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Showing 25 results for Khani

Behrouz IlKhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)

Background: Leydig cell tumor is a rare form of testicular neoplasm which comprises 1-3% of all testicular tumors and only about 3% of these tumors are bilateral. A few Leydig all tumor have been described in patients with klinefelter�s syndrome so far. Case: The patient described in this case report was a 24 year-old man with chief complaint of infertility for one year. Physical examination, semen analysis, testes sonography and hormonal assay were done for him. Right side simple orchiectomy was performed for patient. Conclusion: This tumor is always benign in children and approximately 90% are benign in adults. Clinical presentation is testicular enlargement, gynecomastia, sexual activity disturbances such as decreased libido, infertility and azoospermia. We recommend complete exam and karyotype in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Behrouz IlKhanizadeh, Mohammad Taghizadieh, Mehrzad Mahzad-Sadaghiani, Farahnaz Noroozinia, Bahman Jahandideh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: Over recent decades a possible decrease in sperm quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported in many populations. Some recent findings, as cohort studies, showed an increased risk of testicular cancer in men with abnormal semen analysis.
Case: A 30 years old man referred to our clinic with chief compliant of infertility for 3 years. Spermogram revealed azoospermia and right extratesticular intrascrotal mass was detected by ultrasound examination. Right inguinal surgical approach showed intact small sized atrophic right testis and an intrascrotal mass. In microscopic examination of the mass mixed germ cell tumor with teratoma, yolk sac and embryonal components were reported.
Conclusion: Extragonadal germ cell tumors, like their testicular counterparts are associated with primary germ cell defects. The higher incidence of antecedent infertility suggests that either congenital or acquired primary germ cell defect contributes to defective spermatogenesis and therefore, there is higher risk of cancer development in incompletely migrated germ cells. We recommend complete evaluation of cancer in patients with infertility and azoospermia.
Maryam –sadat Hosseini, Parviz GharehKhani, Maryam Sadeghi,
Volume 5, Issue 5 (7-2007)

Background: Severe preeclampsia is a quite well-known entity with high incidence of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although little is known about its etiology, inherited disorders of hemostasis and antiphospholipid syndrome have been postulated as common causes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of these two entities with preeclampsia in a group of Iranian patients.
Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed on 26 parturients with severe preeclampsia and 26 healthy pregnant women who were matched according to the age, parity, gestational age and previous history of abortion. A 10cc blood sample was obtained and the following factors were measured: factor V Leiden, protein S, protein C, antithrombin III, anticardiolipin antibodies (IgM and IgG) and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant antibody.
Results: We have not found any significant difference in the values of factor V Leiden, antithrombin III, protein C, protein S, and anticardiolipin-IgG between preeclamptic (case) and non-preeclamptic (control) parturients. Meanwhile, lupus anticoagulant antibody was detected in one case and one control. However, anticardiolipin IgM was shown to be significantly higher in the preeclamptic patients. Severe preeclamptic parturients were 4.4 times more likely to develop elevated levels of IgM (OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10, p<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results failed to reveal any significant association between preeclampsia and indices of inherited disorders of hemostasis, except for anticardiolipin IgM. Thus, routine screening of these indices are not recommended due to high expenses and shortness of reliability. 
Ferdous Mehrabian, Behnaz Khani Robati,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (7-2010)

Background: Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity which poses unique management challenges.
Case: A 24-year-old Gravida 1 woman with history of two years infertility and treatment with clomiphene citrate presented with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Heterotopic abdominal pregnancy was recognized at 16 weeks gestation by transvaginal ultrasound scan. We aimed to remove ectopic pregnancy with prevention of maternal complications and preservation of intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). Surgical removal of the ectopic fetus and placenta was done. Abdominal pregnancy removed successfully without intra- or post-procedural complications but the IUP was aborted spontaneously on the second postoperative day.
Conclusion: Gynecologists should consider the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy following ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate which is increasing in recent years. A high index of suspicion to heterotopic pregnancy may be followed by a nonsurgical approach safely and affectively if they are clinically stable and the abdominal pregnancy is recognized early in gestation.
Bijan RezaKhaniha, Soheila Sirosbakht,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction compliant in about 35-40% of men younger than 40 years; therefore a study for survey and diagnosis of this disorder is very important.
Objective: In this study the efficacy of 2 drugs (fluoxetine and citalopram) for treatment of patients suffering from PE is compared. We studied the effectiveness of both drugs in PE with different protocols to find out the most effective drug with least side effects.
Materials and Methods: In total 77 patients referred to the Urology Clinic of Emam Reza Hospital Tehran from 2006 to 2008 for the treatment of PE including 25 patients with anxiety disorder were randomly divided into 2 study groups. Patients belonging to first group (N= 43) received 40 mg (2 capsules of 20 mg) fluoxetine daily for 4 weeks and patients of the group II (N=34) received 40 mg citalopram daily for 4 weeks.
Results: The mean Intra Vaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IVELT) before treatment in patients of group I was 58.26±41.83 seconds while after treatment it raised to 466.2±10.85 seconds. In group II the mean IVELT before treatment was 51.76±34.39 seconds while after treatment it elevated to 403.8±7.58 seconds.
Conclusion: Difference was significant in mean IVELT before and after treatment with fluoxetine and citalopram (each drug separately). In this study both drugs improved ejaculation duration while difference between 2 drugs was not significant (p>0.05)
Behnaz Khani, Nahid Bahrami, Ferdous Mehrabian, Hormoz Naderi Naeni,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (7-2011)

Background: Adhesion is a common complication of gynecology surgery so different barrier agents and solutions have been used during these operations to separate and protect tissues from adhesion after surgery. Adept is one of these solutions that have been postulated to reduce the chance of adhesion following gynecolgy surgery.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of 4% icodextrin in reducing adhesion formation in comparing with sterile water and human amniotic fluid in rabbits. Materials and Methods: In this prospective experimental study 30 white Newzealand female rabbits were selected and randomized in to three treatment groups. The rabbits were anesthetized and an abdominal incison was made, uterine horns were abrated with gauze until bleeding occurred. Before closing the abdomen, the traumatized area was irrigated either by 30cc of sterile water, 30cc of 4% Adept or 30cc of human amniotic fluid. The solutions were labeled only as solutions A (steriel water), B (icodextrin), or C (human amniotic fluid). On the seventh day after surgery, second laparotomy was performed to determine and compare adhesion formation in rabbits.
Results: There was significant difference between mean score of adhesions in 4% icodextrin group (2.1±0.70) in comparison to sterile water group (10.4±0.60) and amniotic fluid group (8.7±0.84). But the difference between mean score of adhesions in amniotic fluid group in comparison to sterile water group was not significant (8.7±0.84) versus (10.4±0.60).
Conclusion: The use of 4% icodextrin solution was more effective than human amniotic fluid and sterile water in reducing adhesion formation in a gynecological surgery model in rabbits
Elham Aliabadi, Malek Soleimani Mehranjani , Zahra Borzoei, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Hossein MirKhani, Hamed Tabesh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Sperm cells extracted from testes (TESE) have poor chromatin quality and motility. Various substances are used in the laboratory to increase sperm motility and improve the ART outcomes; however, there are few research which considered improving both sperm motility and chromatin quality.
Objective: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the improvement of the testicular sperm motility and chromatin quality exposed to L-carnitine (LC) and L-acetyl-carnitine (LAC), which are normally concentrated in testis and epididymis, compared with Pentoxifylline (PF), which used for sperm motility enhancement in IVF procedures.
Materials and Methods: TESE samples from 30 male mice divided into four parts. The sperm samples were added to Hamchr('39') F10 (control) or the media contained 1.76mM of LC, LAC or PF), then, the samples were kept in the room temperature for 30, 90 and 180 min. At each time step, sperm motility and chromatin quality were assessed. Chromatin quality was evaluated by chromomycin A3 and aniline blue. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p-value less than 0.05 were accepted as a statistically significant difference.
Results: The results showed LC, LAC and PF significantly increased the sperm motility. However, sperm chromatin quality only improved significantly by administration of LC and LAC.
Conclusion: Administration of LC and LAC to the testicular sperm samples can lead to improve both sperm motility and chromatin quality. It may be because they can mimic in vivo sperm condition during late spermatogenesis.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, Parisa Khani, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 µmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37°C in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them. 114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore. 37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage. 6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.
Farnaz Sohrabvand, Shahrzad Sheikhhassani, Maryam Bagheri, Fedyeh Haghollahi, Maryam ShabihKhani, Mamak Shariat, Manijeh Nasr Esfahani,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory disorders and infertility with high LH to FSH ratio. In order to prevent further increase of LH and follicle atresia, different regimens for ovulation induction have been recommended using FSH alone.  
Objective: This study was performed in PCOS patients to compare ART outcomes in cycles induced by FSH alone, using either recombinant or urinary products.  
Materials and Methods: In a randomized trial, from 623 patients who underwent down regulation with GnRH analogue in a long protocol, 160 PCOS patients were randomly divided into two groups of 80. Group A received 150 IU/d recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) and group B 150 IU/d urinary FSH (Fostimon).
Results: 33 cases (41.2%) in group A and 36 (45%) in group B achieved clinical pregnancy, which was not significantly different (p=0.67). Total number of oocytes retrieved (13.03±5.56 vs. 14.17±4.89, p=0.17), quality and number of embryos (7.42±3.35 vs. 7.63±3.28, p=0.68) and OHSS rate were similar in group A compared to group B. Endometrial thickness which was 9.66±1.67 mm in group A and 10.36±1.35 mm in group B, showed a significant difference (p=0.004).
Conclusion: It seems that in PCOS patients, both pure FSH products used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation have similar effects on ART outcome and can be used according to availability and patient acceptance without significant difference.
Maryam Asgharnia, Roya Faraji, Nooshaz Mirhaghjoo, Zahra Atrkar Roshan, Babak AshrafKhani, Mina Moslehi,
Volume 11, Issue 8 (11-2013)

Background: Measuring the 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg is the standard threshold value for diagnosis of preeclampsia.
Objective: This study was intended to determine if a patient’s 4-hour urine protein correlate with the 24-hour value for diagnosis of preeclampsia.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study performed on 84 women with suspected preeclampsia due to positive urinary test strip with minimum protein content of 1+ and BP ≥140/90 at Al-zahra Educational Hospital in Rasht (Iran) from May 2007 to January 2008. Urine samples were collected within 24 hours in successive periods: The first 4-hour and the next 20-hours urine, in separate containers. The protein contents of 4-hour and 24-hour urine samples were calculated. Data were analyzed by intra-class correlation coefficient, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results: The ROC curve showed the cut-off point of 55.5 for 4-hour urine protein. The correlation between 4- and 24-hour urine protein excretions identified that most women (about 85.1%) with protein excretion rate of 300 mg/24h or more (with preeclampsia) had the same amount of protein of 55.5 or more in their 4-hour urine excretion (p<0.001). Also, most of them (about 83.7%) with a total urinary protein excretion of less than 300 mg/24h (no preeclampsia) had a protein excretion rate of less than 55.5 mg/4h.
Conclusion: This study showed 4-hour protein collection can be used as acceptable substitute for assessing the protein content of 24-hour urine samples as a more convenient, faster, and cheaper method for diagnosis of preeclampsia and the cut-off point for 4-hour urine protein is 55.5 mg.
Maryam Asgharnia, Roya Faraji, Fatemeh Salamat, Babak AshrafKhani, Seyedeh Fatemeh Dalil Heirati, Samira Naimian,
Volume 11, Issue 9 (12-2013)

Background: Amniotic fluid is an indicator of placental function on the fetal development. The amniotic fluid index is the most commonly used method of measuring amniotic fluid.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of a borderline versus normal AFI.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 235 pregnant women referred to Alzahra Medical Center between 2009-2011. Women with a singleton pregnancy in third trimester were enrolled into this study; of these subjects, 141 cases were in normal AFI group and 94 cases in borderline AFI group. Adequate information was obtained from the patientschr('39') medical record and the groups were compared on maternal and fetal complications. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS.
Results: The mean maternal age in borderline AFI group was 25.96±5.92 years and in normal AFI group was 27.88±6.5 years (p=0.023). Maternal outcomes such as preterm delivery and labor induction in women with borderline AFI were considerably higher than those in normal group (p=0.01 and p=0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of high blood pressure, preeclampsia, diabetes and neonatal respiratory distress. The borderline AFI group had higher rate of neonatal complications such as Apgar score of less than 7 (p=0.004), IUGR (0.0001), LBW (0.001), and crucial need to NICU (0.003).
Conclusion: Findings indicated that there are statistical differences between adverse outcomes in borderline AFI group and normal group.
Maryam Asgharnia, Fariba Mirblouk, Fatemeh Salamat, Babak AshrafKhani, Zahra Dirbaz,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes.
Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test.
Materials and Methods:  A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group.
Results:  The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively.
Conclusion:  According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used.
Vahideh Shahnazi, Mina Zaree, Mohammad Nouri, Mahzad Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Shabnam Fayezi, Maryam Darabi, Sajjad Khani, Masoud Darabi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (2-2015)

Background: The omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement to improve infertility, particularly in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).
Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression in primary cultured granulosa cells from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare this effect with those in granulosa cells of PCOS patients.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human granulosa cells were isolated from follicular fluid of normal and PCOS women undergoing IVF by hyaluronidase digestions, followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Cells were cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA (25-100 μM) for 24 hr, and investigated with respect to COX-2 and IGF-1 gene expression by real time-PCR.
Results: In both groups, all doses of the EPA significantly induced IGF-1 mRNAgene expression compared to the untreated control. High doses of EPA in thepresence of recombinant (r) FSH produced a stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and asuppressive effect (p=0.01) on the COX-2 gene expression, which were morepronounced in granulosa cells from PCOS patients.
Conclusion: EPA affect diversely the gene expression of IGF-1 and COX-2 in granulosa cells, which were more pronounced in PCOS compared to control. These findings represent the possible underlying molecular mechanisms for the positive impact of the ω-3 fatty acids on reproduction, especially in patients with PCOS.
Katayon Vakilian, Mehdi Ranjbaran, Mahboobeh Khorsandi, Naser SharafKhani, Mahmoud Khodadost,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Objective Background: Preterm labor, which defines as live-birth delivery before 37 weeks of gestation is a main determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality around the world. : The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of preterm labor in Iran by a meta-analysis study, to be as a final measure for policy makers in this field. Materials and Methods: In this meta-analysis, the databases of Thomson database (Web of Knowledge), PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iranmedex, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, and Medlib were searched for articles in English and Persian language published between 1995 and 2014. Among the studies with regard to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 studies (out of 1370 publications) were selected. Data were analyzed by using Stata software version 11. The heterogeneity of reported prevalence among studies was evaluated by the Chi-square based Q test and I2 statistics. Results: The results of Chi-square based on Q test and I2 statistics revealed severe heterogeneity (Q=2505.12, p-value < 0.001 and I2= 99.5%) and consequently, the random effect model was used for the meta-analysis. Based on the random effect model, the overall estimated prevalence of preterm in Iran was 9.2% (95% CI: 7.6 – 10.7). Conclusion: Present study summarized the results of previous studies and provided a comprehensive view about the preterm delivery in Iran. In order to achieve a more desirable level and its reduction in the coming years, identifying affecting factor and interventional and preventive actions seem necessary.
Seyed Kazem Kazemeini, Majid Emtiazy, Fatemeh Owlia, Parisa Khani,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Infertility is one of the most important reproductive health concerns in the conventional medicine. Iranian traditional medicine presents different viewpoints in this regard which they could be of benefit and a good guide for the society of medicine. This study sought to provide the comprehensive investigation on the causes of infertility according to Iranian traditional medicine for understanding of old sageschr('39') ideas and categorizing of the causes of infertility. In this narrative review, we searched causes of infertility in traditional medicine books and available articles in this field. Iranian traditional physicians have investigated the causes of infertility in couples and attributed them to male and female causes. They have divided the main causes of infertility in both sexes into structural and functional abnormalities, that both traditional medicine and conventional medicine have a lot of participations, but the traditional medicine believes holistic approach in the treatment of diseases and the involvement of all parts of the body particularly specialty board members (heart, liver, brain, ovary, and testicles) in the proper conduct activities in different parts of the body such as reproduction system. There is also special attention to temperament Mizaj disorders. Given the numerous commonalities existing between traditional and conventional medicine in categorizing the causes of infertility, Iranian traditional medicine methods can be applied as a complementary solution in infertility. It could be also subject to further research and investigation due to its opposition to modern medicine in some regards.
Fakhroddin Mesbah, Hossein Bordbar, Tahereh Talaei Khozani, Farzaneh Dehghani, Hossein MirKhani,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (March 2018)

Background: The follicular growth and development may be affected by abused drugs. Nandrolone decanoate (ND) as an anabolic androgenic steroid can damage the morphological and functional features of the ovary and may lead to reproductive failure.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of synchronized and non-synchronized administration of Human Menopausal Gonadotropins (hMG) with ND on ovarian tissue and level of sex hormones in the adult female rat.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. The five experimental groups received 3 and/or 10 mg/kg of ND synchronized and non-synchronized with 10 IU of hMG and hMG alone. The two shams and control groups received solvents of ND and hMG. The animalschr('39') serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, progesterone and estrogen and the weight, volume and dimensions of the ovaries were measured. The ovaries were prepared for apoptosis assessment and morphological study.
Results: The ovarian volume and sex hormones in the experimental groups were decreased, but ovarian weight and dimensions didn’t change. The rate of apoptosis was increased in the experimental groups as follows; a low and high dose of ND synchronized with hMG 48.80±18.70 and 65.20±14.20 respectively vs. Sham 1, 33.20±17.80, a low and high dose of ND non-synchronized with hMD 55.80±17.20 and 75.20±14.30 respectively vs. Sham 2, 31.60±32.40 groups, p˂0.01. Follicular and stromal cells were damaged in the experimental groups except for the hMG group.
Conclusion: Administration of ND decreased the serum level of Luteinizing hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone and estrogen and damaged ovarian tissue irreversibly and irreparably and hMG cannot prevent the destruction of the follicles in the adult female rats. This can be a serious warning to women who abuse ND.
Aylin EsmailKhani, Mohammad Taghi Akhi, Javid Sadeghi, Behrooz Niknafs, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Laya Farzadi, Nooshafarin Safadel,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2018)

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an infrequent, but one of the most successful bacteria that associated with infertility and are able to spermatozoa immobilization and agglutination.
Objective: The aim of present study was to determine the frequency of S. aureus in semen obtained from infertile male patients in northwest Iran. Materials and Methods: Seminal fluids of 100 infertile men were evaluated. Standard semen examination was done according to World Health Organization guidelines. After isolation and identification of S. aureus isolates according to reference methods, determination of susceptibility against important antibiotics and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify mecA and tst genes.
Results: Data obtained from the present study shows that 16% of infertile male patients were colonized by S. aureus. Ten (62.5%) of the individuals had abnormal seminal fluid sperm motility and morphology and three (18.8%) of them had an abnormal seminal fluid density, whereas after washing with albumin-saline declined to 5 (31.3%), 4 (25%) and 1 (6.3%), respectively. The antibiogram results showed that, except penicillin, other antibiotics have high activity on isolates. Regarding polymerase chain reaction results, mecA sequences were detected in 3 (18.7%) strains, whilst the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was not detected in any of clinical strains.
Conclusion: It would appear that the S. aureus may be an additional negative factor worsening sperm quality and affecting male fertility. Therefore, it demands that all the patients attending in infertility treatment facilities be investigated thoroughly.
Firouzeh Gholampour, Shabnam Malekpour MansourKhani, Seyed Mohammad Owji,
Volume 17, Issue 11 (November 2019)

Background: Ischemic acute kidney injury is associated with an inflammatory reaction.
Objective: In the current study, berberine was assessed for its effect on the functional disorders and histological damages of testis induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight adult male Wistar rats (260-300 gr) were equally divided into four groups (n= 7/each): sham and I/R groups which received distilled water as well as berberine (BBR) and BBR + I/R groups which received berberine (15 mg/kg/day) orally seven days before the surgery. In both groups of sham and BBR, renal arteries were not clamped. Renal I/R was induced by occluding right and left renal artery for 45 min followed by a 24 hr reperfusion period. Blood samples were taken for determining the plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), and testosterone. Then the rats were killed under deep anesthesia and the left testis was immediately isolated and preserved.
Results: The renal I/R injury led to testicular histological damages accompanied with increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, LH, and FSH, as well decrease of plasma testosterone concentration at the end of 24 hr reperfusion (All p< 0.001, except for FSH p< 0.01). Berberine diminished histological damage to the testis and attenuated the increase in plasma creatinine, urea nitrogen, LH, FSH, and decrease in plasma testosterone concentration in the BBR + I/R group (All p< 0.001).
Conclusion: These results suggest that ischemic acute renal failure induces functional disorders and tissue damages in testis of rat, which was improved through the administration of berberine.
Nader AghaKhani, Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist, Fatemeh Sheikhan, Effat Merghati Khoei,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (January 2020)

Background: There are concerns and diverse experiences related to infertility and childlessness. The lived experience of infertile people from various cultures needs to be explored.
Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women experiences of their infertility.
Materials and Methods: The data comprised interviews about fertility issues in the Persian language with eighteen women, aged 17-45 yr old, who agreed to be interviewed at the Mottahari Infertility Treatment Clinic, affiliated to the Urmia University of Medical Sciences about their fertility problems. They were approached by the researchers at the time of their first visit. The verbatim transcribed interviews were analyzed using deductive conventional content analysis.
Results: The experiences of the informants were conceptualized into four major themes: 1) Shock (subthemes: Disbelief and Denial); 2) Reaction (subthemes: Distress, Guilt, Loss of self-esteem and Sexual reluctance); 3) Processing (subthemes: Internal processing, Avoidance, Marriage at risk, External processing, Stigma caused by the family and Stigma caused by the community) and 4) Reorientation (subthemes: Forgetting, Marriage to saving marriage and Sexual consent).
Conclusion: Infertility can be a challenging condition. Considering that infertility-related issues affect Iranian women more contextual factors is necessary. So, culturally sensitive and gender specific protocols are suggested to provide suitable and about culturally sensitive and gender-specific protocols is a necessity in order to provide suitable care to infertile women.
Seyed Alireza Afshani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Ghaem Mohammadi, Parisa Khani , Anahita Khosravi,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (March 2020)

Background: Divorce is a social issue, which challenges not only the structure of family but also of a society. Studies have shown that infertility affects the marital boredom. In addition, resilience training and emphasizing on increasing piety (religiousness) can help to decrease this boredom.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the resilience training effects on the compromising of infertile coupleschr('39') applicant for divorce.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 infertile couples who had requested for divorce and referred to the Center for consolidation of the family foundation were enrolled. Participants were randomly divided in two categories (n= 50/each): the case group received some consultation classes on social services as well as resilience training by a consultant in 5 sessions lasting 2 hr. In total, 10 hr of treatment; while the control group just received the consultation and social services. Canner and Davidson questionnaires were utilized as pre- and posttest in both groups. Groups answered the resiliencechr('39')s criterion of Canner and Davidson.
Results: The resilience training significantly increased the compromises made by couples in the case group compared to the control (p < 0.01). The results showed that 26% of members of the case group relinquished divorce, while 10% of control group members did the same; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: The resilience training leads to increased psychological well-being elements and compromises in infertile couples.

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