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Showing 26 results for Isa

Davoud Kianifard, Professor Ali Ehsani, Dr ParIsa Zeinolabedini Daneshgar, Dr Ghasem Akbari, Mr Seyyed Maysam Mousavi Sjoar,
Volume 0, Issue 12 (December 2019)

Background: Paclitaxel (PTX), a chemotherapeutic agent, and monosodium glutamate (MSG) have oxidative effects on testicular tissue.
Objective: In this study, the effects of MSG administration on the exacerbation of testicular tissue alterations related to PTX treatment were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: MSG (30 & 60 mg/kg i.p.) was administrated to six groups (n = 8/each) of adult mice before or after PTX treatment: control, PTX-treated, MSG30 + PTX, MSG60 + PTX, PTX + MSG30, and PTX + MSG60. Following the euthanizing, the body weight measurement, pituitary–testicular axis hormonal analysis and serum lipid peroxidation index assessment was prepared, testicular histomorphometry (tubular diameter and germinal epithelium height), immunohistochemistry of p53 was completed. Microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (tubular differentiation, spermiogenesis and repopulation indices) were studied.
Results: Body weight was not changed significantly. The levels of testosterone (p = 0.0001), follicle stimulating hormone (p = 0.019), and luteinizing hormone (p = 0.08) were decreased while the level of lipid peroxidation index was increased (p = 0.208) in the treated groups. The histomorphometry indices (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively), germ cells population (p < 0.05) and microscopic indices of spermatogenesis (p = 0.001, p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, respectively) were significantly reduced in all treated groups. The administration of MSG before PTX treatment induces more changes. The most positive reaction to p53 was observed in MSG30 or 60 + PTX groups compared to other groups.
Conclusion: The administration of MSG could intensify testicular tissue alterations related to PTX chemotherapy.
Leila Roshangar, Jafar Soleimani Rad, ParIsa Nikpoo, Manijeh Sayyah Melli,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Induction of ovulation in ART is necessary for superovulation and the side effects of superovulatory drugs are debated. Oxytocin as a natural hormone, have receptors and is synthesized by several reproductive organs. Preovulatory presence of oxytocin receptor mRNAs in granulosa cells indicating a role for oxytocin in follicular development.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection on folliculogenesis, ovulation and endometrial growth in mice.
Materials and Methods: Forty adult female mice were divided into two groups as control and experimental. The mice at their sterous cycle received 1 IU/gr oxytocin, in experimental, and the same volume of solvent in control groups. Half of the mice in each group are sacrificed at 24 hours post injection and the other half, 48 hours after the injection. Ovarian samples fixed in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin and sections were stained with H and E and studied using stereological techniques. The data were analyzed with Man– Whitney test.
Results: Microscopic examination revealed that the number and morphological features of follicles at different stages were similar at 24 and 48 hours post injection in both groups. The volumes of the ovaries were similar in both groups at 24 hour. However, at 48 hour, the volume of ovaries, corpora lutea and endometrial thickness, in experimental group, were significantly higher than those in control group (p< 0.05).
Conclusion: According to the increased volume of corpus luteum in the experimental group, it is concluded that oxytocin injection has a stimulatory effect on induction of ovulation.   
Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Hiroaki Shibahara, Ayustawati , Yuki Hirano, Tatsuya Suzuki, EIsa Tahmasbpour Marzony , Mahtab Zainalzadeh, Mitsuaki Suzuki,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (7-2010)

Background: Leptin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by white adipose tissue in proportion to body energy. Although the participation of leptin in female reproduction is well established any role in male reproductive function is at best tenuous.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the leptin concentration in human seminal plasma and then the relationships between seminal leptin and semen parameters were evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were provided from 71 men; normozoospermic (n=22) asthenozoospermic (n=31) and oligoasthenozoospermic (n=18) referring to Jichi Medical University Hospital for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment. After liquefaction all sperm specimens were evaluated for sperm parameters and motility characteristics by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system. After semen analysis concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of all groups were measured by ELISA.
Results: The mean concentrations of leptin in seminal plasma of normozoospermic asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men were 0.75+/-0.09 ng/ml 0.8+/-0.14 ng/ml and 0.8+/-0.15 ng/ml respectively. A trend was observed for a lower leptin concentration in seminal plasma of normozoospermic men compared with asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men. There was a significant negative correlation between seminal plasma leptin concentration with sperm motility (p<0.05) and Curvilinear Velocity of the sperm kinetic parameter (p<0.01).
Conclusion: It was demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between seminal leptin with the sperm motility.
Maryam Eftekhar, Farnaz Mohammadian, Fariba Yousefnejad, ParIsa Khani, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Fertilization failure is one of the most problems in assisted reproduction technology (ART).
Objective: The aim of this study was the evaluation of oocytes activation by addition of calcium ionophore in unfertilized oocytes in ICSI cycles.
Materials and Methods: This study was done on 15 ICSI cycles (stimulated with standard long protocol). Mature retrieved oocytes with normal morphology that had no evidence of fertilization 24 hours after ICSI were included in the study. The oocytes with fertilization and unfertilized oocytes with degeneration were excluded from the study. The unfertilized oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and were transferred to GIVF medium that contained 5 µmol of calcium ionophore and were incubated for 10 minutes. Then again oocytes were washed with GIVF medium and consequently were transferred to GIVF medium and were incubated at 37°C in 6% CO2. After 18 hours, the oocytes were examined and activated oocytes were defined with observation of at least one pronucleus or cleaved oocytes.
Results: After ovarian stimulation and oocytes retrieval, 175 mature oocytes were obtained and injection of sperm was done for all of them. 114 of 175 oocytes (66%) showed evidence of fertilization after 24 hours. A total of 61 oocytes (34%) showed no evidence of fertilization and 10 oocytes were degenerated and were excluded from the study. Only 51 unfertilized oocytes with normal morphology were selected and were exposed to calcium ionophore. 37 (72.5%) of treated oocytes were fertilized (2PN) and 32 (62.7%) of them showed evidence of cleavage. 6 (11.8%) embryos had good quality.
Conclusion: According to our results, oocytes activation with calcium ionophore had an acceptable fertilization rate, however high quality embryos remained low. We propose future studies to evaluate embryo quality.
Sahar Hatami, Saeed Zavareh, Mojdeh Salehnia, Taghi Lashkarbolouki, Mohammad Taghi Ghorbanian, Isaac Karimi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA).
Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrified–warmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed.
Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries.
Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. 
Mohammadreza Dehghani, Elena Rossi, AnnalIsa Vetro, Gianni Russo, Zahra Hashemian, Orsetta Zuffardi,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: In most mammals, sex is determined at the beginning of gestation by the constitution of the sex chromosomes, XY in males and XX in females.
Case: Here we report an interesting case characterized by ambiguous genitalia and ovotestis in a newborn carrying an apparently female karyotype (46 XX). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) revealed an unbalanced rearrangement resulting in the deletion of the distal Xp and the duplication of the proximal Xp contiguous region with presence of the Y chromosome from Ypter to Yq11. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this portion of the Y was translocated to the tip of the abnormal X and that the duplicated portion of chromosome X was inverted. Altogether, the abnormal chromosome was a dicentric one with the centromere of the Y chromosome apparently inactivated.
Conclusion: The presence within the translocated Y chromosome of the SRY gene explains the devolopment of testes although it is not clear the reason for the genitalia ambiguity.
Ahmed M. Isa, Basim Abu-Rafea, Sahel Al-Asiri, Johara Al-Motawa,
Volume 12, Issue 7 (8-2014)

Background: Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) remains the first thought of infertility treatment.
Objective: To compare the stimulation effects and Pregnancy rate (PR) outcomes of two ovulation induction (OI) medications, human-derived menopausal gonadotrophins (hMGH), Merional (MER), and recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), Puregon (PUR), in a cohort of Saudi infertile patients, for better predictability of treatment results.
Materials and Methods: During a 24-month period, 296 women underwent IUI single treatments. PR’s were correlated with the type of stimulation medication that were prospectively and randomly assigned to each patient, and with the number and size of maturing follicles detected on the hCG injection day.
Results: MER and PUR needed comparable number of days (9.26±4.74 and 9.73±6.27 respectively) before follicles were ready for IUI, although the average amount used from MER, 1199.90 IU, was about double that was used from PUR, 621.08 IU. The overall PR in case of PUR however was nearly double that of MER, 13.28% and 7.14% respectively. The best PR, 16.22%, occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. Three follicles of at least 15-mm diameter on the hCG day had better PR’s than one or two, however when the follicles’ diameters were at least 18-mm, PR was significantly higher, (p=0.013).
Conclusion: MER and PUR had comparable stimulation effects; however PUR had noticeably higher PR. The best PR occurred when the follicles matured within 12-13 days. PR in case of three maturing follicles on the hCG day was better than only one or two, and significantly better when their diameters were at least 18 mm.
Mahtab Moti, Leila Amini, Soheila Sadat Mirhoseini Ardakani, Sara Kamalzadeh, Masoomeh Masoomikarimi, Moslem JafarIsani,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder of infertility which affects more than 100 million women. It is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyper androgenism and obesity. PCOS is also associated with oxidative stress changes.
Objective: Here, we aimed to investigate the level of antioxidants and oxidative stress in Iranian women with PCOS as a predictive factor for cardiovascular disease for the first time in Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 30 women with PCOS and 30 healthy women were included. C-reactive protein, serum insulin, advanced oxidation protein products, and level of total antioxidants status were measured from blood samples.
Results: The levels of serum insulin, C-reactive protein, advanced oxidation protein productswere significantly increased in women with PCOS compared with healthy women but there was a decrease in level of total antioxidants status in PCOS women.
Conclusion: These changes show that oxidative stress contributes to PCOS and the decrease of antioxidants leads to increase of oxidation products contributing to PCOS.
ElIsabetta Garavaglia, Serafini Audrey, Inversetti AnnalIsa, Ferrari Stefano, Tandoi Iacopo, Corti Laura, Candiani Massimo,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Adenomyosis is a widespread disease affecting the reproductive period of women’s life. In the last ten years, different pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the initiation and development of the disease. This article aims to present and discuss the most important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying adenomyosis development in order to clarify the relationship between adenomyosis and infertility. A PubMed search was undertaken for English language literature using the MeSH terms ‘adenomyosis’, ‘infertility’, ‘treatment’, and ‘pathogenesis’. Although the exact etiology of adenomyosis is unknown, many theories have been proposed. We analysed the most important pathogenic theories expressed and evaluated the potential consequences on women fertility. A better comprehension of the adenomyosis pathogenesis has allowed realizing that adenomyosis may affect young women and may have a great impact on their fertility through different mechanisms. The understanding of these mechanisms helps to clarify the potential usefulness of current therapies.
Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi, ParIsa Parsa, Nooshin Darvish, Sahar Mokhtari, Mahnaz Yavangi, Ghodratollah Roshanaei,
Volume 13, Issue 8 (9-2015)

Background: Infertility is considered as a major health care problem of different communities. The high prevalence of this issue doubled its importance. A significant proportion of infertility have been related to environmental conditions and also acquired risk factors. Different environmental conditions emphasized the need to study the different causes of infertility in each area.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency causes of infertility in infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study 1200 infertile men and women that were referred to infertility clinic of Fatemieh Hospital during 2010 to 2011, were examined. This center is the only governmental center for infertility in Hamadan. Sampling was based on census method. Information about the patients was obtained from medical examinations and laboratory findings. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and the mean were used.
Results: The prevalence of primary and secondary infertility was 69.5% and 30.5% respectively. Among the various causes of infertility women factors (88.6%) had the highest regard. In the causes of female infertility, menstrual disorders, diseases (obesity, thyroid diseases, and diabetes), ovulation dysfunction, uterine factor, fallopian tubes and cervical factor had the highest prevalence respectively. The causes of male infertility based on their frequency included semen fluid abnormalities, genetic factors, vascular abnormalities, and anti-spermatogenesis factors, respectively.
Conclusion: Etiology pattern of infertility in our study is similar with the many other patterns that have been reported by the World Health Organization. However, frequency of menstrual disorders is much higher than other studies that require further consideration.
Flávia Romariz Ferreira, HeloIsa Regina Russo Akiba, Edward Araujo Júnior, ElIsabeth Niglio Figueiredo, Anelise Riedel Abrahão,
Volume 13, Issue 10 (10-2015)

Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85). Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.
Maryam Eftekhar, Robabe HosseinIsadat, Ramesh Baradaran, Elham Naghshineh,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (5-2016)

Background: Despite major advances in assisted reproductive techniques, the implantation rates remain relatively low. Some studies have demonstrated that intrauterine infusion of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves implantation in infertile women.
Objective: To assess the G-CSF effects on IVF outcomes in women with normal endometrial thickness.
Materials and methods : In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 infertile women with normal endometrial thickness who were candidate for IVF were evaluated in two groups. Exclusion criteria were positive history of repeated implantation failure (RIF), endocrine disorders, severe endometriosis, congenital or acquired uterine anomaly and contraindication for G-CSF (renal disease, sickle cell disease, or malignancy). In G-CSF group (n=50), 300 µg trans cervical intrauterine of G-CSF was administered at the oocyte retrieval day. Controls (n=50) were treated with standard protocol. Chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were compared between groups.
Results: Number of total and mature oocytes (MII), two pronuclei (2PN), total embryos, transferred embryos, quality of transferred embryos, and fertilization rate did not differ significantly between two groups. So there were no significant differences between groups in chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate
Conclusion: our result showed in normal IVF patients with normal endometrial thickness, the intrauterine infusion of G-CSF did not improve pregnancy outcomes.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Ramesh Baradaran Bagheri, Robabe HosseinIsadat,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (7-2016)

Background: Implantation failure is one of the most important factors limiting success in IVF treatment. The majority of trials have demonstrated favorable effect of endometrial injury on implantation success rate especially in women with recurrent implantation failure, while some studies failed to detect any benefit. 
Objective: The purpose of our trial was to explore whether endometrial injury in luteal phase prior to frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles would improve pregnancy outcomes? 
Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial of 93 consecutive subjects at a research and clinical center for infertility. All women were undergone frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTE) cycles. Women in the experimental group underwent endometrial biopsy with a Pipelle catheter in luteal phase proceeding FET cycle. Primary outcomes were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates and secondary outcomes were chemical, ongoing and multiple pregnancy and miscarriage rates. 
Results: 45 subjects who underwent endometrial injury (EI) were compared with 48 control group which did not include any uterine manipulation. There were no significant differences in baseline and cycle characteristics between two groups. The difference in implantation rate was trend to statistically significance, 11.8% in EI group vs. 20.5% in control group (p=0.091). The chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were lower in EI group compared with control group but not statistically significant. The multiple pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate also were lower in EI group compared with control group. 
Conclusion: Based on results of this study, local injury to endometrium in luteal phase prior to FET cycle had a negative impact on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates.
Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, WannIsa Sukhorum, Apichakan Sampannang, Chanwit Maneenin, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (7-2016)

Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. 
Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. 
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS), n=7). CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day) for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL), corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. 
Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl), corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml), acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%), and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18%) were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g), testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml), and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml) of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05) than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. 
Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein.
Abbas Aflatoonian, Robabe HosseinIsadat, Ramesh Baradaran, Maryam Farid Mojtahedi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Background: Management of poor-responding patients is still major challenge inassisted reproductive techniques (ART). Delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol isrecommended to these patients, but little is known in this regards.
Objective: The goal of this study was assessment of delayed-start GnRH antagonistprotocol in poor responders, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes.
Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included sixty infertilewomen with Bologna criteria for ovarian poor responders who were candidate forIVF. In case group (n=30), delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol administeredestrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for7 days before ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin. Control group (n=30) treatedwith estrogen priming antagonist protocol. Finally, endometrial thickness, the ratesof oocytes maturation, , embryo formation, and pregnancy were compared betweentwo groups.
Results: Rates of implantation, chemical, clinical, and ongoing pregnancy indelayed-start cycles were higher although was not statistically significant.Endometrial thickness was significantly higher in case group. There were nostatistically significant differences in the rates of oocyte maturation, embryoformation, and IVF outcomes between two groups.
Conclusion: Delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol can be a new hope method totreatment poor ovarian responders.
Sitthichai Iamsaard, WannIsa Sukhorum, Supatcharee Arun, Nichapa Phunchago, Nongnuch Uabundit, Porntip Boonruangsri, Malivalaya Namking,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Background: Valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR) expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported.
Objective: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided intocontrol and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each). Treated rats were injected with 500mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally, VPA for 10 consecutive days. At the end of everyexperimental day, all reproductive parameters including histology by hematoxylinand eosin staining and protein expression of AR by Immuno-Western blot in testisand epididymis were examined.
Results: VPA-treated rats showed dramatically changes in testicular and epididymal histopathologies compared to control group. The multinucleated giant cells and sloughing of germ cells were observed on day 6. The germ cell disintegration and increased intercellular spaces of seminiferous tubular epithelium appeared in days 7-10 of VPA treatment. Additionally, extensive multinucleated giant cells and complete exfoliation were clearly found from days 8-10. Such exfoliated germ cells were clearly seen in its epididymal lumen at day 10. The increasing rate of sperm concentration was approximately 32.31% of that in control group at day 10 (p=0.03). Moreover, the protein expressions of testicular and epididymal AR (% intensity/ 80 μg protein lysate) was decreased in VPA-treated rats compared with control.
Conclusion: VPA treatment induces histologic changes of germ cell epithelium in seminiferous tubules and decreases the expression of testicular and epididymal
Seyed Kazem Kazemeini, Majid Emtiazy, Fatemeh Owlia, ParIsa Khani,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Infertility is one of the most important reproductive health concerns in the conventional medicine. Iranian traditional medicine presents different viewpoints in this regard which they could be of benefit and a good guide for the society of medicine. This study sought to provide the comprehensive investigation on the causes of infertility according to Iranian traditional medicine for understanding of old sages' ideas and categorizing of the causes of infertility. In this narrative review, we searched causes of infertility in traditional medicine books and available articles in this field. Iranian traditional physicians have investigated the causes of infertility in couples and attributed them to male and female causes. They have divided the main causes of infertility in both sexes into structural and functional abnormalities, that both traditional medicine and conventional medicine have a lot of participations, but the traditional medicine believes holistic approach in the treatment of diseases and the involvement of all parts of the body particularly specialty board members (heart, liver, brain, ovary, and testicles) in the proper conduct activities in different parts of the body such as reproduction system. There is also special attention to temperament Mizaj disorders. Given the numerous commonalities existing between traditional and conventional medicine in categorizing the causes of infertility, Iranian traditional medicine methods can be applied as a complementary solution in infertility. It could be also subject to further research and investigation due to its opposition to modern medicine in some regards.
Mahnaz Ghowsi, Homayoun Khazali, Sajjad SIsakhtnezhad,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (March 2018)

Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren’t clear.
Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old) were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e): Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group. For induction of polycystic ovary phenotype, testosterone enanthate 10 mg/kg was injected for 35 days subcutaneously. Then, resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally for 28 days to rats of the PCO-Resveratrol group. Ovarian sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. The serum glucose and insulin and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum and liver were measured.
Results: Control animals showed normal ovarian morphology and PCO-Control animals exhibited cystic follicles. There were no significant differences in liver TAC between groups. The serum MDA (p=0.034), and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.014) levels in PCO-Control rats were higher than the controls. The liver MDA in PCO-Control rats was more than that of controls (p=0.001). The HOMA-IR (p=0.008) and serum MDA (p=0.006) levels in PCO-Control rats were more than those of PCO-Resveratrol rats (p=0.008). In PCO-Resveratrol group, serum TAC was higher than that of PCO-Control group (p=0.022) and liver MDA was more than controls (p=0.01).
Conclusion: Results indicated that the induction of PCOS in rats increased lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance and resveratrol improved these complications.
Apichakan Sampannang, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, WannIsa Sukhorum, Sitthichai Iamsaard,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (April 2018)

Background: The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model is widely used to evaluate the adverse effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis. However, the actual mechanism of sub/infertility in DM males needs to be elucidated.
Objective: To conduct a detailed examination of the testicular histopathology, sperm acrosome reaction (AR) status, and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein expression in the testis of male mice induced with STZ.
Materials and Methods: Ten ICR mice were divided into two groups (n=5/each): control and diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ). The control mice were intraperitoneally injected with citrate buffer, whereas MLD-STZ mice were injected with STZ at 40 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days. At the end of the experiment (day 40), reproductive parameters, AR status, and the histopathology of the testis and epididymis were evaluated. The expression of testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins was examined.
Results: Blood glucose levels, AR percentages, and sperm abnormality of STZ group were significantly higher (p=0.003, 0.001, 0.000), while sperm concentration was significantly lower (p=0.001) compared to control. Histopathology of the seminiferous tubule was classified into 7 types. Additionally, abundant round cells were found in the epididymal lumen of the MLD-STZ mice. Moreover, the intensities of testicular phosphorylated proteins (170, 70, 36, 30, and 25 kDas) were markedly higher and a 120 kDa protein band was noticeably lower in the MLD-STZ mice.
Conclusion: MLD-STZ-induced DM causes many testicular histopathologies, precocious sperm AR, and increased expression of testicular phosphorylated proteins. These findings may clarify some mechanisms of sub/infertility in DM males.
Yousef VeIsani, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Ali Delpisheh, Salman Khazaei,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (January 2019 2019)

Background: The etiological nature of preeclampsia is heterogeneous. The use of biomarkers indices in early pregnancy helps to have appropriate stratification of pregnancies into high- and low risk for the purpose of choosing timely interventions.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pathogenic role of soluble soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) inthe prediction of preeclampsia in women.
Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic search of the international databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science until August 2017. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The primary outcome in this review was preeclampsia. The statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the X2 test and quantified by I2. Pooled effects size was obtained by random effects model. Subgroup  analyses were also carried out.
Results: Totally, 284 records were identified in the initial search and 15 records were finally included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between the high level of sFlt-1 and low level of PlGF and subsequent development of preeclampsia among women were 5.20 (95% CI: 1.24–9.16) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.33–3.75), respectively. The mean difference for sFlt-1 and PlGF in women with preeclampsia compared to controls was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.43–1.86) and –0.94 (95% CI: –1.37–0.52),respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results from this meta-analysis, increased levels of sFlt-1 and reduced levels of PlGF predict the subsequent development of preeclampsia.

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