in both endocrine and reproductive functions of the human ovary. There are some debates on the relation of AZA with infertility, repeated In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempts, and outcome of it. Objective: In this study, we assessed the presence of AZA in the follicular fluids (FFs) of women who underwent intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in relation to etiology of infertility and multiple puncture of ovaries. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, follicular fluids were evaluated from 96 infertile women, (19-40 years old, 31.5�5.1), who were candidates for ICSI based on the etiology of infertility. From these 80 women had explained infertility whereas 16 had unexplained infertility. All FFs were evaluated for presence of AZA by ELISA test. Results: Twenty patients (20.8%) were positive for AZA in follicular fluid. In patients with unexplained infertility, AZA antibody in follicular fluid, was significantly higher than the group with proven etiology of infertility (p=0.001). In addition, 20.4 % of patients who had been punctured previously showed AZA in their FFs which is statistically similar to the patients who were punctured for the first time. Conclusions: The high incidence of AZA in infertile women, especially women with unexplained infertility has to be considered. Relation of the presence AZA and repeated puncture of ovaries is still debatable. Determinations of AZA are highly recommended in evaluation of infertile couples especially in patient with unexplained infertility
Houshang Babolhavaeji, Seyed Habibollah Mousavi Bahar, Nahid Anvari, Farhang Abed, Arash Roshanpour,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Many azoospermic patients with non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are candidate for testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and in vitro fertilization. Because sperm might be present in some but not all parts of the testes of such men, multiple sampling of testicular tissue are usually necessary to increase the probability of sperm finding. Sperm finding can be done by two methods: 1) classic histopathology and 2) wet smear.
Objective: Comparative study of pathology and wet smear methods for discovering sperm in testis biopsy of azoospermic men.
Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 67 consecutive infertile men who referred to Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, Iran between April 2002 and September 2004. All patients were either azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic. They underwent intraoperative wet prep cytological examinations of testis biopsy material and then specimens were permanently fixed for pathologic examination too.
Results: Among the 67 testes that underwent wet prep cytological examination, 44 (65.7%) were positive and 23 (34.3%) had no sperm in their wet smear. On the permanent pathologic sections, 19 (28.4%) were positive and 48 (71.6%) cases were with no sperm in their sections. Among all the individuals 18 (26.8%) were negative in both studies, while 14 (20.8%) had minimum 1 sperm in their smears in both examinations. The positive cases in wet prep cytological examination were significantly more than the cases in the permanent histopathologic sections (p-value=0.000).
Conclusion: It seems that wet prep cytological examination is more reliable than permanent histopathologic sections in detecting sperm in testis biopsy of azoospermic men.
Fatemeh Ghaemmaghami, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi, Azita Naseri, Azam Sadat Mousavi, Mitra Modarres Gilani, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Recent studies have showed conservative management in selective patients with borderline and malignant ovarian tumors is safe; therefore this management is considered in patients with ovarian tumor who desire to preserve fertility.
Objective: This study has been performed to evaluate the clinical outcome and fertility in patients with ovarian tumors who were treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: All patients who were treated conservatively (preservation of uterus and at least one ovary) or were on follow-up and had recurrence were evaluated in Vali-e-Asr Hospital during 2000-2004.
Results: Among 410 patients with ovarian tumors, 60 were treated conservatively. Age range was 13-34 years. Twenty-six of patients (43.3%) were desired pregnancy and 34 (56%) patients did not. Three (5%) patients had history of infertility. Histological types of tumors were as follows; 15(25%) borderline tumors, 10(16.7%) epithelial tumors, 26(43.3%) germ cell tumors, and 9(15%) sex cord tumors. Range of follow-up time was 12-48 months. Seven term pregnancies in 6 patients had been occurred, 1 in epithelial group, 2 in germ cell group, 1 in sex cord group and 3 in borderline group. Nine patients had recurrence and 2 patients expired, including one patient with serous cyst carcinoma (Stage IIIC).This patient had refused radical surgery and referred to our center with recurrence. Another patient had immature teratoma (Stage IIIC).
Conclusion: Conservative surgical management in young patients with stage I (grade 1, 2) of epithelial ovarian tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor and in patients with borderline and germ cell ovarian tumors could be performed in order to preserve fertility.
Shahrzad Zadehmodares, Nafiseh Baheiraei, Afsar Sharafi, Mehdi Hedayati, Mansoureh Mousavi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Progressions in science and technology have generated several methods for delaying preterm delivery and abortion; therefore, discovering an easy, non-invasive, practical, and non-expensive predictive factor can help us to perform preventive methods in healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors.
Objective: To indicate an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 73 pregnant women who had a singleton pregnancy, had no complications or history of abortion or disease, and were referred to Mahdieh and Taleghani Hospitals between 2007-2009, were evaluated. Blood and cervical fluid samples were obtained thrice from all patients: at the first visit, after 1 week, and 1-2 weeks later. They were followed up until the 12th week of gestation.
Results: Using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, 1.62 was obtained as the cut-off point for the cervical fluid: serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentration ratio; 14 patients (19.2%) experienced abortion, and 12 women (70.6%) had a ratio ≥1.62. Of the pregnant women with a ratio of <1.62, 3.6% had an abortion.
Conclusion: Pregnant women who do not show any signs of abortion and have a high cervical fluid: serum HCG concentration ratio are at risk of abortion; therefore, the cut-off point might be an appropriate index for predicting abortion in early pregnancy.
Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Reza Jouya, Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi, Mohammad Dehghan-Tezerjani, Shekoofa Behdad, Hamid Reza Soltani,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Thiopental sodium and Propofol are two widely-used drugs in the induction of anesthesia in assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, the side effects and outcome of recovery from anesthesia of these drugs on ART have not been identified yet.
Objective: This study aimed at investigating the side effects and hemodynamic effects of using thiopental sodium and propofal as well as effects of these drugs on pregnancy outcome in ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this double blinded) randomized controlled trial, 90 woman candidate for ART were randomly divided into two groups. 47 patients received Propofol (2.5 mg/kg) and 43 patients received thiopental (5mg/kg) for anesthesia induction. The entry hemodynamic parameters of the patients were documented. During the anesthesia process, hemodynamic parameters were checked at five-minute intervals.
Results: The results of the study showed a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of their response to verbal stimulation (p<0.001), the normalization time of the rate and quality of breathing (p<0.001), nausea (p<0.001), and vomiting (p<0.001). Also, in comparison with the other group, all these parameters were better in Propofol group. There was found no significant difference between two groups in terms of other variables.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, Propofol has fewer known side effects. Vomiting and nausea as two known side effect of anesthesia are significantly lower in patients receiving Propofol than patients who received thiopental.
Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri, Davood Nasiry Zarrin Ghabaee, Ramezan Ali Naeimi, Seyed Javad Seyedi, Seyed Abdollah Mousavi,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (4-2016)

Background: Aphallia or penile agenesis is a rare malformation accompanying with no phallus. This anomaly is extremely rare with abnormality of urogenital system and psychological consequences. Its outbreak is estimated 1 out of 10-30 million births.
Case: Reviewing 3 cases of male external genitalia agenesis, which associated with multiple anomalies of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and genitourinary system.
Conclusion: Aphallia has psychosocial consequences and a guarded prognosis. This study showed that if the kidney failure is due to its obstruction, these patients will be born in more favorable conditions and the future treatment measures will be directed to keep the external genitalia (male) through timely diagnosis and prenatal surgery and timely bladder drainage
Parvin Layegh, Zohreh Mousavi, Donya Farrokh Tehrani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mohammad Khajedaluee,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (4-2016)

Background: Insulin resistance has an important role in pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Yet there are certain controversies regarding the presence of insulin resistance in non-obese patients. 
Objective: The aim was to compare the insulin resistance and various endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in obese and non-obese PCOS women.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed from 2007-2010, 115 PCOS patients, aged 16-45 years were enrolled. Seventy patients were obese (BMI ≥25) and 45 patients were non-obese (BMI <25). Presence of insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities were compared between two groups. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. 
Results: There was no significant difference in presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.3) between two groups (p=0.357). Waist circumference (p<0.001), waist/hip ratio (p<0.001), systolic (p<0.001) and diastolic (p<0.001) blood pressures, fasting blood sugar (p=0.003) and insulin (p=0.011), HOMA-IR (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.001) and triglyceride (p<0.001) were all significantly higher in obese PCOS patients. There was no significant difference in total testosterone (p=0.634) and androstenedione (p=0.736) between groups whereas Dehydroepiandrotendione sulfate (DHEAS) was significantly higher in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.018). There was no case of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in non-obese patients, whereas they were seen in 31.3% and 39.4% of obese PCOS women, respectively.
Conclusion: Our study showed that metabolic abnormalities are more prevalent in obese PCOS women, but adrenal axis activity that is reflected in higher levels of DHEAS was more commonly pronounced in our non-obese PCOS patients.
Abbasali Gaeini, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Siroos Choobineh, Neda Mousavi, Sadegh Satarifard, Leila Shafieineek,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Background: Based on different studies it was shown that exercise training is an important factor in preconception and prenatal care.
Objective: Based on the importance of exercise training in preconception and perinatal careT, the aim of this study was to determine whether regular preconception exercise training with or without exercise training during pregnancy decreases detrimental effects of maternal high fat diet on female offspring bone health.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were fed high fat diet (35%) and were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE); trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC); untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE); untrained and unexercised (CC). Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks before pregnancy. TE and CE Dams groups had access to wheels throughout pregnancy until delivery. Analyses were performed on the female offspring that did not have access to running wheels or exercise training during any portion of their lives. The relative expression levels of β-catenin, PPARƴ, OPG and RANKL were determined by Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR).
Results: Exercise during pregnancy in isolation had no effect on any measure genes but exercise both before and during pregnancy affected all genes. Exercise only before pregnancy increased β-catenin and OPG and decreased PPARƴ, RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio (p<0.001).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that maternal exercise training before and during pregnancy may modulate the risk of bone disorders in offspring of mothers fed a high fat diet.
Ramin Salimnejad, Ghasem Sazegar, Mohammad Javad Saeedi Borujeni, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Fatemeh Salehi, Fatemeh Ghorbani,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Background: Diabetes has an adverse effect on spermatogenesis by rising oxidative stress.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Teucrium Polium extract administration on spermatogenesis and testicular structure in diabetic rats induced with Streptozotocin.
Materials and Methods: 32 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8/each): control group, diabetic group received distilled water, and two experimental groups included diabetic rats treated with 50 and 100 mg/body weigh of Teucrium Polium extract for 6 six weeks. After six weeks, the left testis had been removed and the morphometrical study was performed. Blood samples were collected from the ophthalmic veins of the rats and plasma levels of glucose and testosterone hormone were measured afterward.
Results: The reduction in diameters of the seminiferous tubules and thickening ofthe wall of the seminiferous tubules (p=0.05) were seen in diabetic rats. Also, thedegenerative changes in cells arrangement have been observed. Statistical analysisshowed the use of Teucrium Polium significantly improved the above disorders intreatment group (100 mg/BW) in contrast to the non treated diabetic group (p=0.05),but no significant difference was seen between the experimental group treated with50 mg/BW of Teucrium polium and diabetic group (p=0.08). These data alsorevealed that treatment of diabetic rats with 100 mg/BW of Teucrium Polium extractsignificantly improves the change in serum glucose (p=0.001) and testosterone(p=0.03).
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that diabetes produces degenerative changes in the testis of rats and administration of Teucrium polium reduces complications resulted from diabetes.
Maryam Zohour Soleimani, Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Morteza Mousavi Hasanzade, Maryam Baazm,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (March 2018)

Background: CatSper gene, a member of cation channel sperm family, has an essential role in sperm motility and male fertility. Following varicocele, sperm parameters especially sperm movement decreases. For this reason, we hypothesized that CatSper gene expression might be reduced after varicocele induction in an animal model.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes, sperm parameters and testis histology following varicocele induction.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three following groups (n=10/ each): control, sham, and varicocele group. Experimental varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein. The epididymal sperm parameters, CatSper1 and 2 genes expression, and testes histology were studied two months after varicocele induction.
Results: Our results revealed that motility (32.73±16.14%), morphology (48.80±17%) and viability (31.23±9.82%) of sperms significantly reduced following varicocele induction. In addition, we showed a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (43.63±5.31) and seminiferous tubules diameters (190.51±19.23 mm) in experimental varicocele rats. The level of CatSper1 and 2 genes expression evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction was significantly downregulated 2 months after varicocele induction.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that experimental varicocele has deleterious effects on sperm parameters, testis structure as well as the expression of CatSper 1 and 2 genes.

Zohreh Yousefi, Hekmat Khalilifar, Amir Hosein Jafarian, Behrouz Davachi, Leila Mousavi Seresh, Nooshin Babapour, Laya Shirinzadeh, Mina Baradaran,
Volume 16, Issue 6 (Jun 2018)

Background: Ovarian superovulation and increased follicle-stimulating hormone concentration for infertility treatment may be the risk factors of developed granulosa-cell tumor. The aim of this report is to introduce a case of granulosa-cell tumor which was discovered after ovarian stimulation.
Case: A 31-yr-old woman with clinical presentation of massive abdominal distention was referred to the gynecology and oncology department of an academic hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Aug 2017. She had the history of secondary infertility and was undergoing In Vitro Fertilization protocol and ovarian stimulation, but, the cycle was canceled. The patient suffered from gradual abdominal distention one month after the end of IVF procedure despite pregnancy failure. 2-3 months after management of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, investigation revealed large ovarian mass and increased tumor marker inhibin. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed stage III ovarian cancer. The final pathology report indicated juvenile granulosa cell tumor. So, optimal surgical staging and cytoreductive surgery without fertility preserving were perfumed. Chemotherapy was recommended due to the advanced stage of ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, she experienced metastatic diseases in pelvic and abdomen in less than six months; and currently is receiving the second and third line chemotherapy.
Conclusion: Persistent ovarian enlargement or ascites during or after infertility treatment should be carefully considered and managed
Narges Yousefalizadegan, Zahra Mousavi, Tayebeh Rastegar, Yasaman Razavi, Parvaneh Najafizadeh,
Volume 17, Issue 5 (May 2019 2019)

Background: Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) has long been used in industry, and its application has recently been increasing in the form of nanoparticle.
Objective: The present study was an attempt to assess the effects of MnO2 nanoparticles on spermatogenesis in male rats.
Materials and Methods: Micro- and nanoparticles of MnO2 were injected (100 mg/kg) subcutaneously to male Wistar rats (150 ± 20 gr) once a week for a period of 4 weeks, and the vehicle group received only normal saline (each group included 8 rats). The effect of these particles on the bodyweight, number of sperms, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, diameter of seminiferous tubes, testosterone, estrogen, follicle stimulating factor, and the motility of sperms were evaluated and then compared among the control and vehicle groups as the criteria for spermatogenesis.
Results: The results showed that a chronic injection of MnO2 nanoparticles caused a significant decrease in the number of sperms, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, diameter of seminiferous tubes (p < 0.001) and in the motility of sperms. However, no significant difference was observed in the weight of prostate, epididymis, left testicle, estradiol (p = 0.8) and testosterone hormone (p = 0.2).
Conclusion: It seems that the high oxidative power of both particles was the main reason for the disturbances in the function of the testis. It is also concluded that these particles may have a potential reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Further studies are thus needed to determine its mechanism of action upon spermatogenesis.
Mahtab Senobari, Elham Azmoude, Marziyeh Mousavi,
Volume 17, Issue 7 (July 2019 2019)

Background: The prevalence of sexual problems is high during pregnancy. Despite this, there are limited data about the impact of physical and psychological factors such as body weight and body image on sexual function in pregnant women.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between body mass index, body image, and sexual function among pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 206 Iranian pregnant women (106 with normal weight and 100 overweight women) in their 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy were surveyed. Survey instruments included the Female Sexual Function Index and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire.
Results: The prevalence of female sexual disorder was 72.3% in this survey. Diminished sexual desire/appetite was the most common problem reported by the participants (37.9%). The mean score of sexual problem and body image were not significantly different among overweight and normal weight women in the 2nd (p = 0.945 and  p = 0.800, respectively) and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy (p = 0.310 and p = 0.507, respectively). Further, there were no relationships between the body mass index plus body image and the total female sexual function score (p = 0.44 and p = 0.837, respectively). However, the relationship between the appearance evaluation with lubrication (p = 0.043) and subjective weight with two subscales of sexual satisfaction (p = 0.005) and orgasm (p = 0.019) were significant.
Conclusion: The findings from this study revealed that there were no relationships between body mass index plus body image score and the sexual function in pregnancy.
Therefore, a further research is recommended to study other potential factors affecting sexual function during pregnancy.
Davoud Kianifard, Ali Ehsani, Parisa Zeinolabedini Daneshgar, Ghasem Akbari, Seyyed Maysam Mousavi Shoar,
Volume 17, Issue 11 (November 2019)

Background: Paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, and monosodium glutamate (MSG) have oxidative effects on testicular tissue.
Objective: In this study, the effects of MSG administration on the exacerbation of testicular tissue alterations related to PTX treatment were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: MSG (30 & 60 mg/kg i.p.) was administrated to six groups (n = 8/each) of adult mice before or after PTX treatment: control, PTX-treated, MSG30 + PTX, MSG60 + PTX, PTX + MSG30, and PTX + MSG60. Following the euthanizing, the body weight measurement, pituitary–testicular axis hormonal analysis and serum lipid peroxidation index assessment was prepared, testicular histomorphometry (tubular diameter and germinal epithelium height), immunohistochemistry of p53 was completed. Microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (tubular differentiation, spermiogenesis and repopulation indices) were studied.
Results: Body weight was not changed significantly. The levels of testosterone (p = 0.0001), follicle stimulating hormone (p = 0.019), and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.08) were decreased while the level of lipid peroxidation index was increased (p = 0.208) in the treated groups. The histomorphometry indices (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively), germ cells population (p < 0.05) and microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (p = 0.001, p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, respectively) were significantly reduced in all treated groups. The administration of MSG before PTX treatment induces more changes. The most positive reaction to p53 was observed in MSG30 or 60 + PTX groups compared to other groups.
Conclusion: The administration of MSG could intensify testicular tissue alterations related to PTX chemotherapy.
Fatemeh Eini, Khojasteh Joharchi, Maryam Azizi Kutenaei, Pegah Mousavi,
Volume 18, Issue 9 (September 2020)

Background: Nigella Sativa (NS) and its active component, thymoquinone, have beneficial protective effects on experimental animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and different human diseases.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NS hydro-alcoholic extract (NSE) on the oocyte quality of PCOS mice during in vitro maturation.
Materials and Methods: For induction of PCOS, 40 prepubertal 21-days old female B6D2F1 mice (18-22 g body weight) received subcutaneous dehydroepiandrosterone daily. After validation of the model, germinal vesicle-stage oocytes of superovulated mice were collected and placed in the culture medium containing different concentrations (0, 1, 50, and 100 μg/ml) of NSE. For the measurement of developmental competency, some mature oocytes were fertilized with epididymal spermatozoa. Other mature oocytes were assessed for oxidative stress. Also, some mRNA expression levels involved in oocyte maturation and epigenetic modification were evaluated.
Results: The 50 μg/ml NSE treated group showed significantly higher r ates o f maturation, f ertilization, and blastocyst formation in comparison with both control and PCOS groups. A high level of glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression, besides a low level of reactive oxygen species content all, were observed in oocytes treated with 50 μg/ml NSE, indicating the modification of oxidative statue. Furthermore, the oocytes in the 50 μg/ml-treated group showed an upregulation of mRNA expression in epigenetic-related genes (Dnmt1 and Hdac1) and maternally derived genes (Mapk and Cdk1), correspondingly downregulation of cyclooxygenase2 mRNA expression, in comparison to other groups.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that 50 μg/ml NSE improves oocyte maturation, oxidative statues and epigenetic modifications. These may be the all reasons for the developmental competency in the control and PCOS mice oocytes.
Reza Najafipour, Abdolmabood Momeni, Farideh Yousefipour, Shaghayegh Mousavi, Sahar Moghbelinejad,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (January 2021)

Background: Post-transcriptional microRNAs (miRNAs) have a impotrant pattern in the spermatogenesis process.
Objective: Study of the expression and methylation of hsa-miR-449 family in sperm samples of infertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we recruited 74 infertile men (with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia, and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia) and 30 control samles. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) method was used for methylation evaluation of hsa-miR-449 a, b, c promoter. By Real time PCR (qRT-PCR) method,we showed downregulation of hsa-miR-449 a, b, c in the sperm samples of infertile men and compared it to their fertile counterparts.
Results: There was significant underexperssion, in hsa-miR-449-b in oligoasthenoteratospermic samples (p = 0.0001, F = 2.9). About the methylation pattern, infertile men showed high frequency of methylation in the promoter of hsa-miR-449 a, b, c in comparison to controls (60.8% vs 23.3%), the highest amount of methylation was observed in oligoasthenoteratospermia samples (81.2%).
Conclusion: In this study, low expression and high methylation of hsa-miR-449-b were observed in infertile men in compared to control samples, which can be one of the causes of defective spermatogenesis.

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