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Showing 26 results for Karimi

Mohammad Ghafourzadeh, Mojgan Karimi, Mohammad Ali Karimazadeh, Mahshid Bokai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (7-2004)

Background: Infertility affects about 10-15% of reproductive-age couples. About half the causes of infertility are female related and approximately 40% of the cases are caused by anovulation, mostly in PCO women. Objective: This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of two drug treatment regimens: higher dose of clomiphene and a combination of lower dose of clomiphene and tamoxifen in treating infertile women with PCO. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 100 infertile patients who referred to Yazd-Iran Infertility Clinic between the years 2001-2003. The patients were selected who had received at least 3 periods of clomiphene, but no pregnancy had occurred. They were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, clomiphene was increased to 100 mg and the second group 20 mg of tamoxifen was added to 50 mg of clomiphene from day 5-9 of menstruation cycle. Infertility duration, duration of medicine used, PCT score, endometrial thickness, ovulation, and pregnancy rate were studied in both groups. Results: Ovulation rate in clomiphene group was 54.9%; Tamoxifen + clomiphene group was 73.5% without significant differences in both groups. (PV = 0.053). Positive pregnancy rate in clomiphene group was 39.2%; clomiphene + tamoxifen group was 61.2% (P value < 0.05), which could be concluded that pregnancy rate was higher in clomiphene/tamoxifen group than in the clomiphene group. The presence of a dominant follicle in the two treatment groups in women between 18-24 was not significant, but in women between 25-39 years was significant (PV= 0.049) (Table III). Conclusion: The recommendation is to add Tamoxifen to Clomiphene in 35-39 women with 20? BMI ?26.99 before the use of gonadotropins treatment in PCOS with or without IUI, because these options have higher risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Article
Fatemeh Ghaemmaghami, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi, Azita Naseri, Azam Sadat Mousavi, Mitra Modarres Gilani, Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Recent studies have showed conservative management in selective patients with borderline and malignant ovarian tumors is safe; therefore this management is considered in patients with ovarian tumor who desire to preserve fertility.
Objective: This study has been performed to evaluate the clinical outcome and fertility in patients with ovarian tumors who were treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: All patients who were treated conservatively (preservation of uterus and at least one ovary) or were on follow-up and had recurrence were evaluated in Vali-e-Asr Hospital during 2000-2004.
Results: Among 410 patients with ovarian tumors, 60 were treated conservatively. Age range was 13-34 years. Twenty-six of patients (43.3%) were desired pregnancy and 34 (56%) patients did not. Three (5%) patients had history of infertility. Histological types of tumors were as follows; 15(25%) borderline tumors, 10(16.7%) epithelial tumors, 26(43.3%) germ cell tumors, and 9(15%) sex cord tumors. Range of follow-up time was 12-48 months. Seven term pregnancies in 6 patients had been occurred, 1 in epithelial group, 2 in germ cell group, 1 in sex cord group and 3 in borderline group. Nine patients had recurrence and 2 patients expired, including one patient with serous cyst carcinoma (Stage IIIC).This patient had refused radical surgery and referred to our center with recurrence. Another patient had immature teratoma (Stage IIIC).
Conclusion: Conservative surgical management in young patients with stage I (grade 1, 2) of epithelial ovarian tumor and sex cord-stromal tumor and in patients with borderline and germ cell ovarian tumors could be performed in order to preserve fertility.
Mohamad Reza Darabi, Mohamad Hosein Nasr-Esfahani, Hosein Baharvand, Mohmad Mardani, Hojatolah Karimi-Jashni,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: The values of embryonic stem cell and cloning are evident. Production of clone from embryonic stem cells can be achieved by introduction of stem cell into a tetraploid blastocyst. Tetraploid blastocyst can be produced in vitro by electrofusion of 2-cell embryos.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different voltages and durations on fusion rate of bovine 2-cell embryos and their subsequent development in vitro.   
Material and Methods: The in vitro produced bovine 2-cell embryos were categorized into 3 groups: (1) fused group (FG); 2-cell embryos fused by exposure to different voltages (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 kV/cm) and durations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μs), (2) exposed control group (ECG);  2-cell embryos exposed to different voltages and durations but remained unfused and (3) unexposed control group (UCG); embryos cultured without exposure to any voltage. The embryos from each group were cultured and fusion, cleavage and developmental rates were compared in each group.
Results: The results show that increased voltage, increases the fusion rate up to 88% for 1.5 kV/cm; however, the rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation decreases significantly to 18% and 10% respectively (p<0.05). Increased duration does not significantly increase fusion rate, however, in high voltage, increased duration decreases cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate. Blastocyst formation rate in UCG showed a better development (32%) compared to FG (20%) or ECG (22.5%) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that for optimal fusion, cleavage and development, one pulse of 0.75 kV/cm for 60μs should be applied.
Sedigheh Amooee, Alamtaj Samsami, Jamileh Jahanbakhsh, Mehran Karimi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

Background: β-thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in Iran and more than 2 million carriers of the β-thalassemia mutant gene are living in this country.
Objective: To determine pregnancy outcome of women with β-thalassemia minor.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study in two universities affiliated hospitals in Shiraz, all pregnancies occurred between 2006 and 2008 were included. Patients were divided in two groups regarding the presence of β-thalassemia minor. Patients in case and control groups were matched according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous pregnancies. Cesarean delivery, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor were recorded in each group and were compared using the χ2 or Fisher exact tests. 
Results: Overall 510 β-thalassemia minor subjects and 512 healthy controls were studied. Cases with β-thalassemia minor had significantly higher prevalence of oligohydramnios (p<0.001) and cesarean section delivery (p=0.001). There was no significant difference regarding Apgar score in 1st (p=0.65) and 5th minute (p=0.25), IUGR (p=0.073), gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.443) and preeclampsia (p=0.116) between two study groups.    
Conclusion: β-thalassemia minor does not significantly influence the pregnancy outcome in the negative way.
Samieh Karimi, Majid Yavarian, Azadeh Azinfar, Minoo Rajaei, Maryam Azizi Kootenaee,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2012)

Background: Role of genetic factors in etiology of preeclampsia is not confirmed yet.
Objective: Gene defect frequency varies in different geographic areas as well as ethnic groups. In this study, the role of factor V Leiden mutation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia syndrome among the pregnant population of northern shore of Persian Gulf in Iran, were considered.
Materials and Methods: Between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009, in a nested case control study, pregnant women with preeclampsia (N=198) as cases and healthy (N=201) as controls were enrolled in the study. DNA were extracted from 10 CC peripheral blood and analyzed for presence of factor V Leiden mutation in these subjects. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy according to the distribution of factor V Leiden were also compared among cases.
Results: In total, 17(8.6%) of cases and 2(1%) of controls showed the factor V Leiden mutation. The incidence of factor V Leiden was typically higher in preeclamptic women than control group (OR: 9.34 %95 CI: 2.12-41.01). There was no difference in incidence rate of preterm delivery< 37 weeks (OR: 1.23 %95 CI: 0.38-4.02), very early preterm delivery<32 weeks (OR: 1.00 %95 CI: 0.12-8.46), intra uterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) (OR: 1.32 %95 CI: 0.15-11.30 ),and the rate of cesarean section (OR: 0.88 %95 CI: 0.29-2.62 ) among cases based on the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation.
Conclusion: The pregnant women with factor V Leiden mutation are prone for preeclampsia syndrome during pregnancy, but this risk factor was not correlated to pregnancy complications in the studied women. 
Mazdak Razi, Golamreza Najafi, Sajad Feyzi, Ali Karimi, Simineh Shahmohamadloo, Vahid Nejati,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to the Gly-phosate (GP) on rat’s testicular tissue and sperm parameters. Objective: Testicular tissue, morphology of sperms and testosterone level in serum of mature male rats were analyzed.
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two test and control-sham groups. The test group was subdivided into 4 groups (10, 20, 30 and 40 days GP administrated). Each test group (n=8) received the compound at dose of 125 mg/kg, once a day, orally for 40 days while control-sham group (n=16) received the corn oil (0.2 ml/day).
Results: Microscopic analyses revealed increased thickness of tunica albuginea, obvious edema in sub-capsular and interstitial connective tissue, atrophied seminiferous tubules, arrested spermatogenesis, negative tubular differentiation and repopulation indexes, decreased Leydig cells/mm2 of interstitial tissue, hypertrophy and cytoplasmic granulation of Leydig cells, elevated death, immature sperm and increased immotile and abnormal sperm percentage. The carbohydrate ratio was reduced in first three layers of the germinal epithelium (GE) cytoplasm. The upper layers of the GE series were manifested with low rate of lipid accumulation in cytoplasm, while the cells which were located in first layers were revealed with higher amount of lipid foci. Hematological investigations showed significant (p<0.05) decreasing of testosterone level in serum.
Conclusion: The current data provide inclusive histological feature of chronic exposure against GP with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effect on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability and abnormality which potentially can cause infertility.
Maryam Eftekhar, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Hesamoddin Karimi, Elham Rahmani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: GnRH agonist and antagonist were developed to control the premature release of LH surge. There is some difference between two protocols.
Objective: We compared the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer in infertile women who used GnRH agonist or antagonist protocol for previous COH cycle and evaluation of any adverse effect of GnRH antagonist on oocyte and embryo.
Materials and Methods: The study group included all infertile women who referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Overall 20-35 years old women who were candidate for frozen-thawed embryo transfer with regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria were participated in the study. The patients based on previous control ovarian stimulation (COH) protocol divided in to two groups: GnRH agonist long protocol (n=165) and GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol (n=165). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred after endometrial preparation in both groups. Main outcome measures were: implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rate.
Results: The implantation and clinical pregnancy rate following cryopreserved embryo transfer in GnRH agonist group and antagonist group were 16.3% vs. 15.7% (p=0.806) and 38.1% (63/165) vs. 36.9% (61/165) (p=0.915) and chemical pregnancy rate was 44.8% (74/165) vs. 43.6% (72/165) (p=0.915) respectively.
Conclusion: There was no statistically difference between two groups in terms of implantation and pregnancy rate. Although pregnancy rate in fresh embryo transfer in antagonist cycles was lower than agonist groups, Therefore decrease in these parameters might be due to detrimental effect of GnRH antagonist on the endometrium, not embryo or oocyte.
Mahshid Bokaie, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Behnaz Enjezab, Pooran Heidari, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: There are many reasons why some couples do not become parents. Some are infertile, some do not want kids, children can be in a social context unacceptable and for others different life goals are more important.
Objective: This study was designed to determine barriers of child adoption in infertile couples in Iran.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Iran from April 2010 to June 2011. The research program was comprised consecutively in 240 infertile couples. Experts in Guidance and Counseling vetted the instrument and set that it has content validity. Test re-test reliability was conducted by the investigators using a sample of 20 couples who have filled questionnaire.
Results: Although 230 (96%) of the respondents heard of child adoption, only 89 (37.3%) of couples knew correct meaning of child adoption. Fifty four women (24%) knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 196 (82%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby. Hoping of childbearing (78%) was the main barrier to adopt a child.
Conclusion: The barriers mentioned were cultural practices, stigmatization, financial implications, and technical problems. Most of the infertile Iranian couples prefer to stay even so without children or think about new treatment.
Sahar Hatami, Saeed Zavareh, Mojdeh Salehnia, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Mohammad Taghi Ghorbanian, Isaac Karimi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA).
Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrified–warmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed.
Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries.
Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. 
Leili Hafizi, Mostafa Gholizadeh, Mohammad Karimi, Golkoo Hosseini, Hesam Mostafavi-Toroghi, Mehdi Haddadi, Amin Rezaiean, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Neda Emami Meibodi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Magnetized water has made many improvements in industry, agriculture and medicine. However its utilization in medicine still remains controversial.
Objective:  In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of magnetized water on height of epithelial cells in pre-implantation stage endometrium and fallopian tube and number of corpus lutea in female mice.
Materials and Methods:  Eighty female NRMI mice were recruited to this experimental study and randomly divided into two groups: the control group which drank normal water and the experimental (case) group which drank magnetized water for 2 weeks. Super-ovulation was induced in these mice and then they were mated with male mice as well. Samples of ovary, uterus and fallopian tube were obtained at the pre-implantation stage. Then, after preparation, the number of corpus lutea in each ovary was counted and the height of fallopian and endometrial epithelial cells was measured by light microscopy.
Results:  Data analysis showed a significant increase in the mean number of corpus lutea and the height of epithelial cells in fallopian tube comparing the case with the control group (p=0.01, p=0.002 respectively) whereas uterus epithelial cells of the case group showed insignificant increase in height, in compare with the control group (p=0.052).
Conclusion:  Our results suggest that magnetized water intake increases the number of corpus lutea and the height of fallopian tube epithelial cells. Further research is needed to determine whether this will increase in the success rate of fertility.
Maryam Eftekhar, Soheila Pourmasumi, Mojgan Karimi-Zarchi,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Malignancies are not rare in girl and women during their reproductive years. Over the past three decades, the survival rate for cancer has been improving due to progress in cancer diagnosis and treatment. These patients frequently experience a variety of treatment, and disease-related side effects that diminish their quality of life during and after treatment; among these are loss of fertility and sexual dysfunction. There have been recent advances in the field of fertility preservation, which can allow many of these genital cancer survivors to have children in the future. This topic review discusses available options and specific strategies for fertility preservation in adolescent and young women with malignancies who wish to preserve their ability to become pregnant in the future.
Mahtab Moti, Leila Amini, Soheila Sadat Mirhoseini Ardakani, Sara Kamalzadeh, Masoomeh MasoomiKarimi, Moslem Jafarisani,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder of infertility which affects more than 100 million women. It is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyper androgenism and obesity. PCOS is also associated with oxidative stress changes.
Objective: Here, we aimed to investigate the level of antioxidants and oxidative stress in Iranian women with PCOS as a predictive factor for cardiovascular disease for the first time in Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 30 women with PCOS and 30 healthy women were included. C-reactive protein, serum insulin, advanced oxidation protein products, and level of total antioxidants status were measured from blood samples.
Results: The levels of serum insulin, C-reactive protein, advanced oxidation protein productswere significantly increased in women with PCOS compared with healthy women but there was a decrease in level of total antioxidants status in PCOS women.
Conclusion: These changes show that oxidative stress contributes to PCOS and the decrease of antioxidants leads to increase of oxidation products contributing to PCOS.
Fereshteh Safian, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Mojgan Karimi-Zarchi, Mehdi Mohsenzadeh, Sareh Ashourzadeh, Marjan Omidi,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes collected from ovary has been proposed for fertility preservation. In addition, quality of oocytes post IVM is one of the factors determining its developmental competence. By using the non-invasive Polscope system, both meiotic spindle (MS) and zona pellucida (ZP) can be assessed in living oocytes.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the developmental potential of immature oocytes retrieved from ovarian tissue after IVM, as a method for fertility preservation, in patients with gynecological diseases.
Materials and Methods: The ovarian cortex from 26 patients with malignant and benign diseases (21-45 years old), were obtained directly from collaborating hospitals, and transported to the IVF center on ice. In total 61 immature oocytes were aspirated, of which 18 (29.5%) were degenerated and discarded. The remaining 43 (70.5%) healthy oocytes were cultured in IVM culture media for 48 hr. The rate of maturity was assessed, and the ZP birefringence and MS were imaged with Polscope technology.
Results: Overall 43 immature oocytes underwent IVM technology, of which 30.2% reached viable metaphase II (MII) oocytes. The ovarian tissues of 9 (34.6%) women were lacking oocytes at any stage. During polarized light microscopy examination, MS could be visualized only in one of the MII oocytes, but high ZP birefringence’s were observed in the majority of the oocytes post IVM (61.5%).
Conclusion: Oocytes maturation post IVM from unstimulated ovaries showed a good developmental competence in gynecologic patients. Further studies should be performed to advance the oocyte maturation program, such as co-culture system, for fertility preservation.
Maryam Khoshnood Shariati, Zohreh Karimi, Mahroo Rezaienejad, Azita Basiri, Farahnaze Torkestani, Soraya Saleh Gargari,
Volume 13, Issue 11 (12-2015)

Background: Morbidity and mortality of preterm babies are important issues in perinatal medicine. In developed countries, preterm delivery is the cause of about 70% of mortality and 75% of morbidity in the neonatal period, respectively. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for preterm labor and the outcomes, in terms of perinatal mortality and morbidity at the time of discharge home, among preterm infants at less than 34 weeks gestation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted and all infants with a gestational age of 24 to 33 weeks and 6 days who were born from November 1st, 2011 to March 31, 2012 were enrolled in this study. Results: From 1185 preterm infants were born during this period, 475 (40.08%) infants with less than 34 weeks gestational age were included in the study. Our study showed the major obstetrical risk factors for preterm labor were as follows: preeclampsia (21%), premature rupture of membranes (20.3%), abruption of placenta (10%), and idiopathic cases (48.7%). The neonatal mortality rate in less than 34 weeks was 9.05%. Significant perinatal morbidity causesd in less than 34 weeks were as follows: sepsis (46.94%), respiratory distress syndrome (41.47%), patent ductus arteriosus (21.47%), retinopathy of prematurity (3.57%), necrotizing entrocolitis (1.68%), intra-ventricular hemorrhage (9%), and broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (0.84%). Conclusion: Preterm birth is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. This situation needs to be improved by directing appropriately increased resources for improving prenatal health services and providing advanced neonatal care.
Taiebeh Ghyasvand, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Iraj Amiri, Jamshid Karimi, Marzieh Ghorbani,
Volume 13, Issue 12 (1-2015)

Background: Oxidative stress in reproductive system leads to sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of male infertility, especially in idiopathic cases. Antioxidants such as carotenoids function against free radical damages. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol in serum and their relationship with sperm DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in infertile and normospermic males. Materials and Methods: Sixty two infertile men and 71 normospermic men participated in this study. Blood and semen samples were collected from all subjects. Sperm DNA damage was measured using TUNEL method. Carotenoids, retinol, and malonedildehyde in serum were also determined. Results: DNA fragmentation was higher in infertile group comparing to control group. Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and, vitamin A in infertile men were significantly lower than normospermic men (p< 0.001, =0.005, and =0.003 respectively). While serum MDA was not significantly different between two groups, MDA in seminal plasma of infertile men was significantly higher than control group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that lycopene, beta-carotene, and retinol can reduce sperm DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation through their antioxidant effect. Therefore the DNA fragmentation assay and determination of antioxidants factors such as lycopene, beta-carotene and retinol, along with sperm analysis can be useful in diagnosis and treatment of men with idiopathic infertility.
Hojatollah Karimi Jashni, Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Ali Ghorbani Ranjbary, Zahra Kargar Jahromi, Zahra Khabbaz Kherameh,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)

Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values.
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days.  Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope.
Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.
Mojgan Karimi-Zarchi, Najmeh Dehshiri-Zadeh, Leili Sekhavat, Fahime Nosouhi,
Volume 14, Issue 11 (11-2016)

Background: Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is a glycoprotein biomarker that is used in women with pelvic masses such as endometriosis and maybe is useful in practice of patients suspicious to endometriosis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between preoperative serum CA-125 levels and clinic pathological characteristic in women with endometriosis, and find out the best serum CA-125 levels cut-off in pre and post menopause women.
Materials and Methods: Serum CA-125 levels in 87 women aged 21-54 years suspected to endometriosis with pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, or dyspareunia were measured preoperatively. Also the association between clinic pathological characteristic and serum CA-125 level were analyzed.
Results: The mean age of women was 32.22±6.91. The mean serum CA-125 level was 49.93±4.30 U/mL. There was a significant correlation between the endometriosis stage, lesion size, adhesion score and preoperative CA-125 plasma concentration. However, we did not found significant differences in age, marital status, patient’s complaints, and pelvic pain associated to Ca125 serum level. The suggested preoperative serum cut-off levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients were 37 U/ml and 35 U/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results, preoperative serum CA-125 is an important predictor for patients with endometriosis and it should be taken into consideration when surgical management is suspected, especially if stage of disease, lesion size and adhesion score are undertaken.
Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Fahime Nosouhi, Saeed Hossein Khalilzade, Parichehr Kafaie, Mojgan Karimi-Zarchi, Iman Halvaei, Mehdi Mohsenzadeh,
Volume 14, Issue 12 (12-2016)

Background: Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in pathogenesis of PCOS. One of the common therapeutic methods is using insulin-sensitizing drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones.
Objective: The purpose was to determine the effect of metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS.
Materials and Methods: Eighty four women randomly received one of the following for 3 months: metformin (n=28) (500 mg three times a day), pioglitazone (30 mg daily) (n=28) and combination of both metformin and pioglitazone (n=28) (30 mg/day pioglitazone plus 500 mg metformin three times a day). Hormonal profile, fasting serum insulin, body weight, body mass index, menstrual status and waist to hip ratio were evaluated before and after treatment.
Results: Metformin and pioglitazone and combination therapy induced favorable changes in fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR index, QUICKI, fasting glucose to insulin ratio in women with PCOS. Body weight, BMI, and waist to hip ratio increased significantly after treatment with pioglitazone but the data were similar after administration of metformin or combination therapy. Total testosterone level decreased significantly only after treatment with metformin. After 3 months in patients who received pioglitazone or combination therapy, menstrual cycles became regular in 71.4% and 73.9% respectively. While menstrual improvement happened only in 36.4% of the patients treated with metformin.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that insulin-sensitizing drugs induce beneficial effect in insulin resistance and menstrual cyclicity but only metformin ameliorated hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS. Treatment with combination of metformin and pioglitazone did not show more benefit than monotherapy with each drug alone.Keywords:
Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi, Marzieh Araban, Mahbube Rasolzade, Shahrokh Aghayan, Seied Ali Azin,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Background: Iranian sexology researchers have emphasized the need for highquality scientific data on the dimensions of sexuality among adults, particularly withcultural considerations. Best practice and the delivery of sexual health services relyon rigorous facts extracted from surveys, but often those facts cannot be availabledue to the lack of culturally-sensitive questionnaires.
Objective: The aim of this study was to show the validity and reliability of thePersian version of the Acquisition of Sexual Information Test (ASIT), a measureselected due to its assemblages with Iranian culture.
Materials and Methods: Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the50 items-Acquisition of Sexual Information Test from English into Persian. Afterlinguistic validation, a cross-sectional study was carried out and psychometricproperties of the Iranian version of five-dimension questionnaire were tested in athirty sample of reproductive-age, married, healthy and sexually active women. Facevalidity was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Content validity wasalso assessed by calculating two quantitative indicators as content validity index(CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). In the qualitative phase, experts assessed thequestionnaire from aspects such as wording, grammar, item allocation, and scaling.Reliability was assessed by test-retest analyses.
Results: Impact score was 1.5 in all questions. , the majority of participants (83.3%)stated that the overall level of content qualitative validity of the questionnaire for thetarget population was high but some of the questions were irrelevant to sexualknowledge such as questions in regard to sexual self-concept and human evolution.Many questions (90%) gained a CVR less than 0.56, and all of them gained CVIslower than 0.7. Correlation in test-retest reliability was 0.85 that was considered tobe acceptable.
Conclusion: Regardless of our initial assumptions about selecting the Acquisition ofSexual Information Test, the Persian version of sexual knowledge questionnaireseems to be culturally inappropriate for Iranian women. Although, we need surveydata for assessing the evidence-based needs for sexual health and best practice, butthe questions addressing various dimensions of sexuality such as knowledge must beculturally sensitive, comprehensive and appropriate. Our findings suggest that ASITas a well-known measure should be used in Iranian population with caution. It mustbe re-validated in different adult populations than that we selected in this study.
Tayebeh Ghiasvand, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Gholamreza Shafiee, Alireza Zamani, Jamshid Karimi, Marzieh Ghorbani, Iraj Amiri,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (February 2018)

Background: Neopterin is a significant and sensitive marker in estimating the activity of cellular immune system. Oxidative stress plays a role in the etiology of male infertility. Increased reactive oxygen species is accompanied with increase in neopterin level. Hence neopterin may be involved in male infertility.
Objective: The objective of this case-control study was to determine neopterin level in idiopathic infertile and normospermic men; furthermore, to identify its relationship with oxidative stress markers including total oxidant, malondialdehyde, sperm DNA fragmentation, and total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma.
Materials and Methods: Forty seven infertile and forty three normospermic males were selected according to WHO criteria. Their semen and blood samples were taken; subsequently, the levels of neopterin, total oxidant, total antioxidant, malondialdehyde, and sperm DNA fragmentation were measured.
Results: The levels of neopterin, total oxidant, and malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of infertile males were significantly higher than those of normospermic group (p=0.038, 0.018, and 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men was higher than that of control group (p<0.001). Moreover, total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma in infertile males was significantly lower than that of normospermic subjects (p=0.002). No significant difference was observed in serum neopterin, total oxidant, and malondialdehyde between the infertile and normospermic groups.
Conclusion: The significant inverse correlation between seminal plasma neopterin and total antioxidant in the infertile males supports a possible role of neopterin in male infertility. Neopterin can be suggested as a marker in monitoring and diagnosis of idiopathic male infertility.

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