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Showing 27 results for Mohammadi

Tajossadat Allameh, Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (7-2007)

Background: According to age, history and physical examination findings, there are different diagnoses including anatomic lesions for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). In these conditions, hysteroscopy can be performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.
Objective: The aim of this study was defining the diagnostic value of hysteroscopy in evaluating uterine cavity in patients with AUB compared to pathologic findings.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective descriptive-analytic study in which hysteroscopy was performed for 105 patients with AUB .The patients were in reproductive and perimenopausal (86.7%) or postmenopausal ages (13.3%). Hysteroscopy was done and biopsy was taken from any pathology. After removing of hysteroscope, dilatation and curettage were done. Both samples were sent for pathologist. At the end, reports of hysteroscopic findings were compared with pathologic results.
Results: Diagnostic value of hysteroscopy in evaluation of uterine cavity showed 100% sensitivity, 80.5% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value (PPV) and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the procedure for endometrial polyp were 93%, 100%, 100%, and 95.4%, respectively. These results were respectively 100%, 96.4%, 88% and 100% for submucosal myoma, and 25%, 89.7%, 12.5% and 93.3% for endometrial hyperplasia.
Conclusion: The results of this study show that hysteroscopy is a reliable method for evaluation of AUB, especially in benign lesions such as endometrial polyp and submucosal myoma and it can be used as the first line diagnostic method for these abnormalities. However hysteroscopy without directed biopsy has insufficient value for diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia.
Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Zohreh Alizadeh, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Preparation of oocytes is one of the critical factors that determine the developmental competence of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Objective: In this study, the effect of cysteamine, type of media and glutathione (GSH) level on blastocysts development after in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes were investigated.
Materials and Methods: Premature female mice were primed with pregnant mare stimulating gonadotrophin (PMSG), and germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes were obtained 45 hr later. GV oocytes were cultured in presence of 0, 50, 100, 200 and 500 µm cysteamine in TCM199 and MEME media. After IVM, MII oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and in vitro cultured (IVC) in order to observe embryo development. A group of In Vivo Ovulated (IVO) oocytes after priming with PMSG and HCG also were included in this study. 5,5-Dithio-bis (2nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB-recycling protocol was used for GSH assay.
Results: Rate of IVM and IVF were improved in all oocytes treated with cysteamine in the two medium except 500 µm (81% MII rate in TCM and 64% MII in MEME). Rate of blastocyst in 100 µm cysteamine in TCM1199 and 200 µm in MEME was higher compared to control groups (In TCM 45% and in MEME 35%). In vivo MII and GV oocytes represented the highest and lowest GSH level respectively.
Conclusion: Our results revealed that the media and concentration of cysteamine can affects on IVM, IVF and rate of blastocysts development on dose dependant manner.
Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Maryam Mohammadian, Zahra Gharib Naseri Pharm,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: Studies have shown that Physalis alkekengi reduces implantation and induces antifertility in rat. In Iranian traditional medicine it is believed that this plant has abortifacient and antifertility activities.
Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of Physalis alkekengi ripe fruit hydroalcoholic extract (PFE) on uterine contractility and its possible mechanism(s).
Materials and Methods: Extraction of Physalis alkekengi fruit was carried out by maceration method (70% alcohol). Uterus was dissected out from adult non-pregnant rat (Wistar) and contracted by KCl (60mM) or oxytocin (10mU/ml) in an organ bath containing De Jalon solution and the effect of PFE on the uterine contractions was investigated. Furthermore, the role of α- and β-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors, nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate synthesis inhibitors on the extract effects were evaluated.
Results: KCl- and oxytocin-induced uterine contractions were inhibited (p<0.001) by the cumulative concentrations of the extract in a concentration dependent manner. Incubation of uterus with propranolol (1μM) and L-NAME (100μM) attenuated the PFE antispasmodic effect (p<0.05). But the PFE effect was unaffected by phentolamine (1μM), naloxone (1μM) or methylene blue (10μM). In Ca2+-free with high potassium (60mM) De Jalon solution, cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 (0.1-0.5mM) induced uterine contraction concentration-dependently (p<0.001). Uterus incubation (5min) with PFE (0.25-1.75mg/ml) attenuated the CaCl2–induced contractions (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that the extract induced antispasmodic effect mainly via calcium influx blockade and partially through blocking β-adrenoceptors and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. However, neither α-adrenoceptors nor opioid receptors or cGMP synthesis were involved.
Maryam Eidi, Akram Eidi, Omid Pouyan, Pouneh ShahMohammadi, Reza Fazaeli, Massih Bahar,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: The trace element copper has been identified as a highly toxic element for sperm. It is known to affect sperm motility in humans and experimental implantation of copper in the epididymis vas deferens and scrotum of mammals has been demonstrated to affect fertility detrimentally. Objective: Sperm concentration motility vitality and morphology are parameters used to evaluate potential male fertility. Since copper is believed to be important for spermatogenesis; we conducted a study to investigate the correlation between seminal plasma copper concentration and human semen parameters in 232 males.
Materials and Methods: We selected 232 subfertile or infertile men who referred to Omid Fertility Clinic randomly. Samples were categorized into normospermic (n=32) oligozospermic (n=73) asthenozospermic (n=111) and azospermic (n=16) groups according to their spermiogrames. Total seminal plasma copper concentration was determined by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: The results showed that seminal plasma copper concentrations in oligozospermic asthenozospermic and azospermic groups are significantly higher than normozospermic group (p<0.01). Also, negative correlations were found between seminal plasma copper concentration and sperm count (p<0.05), sperm motility (p<0.01), sperm vitality (p<0.01), normal morphology (p<0.01) and pH (p<0.01) in all groups.
Conclusion: It was suggested that excess copper in seminal plasma was detrimental for male reproductive capacity by reducing sperm count, motility, vitality and morphology.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women’s age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age.
Objective: To evaluate  ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age ≥ 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates.
Results: The mean age of women was 41.87±1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age ≥40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old.
Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Behnaz Molaei, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Conventional IVF and ICSI are two common techniques to achieve fertilization. IVF has long been used for treatment of infertility, although it is not an effective treatment in severe male infertility. The use of ICSI has been expanded in severe male factor and fertilization failure after IVF cycle. In spite of the widespread use of ICSI in patients with non-male factor infertility, there is still little evidence to confirm its effectiveness in this population. Objective: To evaluate assisted reproductive technology outcomes between IVF and ICSI cycles in non-male factor, normoresponder patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 220 non-male factors, normoresponder patients who were indicated for ART were enrolled in this study. The patients received standard long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols for ovarian stimulation and after oocytes retrieval, the patients were divided into two groups (IVF and ICSI groups). In IVF group (n=112), all of retrieved oocytes were treated by conventional IVF and in ICSI group (n=88), microinjection (ICSI) was done on all of retrieved oocytes.
Results: In IVF group, fertilization and implantation rates were significantly higher than ICSI group (66.22% and 16.67% in IVF group versus 57.46% and 11.17% in ICSI group, respectively). Chemical and clinical pregnancy rates were statistically higher in IVF group as compared with the ICSI group (42.9% vs. 27.3% and 35.7% vs. 21.5%, respectively).
Conclusion: According to our study, the routine use of ICSI is not improved fertilization, implantation and chemical pregnancy rates and is not recommended in non-male factor, normozoospermic patients.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Parisa Khani, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 µmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37°C in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them. 114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore. 37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage. 6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.
Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Farnaz Mohammadian, Mehri Mashayekhy, Robab Davar, Maryam Eftekhar,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Determination of oocyte fertilization and embryo quality are one of the most important purposes in ART cycles. Follicular fluid provides an important microenvironment for development of oocytes and some biochemical characteristics of the follicular fluid, such as pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), may play an important role in prediction of success rate of ART.
Objective: This study was performed to evaluate whether there was any difference in follicular fluid PAPP-A, fertilization, and embryo quality between GnRH agonist long protocol and flexible GnRH antagonist multiple-dose protocol in ART cycles.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women who were candidates for ART were enrolled the study and were divided into two groups, GnRH agonist (GnRHa) long protocol (n=51) and flexible GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) multiple-dose protocol (n=49). Follicular fluid sample was obtained from a single mature follicle and follicular fluid PAPP-A level, fertilization and embryo quality of the same oocyte were evaluated in both groups.
Results: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A between the GnRHa protocol and GnRHant protocol (3.5±1.4 vs. 3.8±1.9, respectively). The mean levels of follicular fluid PAPP-A in fertilized oocyte and good quality embryo were comparable in GnRHa and GnRHant protocols.
Conclusion: Our data indicated that no differences of follicular fluid PAPP-A levels were observed between cycles using GnRHa long protocol and those of using flexible GnRHant multiple-dose protocol.
Maryam Eftekhar, Elham Rahmani, Farnaz Mohammadian,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (4-2013)

Background: Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist is used for controlling ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles which has some benefits.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of two different formulations of GnRH agonist: short-acting and long-acting, for ART protocols.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized study, one hundred women who underwent ART cycles were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, the patients received one single injection of 1.87 mg Triptorelin in previous mid-luteal phase. In group II, Decapeptyl 0.1 mg per day started from previous mid-luteal phase. Pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle was compared between two groups.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the number of retrieved oocyte (p=0.545), fertilization (p=0.876), implantation (p=0.716) and pregnancy rate (p=0.727) between the two groups.
Conclusion: There were not any advantages in IVF outcome between half-dose long-acting and short-acting GnRH agonist groups in ART cycle.
Fatemeh Kheradmand, Issa NourMohammadi, Mohamad Amin Ahmadi-Faghih, Mohsen Firoozrai, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd.
Objective: We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells.
Materials and Methods: The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 μM ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 μM CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 μM CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively.
Results: The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG.
Conclusion: Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd.
Shabnam Mohammadi, Mehdi Jalali, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh, Mehran Gholamin, Mojtaba Sankian,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: CatSper genes are a novel family of four sperm-specific calcium channels, which indicate testis-specific expression patterns. Despite the crucial role of CatSper genes in the male reproduction, very little is known about the factors that regulate their expression.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E treatment on the expression of CatSper 1 and CatSper 2 genes as well as sperm quality in the aged male mice.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four 11-12 months old aged male mice and twenty four 2-3-months old young male mice were randomly divided into four groups. Control groups received no injection. The experimental groups of male mice were received intraperitoneal injection of 106 mg/kg vitamin E daily for 35 days. Left testis and cauda epididymides from each mouse were collected on the days 21, 28 and 35 following vitamin E treatment and were used for Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Also, sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines given for human sperm examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Administration of vitamin E improved sperm parameters in the aged as well as young adult male mice. In addition, the expression of CatSper genes increased following vitamin E treatment. Also, intensity of signal for CatSper1 and CatSper2 increased in the head and middle piece of sperm in experimental group as compared to those of control ones.
Conclusion: The vitamin E treatment significantly improved the sperm quality, especially in terms of sperm motility, count and morphology rate. Furthermore, CatSper genes expression could be up-regulated by the vitamin E treatment.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Robab Davar, Soheila Pourmasumi,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Poor ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation is one of the most important interest points in assisted reproduction. Mild ovarian stimulation seems to be preferable to high dose of FSH regimens in women with a history of poor ovarian response in previous protocol. Clomiphene citrate and letrozole alone or in combination with FSH have been used in mild ovarian stimulation protocol.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate for mild ovarian stimulation on assisted reproductive technology outcomes in poor responders.
Materials and Methods: In a randomized control study, 184 women aged between 20 and 45 years with the history of poor response to ovarian stimulation who were candidate for ART were randomly subdivided into two groups: group I (n= 80), women who underwent the clomiphene/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol; and group II (n= 87), patients who underwent the letrozole/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol. Groups were compared regarding implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rates.
Results: There was a significant difference in the mean endometrial thickness between two groups (9.16±1.2 mm vs. 8.3±0.3 mm). The implantation rate was significantly higher in letrozole group compare to clomiphene group (7.2 vs. 6.6%, p=0.024 respectively). No significant differences were found in chemical and clinical pregnancy rate between two groups.
Conclusion: In mild ovarian stimulation protocol, letrozole and clomiphene have similar value for the poor responder. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients remains debated.
Behrooz Niknafs, Ahmad Mehdipour, Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh,
Volume 12, Issue 12 (12-2014)

Background: Melatonin, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and an antioxidant, has been shown that can inhibit apoptosis. Administration of melatonin may improve embryo development in assisted reproductive technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of melatonin in inhibition of spontaneous and induced apoptosis by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alph (TNF-α) and actinomycin-D during preimplantation development of mouse embryos.
Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), then allowed to mate with male mice. The resultant 2-cell embryos were divided into six groups as follows: control (group I), melatonin (group II), actinomycin-D (group III), actinomycin-D + melatonin (group IV), TNF-α (group V), and TNF-α + melatonin (group VI). We recorded the numbers and developmental rates of the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst embryos. Blastocysts were stained with acridine orange in order to assess for the embryo quality.
Results: The group IV showed a significantly higher developmental rate of blastocysts compared to group III (p<0.05). The number of dead blastomers was significantly decreased in group IV in comparison to group III (p<0.05). Both V and VI groups had a lower developmental rate and lesser quality of blastocysts compared with group I. There was no significant difference in the developmental rate of blastocysts from group II compared to group I (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Supplementation of embryo culture media with melatonin can improve the quality and developmental rate of embryos. Melatonin can prevent cell death that was induced by TNF- α and actinomycine-D.
Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi, Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani, Farzaneh Vaziri, Arezoo Khabbazian, Salem Mohammadi-Asl,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2-2015)

Background: There have been speculations about the effects of hormonal changes and socio-demographic factors on periodontal health during pregnancy.
Objective: According to the lack of sufficient epidemiologic information about the periodontal status of pregnant women in Yazd, this study was accomplished to determine the changes of Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN) during pregnancy and evaluating the possible relationship between this index and demographic characteristics of the mothers.
Materials and Methods: This was a longitudinal descriptive study. The samplesincluded 115 pregnant women who were referred to health centers of Yazd, Iran.The mothers’ data were obtained from a questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: consentpaper, demographic data and CPITN records. Examination was performed withdental unit light, flat dental mirror and WHO’s scaled probe.
Results: In the beginning of the study, 60.1% of checked sextants had healthy gingival status. 25.9% had code1 and 14% had code 2. Code 3 and 4 were not seen in any sextants. There was a significant relationship between lower CPITN and higher maternal education, occupation and more frequencies of tooth-brushing but there was not a relationship between CPITN and mother’s age and number of pregnancies. CPITN had a significant relationship with increasing of the gestational age.
Conclusion: There might be a relationship between increasing the month of pregnancy and more periodontal treatment needs. CPITN Increasing during pregnancy shows the importance of periodontal cares during this period.
Donya Farrokh, Parvaneh Layegh, Monavvar Afzalaghaee, Mohaddeseh Mohammadi, Yalda Fallah Rastegar,
Volume 13, Issue 5 (7-2015)

Background: Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of infertility in the developing countries, where hysterosalpingography (HSG) remains an initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of tubal and peritoneal factors leading to infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the HSG findings of genital TB in infertile women.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HSG findings in 20 women with genital tuberculosis. HSG was performed in these women as part of infertility work up over 5 years. The other diagnostic procedures used included endometrial curettage and biopsy, histological examination, culture, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy and polymerase chain reaction.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5±8 years. All women had clinical history of infertility for at least 4 years. Women presented with pelvic abdominal pain (30-35%) and menstrual disturbances (20-25%). Reviewing 20 cases of female genital TB were encountered various presentations on HSG.
Conclusion: HSG is an invaluable procedure in suggesting the diagnosis of genital TB in patients being investigated for infertility.
Shiva Shahsavari, Zahra NoorMohammadi, Shohreh Zare Karizi,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion is one of the diseases that can lead to physical, psychological, and, economical problems for both individuals and society. Recently a few numbers of genetic polymorphisms in kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene are examined that can endanger the life of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: The risk of KDR gene polymorphisms was investigated in Iranian women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Materials and Methods: A case controlled study was performed. One hundred idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients with at least two consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestational age with normal karyotypes were included in the study. Also, 100 healthy women with at least one natural pregnancy were studied as control group. Two functional SNPs located in KDR gene; rs1870377 (Q472H), and rs2305948 (V297I) as well as one tag SNP in the intron region (rs6838752) were genotyped by using PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Haplotype frequency was determined for these three SNPs’ genotypes. Analysis of genetic STRUCTURE and K means clustering were performed to study genetic variation. Results: Functional SNP (rs1870377) was highly linked to tag SNP (rs6838752) (D´ value=0. 214; χ2 = 16.44, p<0. 001). K means clustering showed that k = 8 as the best fit for the optimal number of genetic subgroups in our studied materials. This result was in agreement with Neighbor Joining cluster analysis. Conclusion: In our study, the allele and genotype frequencies were not associated with RSA between patient and control individuals. Inconsistent results in different populations with different allele frequencies among RSA patients and controls may be due to ethnic variation and used sample size.  
Nasrin KhanMohammadi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Manouchehr Safari, Hamid Reza Sameni, Behpour Yousefi, Behnaz Jafari, Sam Zarbakhsh,
Volume 14, Issue 10 (10-2016)

 L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant with the ability to promote the growth in vitro embryo.
Objective: The goal was to evaluate the effect of LC on some indicators of embryo development and blastocyst quality including zona pellucid (ZP) thickness, the hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers.
Materials and Methods: Mouse embryos were randomly divided into five groups and incubated with different concentrations of LC (I; 0, II; 0.5, III; 1, IV; 2 and V; 4 mg/ml) from 2-cell to hatched blastocyst. The percentage of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts was calculated. Blastocysts ZP thickness was measured and the number of blastocyst cells was counted using Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining.
Results: The results showed concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of LC had an antioxidant effect as in this group, the percentage of blastocysts and hatched blactocysts (p=0.01), the ZP thickness (p=0.00) and the number of blastocyst inner cell mass were significantly more favorable than the control group (p=0.03); and concentration of 4 mg/ml of LC had a toxic effect on embryo development and blastocyst quality (p=0.00).
Conclusion: The results suggest that LC may increase the number of blastocyst cells, which probably helps to expand the blastocyst and thinning of the ZP thickness and, therefore, creating a successful hatching for implantation
Sedigheh Ayati, Leila Pourali, Masoud Pezeshkirad, Farokh Seilanian Toosi, Sirous Nekooei, Mohammad Taghi Shakeri, Mansoureh Sadat GolMohammadi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Background: Placenta adhesive disorder (PAD) is one of the most common causes of postpartum hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy. The main risk factors are placenta previa and prior uterine surgery such as cesarean section. Diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorders can lead to a decrease of maternal mortality and morbidities.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of PADs.
Materials and Methods:In this is cross-sectional study, Eighty-two pregnant women who were high risk for PAD underwent color Doppler ultrasound and MRI after 18 weeks of gestation. The sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final pathologic or clinical findings. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Mean maternal age was 31.42±4.2 years. The average gravidity was third pregnancy. 46% of patients had placenta previa. The history of the previous cesarean section was seen in 79 cases (96%). The diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorder was found in 17 cases (21%). Doppler sonography sensitivity was 87% and MRI sensitivity was 76% (p=0.37). Doppler sonography specificity was 63% and MRI specificity was 83% (p=0.01).
Conclusion: Women with high-risk factors for PAD should undergo Doppler ultrasonography at first. When results on Doppler sonography are equivocal for PAD, MRI can be performed due to its high specificity.
Mahmoud Mohammadi, Touraj Farazmandfar, Majid Shahbazi,
Volume 15, Issue 9 (9-2017)

Background: Preeclampsia is a condition associated with systemic disorders in the mother and the fetus. However, the exact causes of preeclampsia are unknown, but several genetics and environmental factors play role in development of this disease. Major histocompatibility complex role is very important during pregnancy through which the fetus is not rejected by mother’s immune system.
Objective: In this study, we investigated the relationship of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1*0102/HLA-DQB1*0602 polymorphism with preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA of 181 pregnant women with a history of preeclampsia as the case group and 228 pregnant women with no history of preeclampsia as the controls were extracted. The HLA-DQA1*0102/HLA-DQB1*0602 polymorphisms of all DNA samples were identified by the SSP-PCR method. Frequencies difference of variables between case and control groups were calculated by Chi-square test. The ethnic origin of the participants in this study was extracted from their medical records.
Results: There was a significant association between preeclampsia and Sistani ethnic group (p=0.031). Moreover, there was a significant association between preeclampsia and frequencies of allele HLA-DQB1*0602 (p<0.001), and genotypes of heterozygote (+0102/-0602) (p<0.001) and negative homozygote (-0102/-0602) (p=0.005). There also was an association between allele HLA-DQB1*0602 and preeclampsia in Fars ethnic group (p=0.028).
Conclusion: It seems that immune incompatibility may have an important role in preeclampsia predisposition. According to our results, the lack of locus HLA-DQB1*0602 may be a risk factor for preeclampsia.
Zohreh Zare, Beheshteh Abouhamzeh, Reza Masteri Farahani, Mohammad Salehi, Moslem Mohammadi,
Volume 15, Issue 12 (12-2017)

Background: Oocyte developmental competence is one of the key factors for determining the success rate of assisted reproductive technique.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM), on preimplantation embryo development and expression of genes involved in embryo competence derived from oocytes selected with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test.
Materials and Methods: Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from NMRI mice ovaries. COCs were stained with BCB and then BCB+ (colored cytoplasm) oocytes cultured in IVM medium supplemented with 0.3 or 0.6 mg/ml LC. COCs untreated with LC were used as control. Fertilization rate and blastocyst development rate were determined after in vitro fertilization. In addition, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure relative genes expression related with development (Ccnb1, Mos, Ces5, and Dppa2) and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-xL) in oocytes and embryos.
Results: Oocytes treated with both LC concentrations showed higher blastocyst development rate compared with untreated oocytes (p<0.01). Moreover, fertilization rate was increased in oocytes treated with 0.6 mg/ml LC (p<0.01). Treatment of oocytes with both LC concentrations increased (p<0.01) the level of Ccnb1 mRNA in MII oocytes. The two-cell stage embryos and blastocysts derived from LC-treated oocytes (0.6 mg/ml) showed increased the expression levels of Dppa2 and Bcl-xl mRNA, respectively (p<0.01).
Conclusion: The results of the present study show that adding of LC to the IVM medium of BCB+ oocytes can ameliorate reproductive success following in vitro fertilization.

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