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Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Masood Hemadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Sodium arsenite and/ or vasectomy may cause variation in sex hormones which affect pathophysiology of reproductive organs.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the morphological changes in structure of testis and hormonal imbalance in bilateral Vasectomised rats treated with sodium arsenite.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats: bilateral vasectomy + sodium arsenite, bilateral vasectomy, sham operated + sodium arsenite and sham operated only were considered, and 8 mg/kg/ day of sodium arsenite was given for 8 weeks to the rats. The total volume of testis, volume of interstitial tissue, volume of seminiferous tubules, diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal epithelium thickness were evaluated using stereological methods. Hormones were also measured and the results were analyzed using one way ANOVA.
Results: A significant reduction of total volume of testis (p<0.01), mean volume of seminiferous tubules (p<0.002) as well as germinal epithelium thickness (p<0.05) in both vasectomy + sodium arsenite and vasectomy rats was seen compared to sham operated only. In addition a significant reduction of testosterone was observed in vasectomy + sodium arsenite group when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). LH level decreased significantly in vasectomy + sodium arsenite when compared to sham operated ones (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Vasectomy and treatment with sodium arsenite affect the structure of testis with respect to its volume, volume of seminiferous tubules and thickness of germinal epithelium, which may be due to variation of LH and testosterone level in the rats.
Reza Mahmoudi, Iraj Amiri, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Iraj Ragardi Kashani, Mehdi Abbasi, Farid Aboulhasani, Tooba Mehrannia, Aligholi Sobhani,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: Routine oocytes cryopreservation remained an elusive technique in the wide ranges of available assisted reproductive technologies. The microtubules of oocytes are vulnerable to cryoprotectants and thermal change during cryopreservation.
Objective: The effects of a vitrification protocol were investigated on the spindle and chromosome configurations of mice oocytes cryopreserved at the germinal vesicle stage.
Materials and Methods: Germinal vesicle with cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution which was composed of 30% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 18% Ficoll-70 and 0.3 M Sucrose either by single step or in step-wise way. Following vitrification and in vitro maturation (MII), the matured oocytes were immonostained for meiotic spindles and chromosomes, before visualization using fluorescent microscopy.
Results: A statistically significant increase was observed in the survival and maturation rate in step-wise vitrification (88.96% and 71.23% respectively) compared to single step vitrification (70.6% and 62.42% respectively) (p<0.05). Normal spindle morphology after vitrification-thawing in step-wise vitrification group (77.26%) was higher than single step vitrification group (64.24%) but lower than control group (94.75%) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results suggest that vitrification with step-wise procedure on mice germinal vesicle oocytes has positive effects on survival and maturation rate and normal spindle configuration compare with single step vitrification procedure.
Hamid Reza Momeni, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Mohammad Hosien Abnosi, Monireh Mahmoodi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (7-2009)

Background: para-nonylphenol (p-NP) is able to induce malformations in male reproductive system.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the preventing role of vitamin E (Vit.E) on sperm parameters and reproductive hormones in developing rats.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: control p-NP Vit.E and p-NP+Vit.E. Treatments were performed on day 7 of gestation and continued during weaning. The male pups were then divided into the same groups as the mothers and were treated till 90 days of age. Finally body and left testis weight were recorded and left epididymis was cut in Ham’s F10. Released sperm were used to analyze number motility and viability of the sperm. Blood serum was used to assess follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) estrogen and testosterone.
Results: In p-NP-treated rats a significant decrease was found in body and testis weight sperm number and sperm motility compared to control and p-NP+Vit.E groups. A significant increase was also found in sperm viability in Vit.E group (83.3±7.6) compared to both p-NP (59.5±7.5) and control (66.3±9.7) groups. Rats treated with p-NP showed a significant decrease in FSH level and a significant increase in estrogen level. However testosterone and LH level remained constant. In p-NP+Vit.E group the change of estrogen level but not FSH was significantly reversed compared to p-NP group. Conclusion: Vit.E not only is able to compensate the toxic effects of p-NP on testis weight sperm number sperm motility and estrogen level but also increases sperm viability in developing rat.
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Ali Noorafshan, Ahmad Hamta, Hamid Reza Momeni, Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Monireh Mahmoodi, Morteza Anvari, Maryam Hazaveh,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) is one of the environmental pollutants which cause reproductive system disorders.
Objective: The effects of vitamin E on ovary structure during its development in rats treated with p-NP.
Materials and Methods: 32 Wistar female rats after mating were divided into 4 groups; control vitamin E (100mg/kg/day) p-NP (250mg/kg/day) and p-NP + vitamin E. The rats were treated from the day 7 of pregnancy till 21st day of postnatal through sucking period. After weaning the female pups were treated by gavages for 120 days. The total volume of ovary number of follicles volume of oocyte follicular cells and their nuclei and the thickness of zona pellucida were estimated stereologically. The results were analyzed using one way ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The ovary weight, mean total volume of ovary and cortex, number of antral and graafian follicles and body weight were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in the p-NP treated rats compared to control and other groups, while the number of atretic follicles was increased significantly (p<0.05). A significant reduction (p<0.05) in volume of oocyte, follicular cells and their nuclei in antral and graafian follicles was found in p-NP group. In addition, treatment with only vitamin E showed an improving effect on folliculogenesis due to a highly significant increase (p<0.01) in the number of primordial follicles.
Conclusion: Vitamin E could compensate the adverse effects of p-NP on the ovary structure during its development.
Sedigheh Amooee, Alamtaj Samsami, Jamileh Jahanbakhsh, Mehran Karimi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

Background: β-thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in Iran and more than 2 million carriers of the β-thalassemia mutant gene are living in this country.
Objective: To determine pregnancy outcome of women with β-thalassemia minor.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study in two universities affiliated hospitals in Shiraz, all pregnancies occurred between 2006 and 2008 were included. Patients were divided in two groups regarding the presence of β-thalassemia minor. Patients in case and control groups were matched according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous pregnancies. Cesarean delivery, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor were recorded in each group and were compared using the χ2 or Fisher exact tests. 
Results: Overall 510 β-thalassemia minor subjects and 512 healthy controls were studied. Cases with β-thalassemia minor had significantly higher prevalence of oligohydramnios (p<0.001) and cesarean section delivery (p=0.001). There was no significant difference regarding Apgar score in 1st (p=0.65) and 5th minute (p=0.25), IUGR (p=0.073), gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.443) and preeclampsia (p=0.116) between two study groups.    
Conclusion: β-thalassemia minor does not significantly influence the pregnancy outcome in the negative way.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Ahmad Ali Moazedi, Adel Zardkaf,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in both developing and adult animals.
Objective: This study was designed to assess long-term effects of maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) on reproductive ability of both neonatal and adult male offspring.
Materials and Methods: 60 female rats randomly divided in four equal groups; vehicle control and three treatment groups that received 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP via gavage during gestation and lactation. At different ages after birth, the volumes of testes were measured by Cavellieri method, testes weights recorded and epididymal sperm samples were assessed for number and gross morphology of spermatozoa. Following tissue processing, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height evaluated with morphometric techniques.
Results: Mean testis weight decreased significantly (p<0.05) in 500 mg/kg/day dose group from 28 to 150 days after birth. Significant decreases were seen in total volumes of testis in 100 (p<0.05) and 500 (p<0.01) mg/kg/day doses groups until 150 days after birth. Seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height decreased significantly in 100 (p<0.05) and 500 (p<0.01) mg/kg/day doses groups during postnatal development. Also, mean sperm density in 100 mg/kg/day (p<0.05) and 500 mg/kg/day (p<0.01) doses groups and percent of morphologically normal sperm in highest dose group (p<0.05) decreased significantly until 150 days after birth.
Conclusion: Present study showed that maternal exposure to Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate during gestation and lactation caused to permanent and dose-related reductions of sperm and testicular parameters in rats offspring.
Elham Aliabadi, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani , Zahra Borzoei, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Hossein Mirkhani, Hamed Tabesh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE) have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality.
Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC) and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC), which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF), which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures.
Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Ham' F10 (control) or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF), then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference.
Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC.
Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Rezvan Taefi,
Volume 10, Issue 6 (4-2012)

Background: Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant, protecting cells against oxidative stress.
Objective: In this investigation the protective effect of vitamin E on the testis during development and spermatogenesis in rats exposed to sodium arsenite was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=8) control, sodium arsenite (8 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite+vitamin E (100 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E. Treatment was carried out from day seven of pregnancy till 90 days. Finally the right testis was stereologically studied. The obtained data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey's test and the means difference was considered significant at p<0.05.
Results: The weight and volume of testis, volume of seminiferous tubules and its diameter, volume of interstitial tissue, height of germinal epithelium and the total number of types A and B spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sertoli cells reduced significantly in sodium arsenite group compared to the control. Co-administration of vitamin E and sodium arsenite compensated the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the above parameters.
Conclusion: We concluded co-treatment of rats with sodium arsenite and vitamin E could prevent the adverse effects of sodium arsenite exposure on the testicular tissue during the prenatal stage till sex maturity.
Somayeh Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani-Tehrani, Masumeh Simbar, Mehrandokht Abedini, Majid Bahrainian, Roya Gholami,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Menopause and its physical, hormonal and psychosocial changes could affect women’s sexual function. There are controversial results regarding relationship between sexual attitudes and function.
Objective: We aimed to evaluate sexual attitudes and sexual function among Iranian menopausal age women.
Materials and Methods: This population based cross-sectional study was carried out on 225 menopausal women, aged 45-65 years. Based on a self-made questionnaire data were collected about women’s socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. Data were analyzed using SPSS and sexual function was compared between three groups of women who had positive, medium and negative attitudes regarding sexuality.
Results: The mean age of women was 53.11±4.56 years. Seventy percent of them had at least one sexual problem. Feeling of dyspareunia was significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality (p=0.03). Comparing data obtained on their attitudes, sexual desire, orgasm and dyspareunia demonstrated significant differences (p=0.03, 0.04, and 0.04 respectively).
Conclusion: Attitude regarding sexual function has a great impact on sexual activity of postmenopausal women that need to be considered in their health care programming.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Seyyed Mansoor Seyyednejad, Lotfollah Khajehpour, Ayoob Jabari,
Volume 11, Issue 11 (12-2013)

Background: There is growing concern that occupational, environmental and lifestyle factors adversely affect male reproductive health. Fumaria parviflora Lam. is being used traditionally in Persian folk medicine to cure various ailments and has been supposed to have fertility-enhancing properties.
Objective: A dose-response study was designed to assess effects of F. parviflora ethanolic leaves extract on reproductive parameters in adult male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, healthy adult male rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of F. parviflora leaves extract via gavage for 70 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of testosterone, LH and FSH serum levels. Reproductive organs weight, motility, morphology and density of epididymal sperm, seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height were evaluated in each experimental group. Results: The body weight was not affected, while the weights of testis and epididymis were significantly enhanced in rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg/day F. parviflora extract. No significant changes were observed in seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weight between experiment groups. Significant increase was found in epididymal sperm density and percent of morphologically normal sperm in extract-treated rats. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher in rats received 200 and 400 mg/kg/day.
Conclusion: The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves have a potential to improve reproductive parameters and enhance male fertility.
Shabnam Mohammadi, Mehdi Jalali, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh, Alireza Fazel, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh, Mehran Gholamin, Mojtaba Sankian,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: CatSper genes are a novel family of four sperm-specific calcium channels, which indicate testis-specific expression patterns. Despite the crucial role of CatSper genes in the male reproduction, very little is known about the factors that regulate their expression.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E treatment on the expression of CatSper 1 and CatSper 2 genes as well as sperm quality in the aged male mice.
Materials and Methods: Twenty four 11-12 months old aged male mice and twenty four 2-3-months old young male mice were randomly divided into four groups. Control groups received no injection. The experimental groups of male mice were received intraperitoneal injection of 106 mg/kg vitamin E daily for 35 days. Left testis and cauda epididymides from each mouse were collected on the days 21, 28 and 35 following vitamin E treatment and were used for Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Also, sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines given for human sperm examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: Administration of vitamin E improved sperm parameters in the aged as well as young adult male mice. In addition, the expression of CatSper genes increased following vitamin E treatment. Also, intensity of signal for CatSper1 and CatSper2 increased in the head and middle piece of sperm in experimental group as compared to those of control ones.
Conclusion: The vitamin E treatment significantly improved the sperm quality, especially in terms of sperm motility, count and morphology rate. Furthermore, CatSper genes expression could be up-regulated by the vitamin E treatment.
Maryam Hosseinzadeh Shirzeily, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Fardin Amidi, Kobra Mehrannia, Aligholi Sobhani ,
Volume 11, Issue 12 (1-2013)

Background: Recent publications about differentiation of stem cells to germ cells have motivated researchers to make new approaches to infertility. In vitro production of germ cells improves understanding differentiation process of male and female germ cells. Due to the problem of using embryonic stem cells (ESC), it’s necessary the mentioned cells be replaced with some adult multi-potent stem cells in laboratories.
Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain germ cells from appropriate source beyond ESC and compare differential potentials of adipocytes derived stem cells (ADMSCs) with bone marrow derived stem cells (BMMSCs).
Materials and Methods: To find multi-potential entity, after providing purified ADMSCs and BMMSCs, differentiation to osteoblast and adipocyte was confirmed by using appropriate culture medium. To confirm mesenchymal lineage production superficial markers (expression of CD90 and CD44 and non-expression of CD45 and CD31) were investigated by flowcytometry. Then the cells were differentiated to germ cells in inductive medium containing retinoic acid for 7days. To evaluate germ cells characteristic markers [Dazl (Deleted in azoospermia-like), Mvh (Mouse vasa homolog gene), Stra8 (Stimulated by retinoic acid) and Scp3 (Synaptonemal complex protein 3)] flowcytometry, imunoflorescence and real time PCR were used.
Results: Both types of cells were able to differentiate into osteoblast and adipocyte cells and presentation of stem cell superficial markers (CD90, CD44) and absence of endothelial and blood cell markers (CD31, CD45) were confirmative The flowcytometry, imunoflorescence and real time PCR results showed remarkable expression of germ cells characteristic markers (Mvh, Dazl, Stra8, and Scp3).
Conclusion: It was found that although ADMSCs were attained easier and also cultured and differentiated rapidly, germ cell markers were expressed in BMMSCs significantly more than ADMSCs.
Hoda Ahmari Tehran, Shohreh Tashi, Nahid Mehran, Narges Eskandari, Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)

Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers.
Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi’s seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done.
Results: The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy).
Conclusion: Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy.
Marzieh Rostami Dovom, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mehrandokht Abedini, Golshan Amirshekari, Somayeh Hashemi, Mahsa Noroozzadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 8 (8-2014)

Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women.
Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran.
Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”.
Results: The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing.
Hamed Karami Shabankareh, Golshan Azimi, Mehran Torki,
Volume 12, Issue 11 (12-2014)

Background: Many studies reported that follicle size has an essential role in developmental potential of oocytes. Also, the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test is one of the most important criteria in selection of more competent oocytes.
Objective: Selection of developmentally competent bovine oocytes.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1730 bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from the ovaries by follicles isolation and classified into 3 categories according to the diameters of the follicles (small, <3 mm; medium 3-6 mm and large >6 mm). Oocytes were exposed to the BCB stain, diluted in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline, modified with 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 90 min. Oocytes with or without blue coloration of the cytoplasm were designated as BCB+ and BCB-, respectively.
Results: The BCB+ and control oocytes originated from large and medium follicles exhibited a higher (p<0.0001) cleavage and blastocyst rate than BCB- oocytes. Furthermore, the BCB+ oocytes from large and medium follicles had the highest (p<0.0001) proportion of blastocyst than other treatment groups. In contrast, the BCB- oocytes from small follicles had the lowest (p<0.0001) proportion of blastocyst than other treatment groups. Interestingly, the percentage of the BCB+ oocytes from the large and medium ovarian follicles was significantly higher (p<0.0001), than the BCB+ oocytes from the small follicles.
Conclusion: Current results confirmed that each BCB+ oocyte could not lead to perfect embryo development and the BCB test is not sufficient enough for the identification of oocytes that are competent for in vitro embryo development.
Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Tayebeh Mansoori,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (6-2016)

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant, can generate free radicals which damages the reproductive system. Vitamin C is an antioxidant which may prevent the adverse effects of free radicals.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the effect of vitamin C on the ovary tissue in rats treated with BPA.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 female Wistar rats (200±20 gr) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6): control, BPA (60 μg/Kg/day), vitamin C (150 mg/Kg/day) and BPA + vitamin C and orally treated for 20 days. The left ovaries were taken out, fixed for tissue processing and studied using stereological methods. Data were analyzed with SPSS using one-way ANOVA, and the means were considered significantly different at (p<0.05).
Results: The total volume of ovary and cortex (p<0.01), medulla (p<0.05), the volume of corpus luteum (p<0.001) and the mean number of antral follicles (p<0.001) significantly reduced in BPA group compared with control, while the number of atretic follicles increased (p<0.05). The volume of oocyte (p<0.01) and its nucleus (p<0.001) in the antral follicles and the thickness of zona pellucida (ZP) in the secondary (p<0.05) and antral (p<0.001) follicles significantly decreased in BPA group compared with controls. The above parameters in the BPA + vitamin C group were compensated to control level.
Conclusion: Vitamin C can be used as a potential antioxidant in the case of BPA toxication.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Hamid-O-Allah Ghaffari, Nahid Shahbazian, Maryam Mirani,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)

Background: Endometrial receptivity plays a key role in the establishment of successful implantation and its impairment may contribute to subfertility and limit the assisted reproduction techniques (ART) success.
Objective: The aim of present study was to investigate endometrial receptivity in terms of β3 integrin, calcitonin and plexin-B1 expression in women with unexplained infertility.
Materials and Methods: We evaluated expression of β3 integrin, calcitonin and plexin-B1 through mRNA level measurement with real-time RT-PCR, in the endometrium of 16 infertile patients with unexplained infertility and 10 fertile women. Endometrial biopsies were collected during a single menstrual cycle on postovulatory day LH+7 in each subject.
Results: Significant differences regarding β3 integrin and calcitonin expression levels found between patients with unexplained infertility and the fertile women. Endometrial plexin-B1 expression levels showed no significant difference between fertile and infertile women. There were significant correlations between expression of β3 integrin with calcitonin and plexin-B1 in fertile and infertile women.
Conclusion: Reduced in endometrial expression of β3 integrin and calcitonin alone or together may contribute to unexplained infertility and these genes could account as the potential molecular markers of infertility
Zahra Kalhori, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani, Mehri Azadbakht, Mohammad Ali Shariaatzadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (April 2018)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder featured by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Testosterone enanthate can induce PCOS in mice models.
Objective: We investigated the ovary stereological features along with the oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in mice following PCOS induction using testosterone enanthate.
Materials and Methods: Twelve female NMRI mice (3 wk old) were divided into 2 groups (n=6/each): Control and PCOS. PCOS was induced through daily injections of testosterone enanthate (1 mg/100g subcutaneous s.c for 5 wk). Finally, ovaries were studied stereologically. The serum levels of the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured using ELISA kit. Serum levels of Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant capacity were measured relatively using thiobarbituric acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay.
Results: The mean total volume of ovary and the mean volume of cortex (p<0.001), volume of oocyte in the preantral (p=0.011) and antral follicle (p=0.015), thickness of zona pellucida (p=0.016), the number of antral follicles (p=0.012), the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (p<0.001) and the antioxidant capacity (p=0.020) reduced significantly in the PCOS group compared to the control. The number of primary (p=0.017) and preantral (p=0.006) follicles and the serum levels of testosterone (p<0.001), Luteinizing hormone (p=0.002), Malondialdehyde, Interleukin 6 and Tumor necrosis factor-α (p<0.001) showed a significant increase in the PCOS group compared to the control.
Conclusion: Testosterone enanthate induced PCOS causes stereological features in the ovary, increases the oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in mice.
Mehrangiz Zangeneh, Maryam Sedaghat Jou, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Mahin Jamshidi Makiani, Shaghayegh Sadeghinia, Reza Salman Yazdi,
Volume 16, Issue 9 (September 2018)

Background: The role of the screening protocol for viral hepatitis and human immuunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among infertile couples were seldom investigated.
Objective: The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infections among infertile couples referring to infertility clinic of Royan Institute.
Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 21673 infertile couples referring to infertility clinic of Royan Institute between 2009 and 2014. Serological findings for viral hepatitis B, C and HIV infection were gathered herewith demographic data of the study participants through the study checklist. Ultimately, 302 couples who had at least one positive result in their serological tests were included in the statistical analysis. Results: The HBV and HCV infections prevalence among study participants were 0.57% and 0.148% respectively; only two cases had HIV infection. HBV and HCV infections prevalence had significant association with the gender of participants, but there was no significant relationship between these infections and infertility types.
Conclusion: Viral hepatitis infections screening among infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques needs more attention.
Mehran Dorostghoal, Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad, Marzieh Noroozi Tabrizi Nejad,
Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2019 2019)

Background: During recent years, increasing concern has been raised about the declining sperm count and human male infertility. Cichorium intybus L. (C. intybus) has traditionally been used in Iranian folk medicine as hepato protective and blood purifier and for its presumed fertility-enhancing properties.
Objective: A dose-response study was performed to determine the effect of C. intybus ethanolic leave extract on the reproductive parameters in adult Wistar male rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 healthy adult male Wistar rats (8 wk old, 200-210 gr body weight) were randomly divided (n=10/each) as control and groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of C. intybus extract via gavage for 70 days. Serum hormonal assay, epididymal sperm evaluation, and analysis of morphometrical parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation levels of testis were done in each experimental group.
Results: Weights of testis and epididymis increase significantly in male rats treated with 200 mg/kg C. intybus extract. Sperm density and percent of morphologically normal sperm were significantly increased in a dose-related manner with C. intybus treatment.Serum testosterone was higher at 100 and 200 mg/kg C. intybus extracttreated groups. C. intybus significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and also increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in testicular tissue of rats.
Conclusion: It is concluded that C. intybus leave extract improves reproductive parameters in male rats which might be a consequence of both its antioxidant and androgenic properties.

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