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Showing 16 results for Heidari

Soheila Arefi, Mahmoud Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Ali Reza Mousavi, Mahnaz Heidari, Ahmad Ali Bayat, Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (7-2005)
Abstract

Background: Auto antibodies to zona-pellucida (AZA) seem to be important autoantibodies implicated in reproduction, with substantial role in both endocrine and reproductive functions of the human ovary. There are some debates on the relation of AZA with infertility, repeated In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) attempts, and outcome of it. Objective: In this study, we assessed the presence of AZA in the follicular fluids (FFs) of women who underwent intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in relation to etiology of infertility and multiple puncture of ovaries. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, follicular fluids were evaluated from 96 infertile women, (19-40 years old, 31.5�5.1), who were candidates for ICSI based on the etiology of infertility. From these 80 women had explained infertility whereas 16 had unexplained infertility. All FFs were evaluated for presence of AZA by ELISA test. Results: Twenty patients (20.8%) were positive for AZA in follicular fluid. In patients with unexplained infertility, AZA antibody in follicular fluid, was significantly higher than the group with proven etiology of infertility (p=0.001). In addition, 20.4 % of patients who had been punctured previously showed AZA in their FFs which is statistically similar to the patients who were punctured for the first time. Conclusions: The high incidence of AZA in infertile women, especially women with unexplained infertility has to be considered. Relation of the presence AZA and repeated puncture of ovaries is still debatable. Determinations of AZA are highly recommended in evaluation of infertile couples especially in patient with unexplained infertility
Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraii, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Alireza Mossavie Jarahi, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial tissues in ectopic places outside the uterus. This disease has an important effect on the health and fertility of affected women. It’s etiology is not clearly known. For better understanding the pathophysiology of this disease, many researchers study on several aspects of the disease on animals. Objective: In this experimental study endometriosis was induced in female rats surgically and then its side effects were investigated with special focus on adhesion formation that is a major problem in women with this disease. Materials and methods: In Protestrous phase, female rats were randomly divided into two groups. In both groups, under intra peritoneal anesthesia, laparotomy was done and left horn and associated fat were removed. In experimented group (A), the removed endometrium was cut to six square pieces (2mm each) and they were sutured to the peritoneum, near ovaries and subcutaneous. In sham group (B), the same procedure was done for the fat tissues around the removed horn and the pieces were sutured to the same places. After 8 weeks, in Protestrous phase, clinical adhesion and size of implants were evaluated. Results: The total mean size of implants was calculated in each group, and this was significantly larger in experimented group (25.4 mm versus 2 mm p=0.000). The mean diameter of implants that calculated for each site of implantation in experimented group were significantly larger in left peritoneum (p=0.002), followed by right (p=0.000) and left (p=0.000) ovaries. The endometrial tissues grew in 100% of implants in subcutaneous area. Clinical adhesions (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 7 out of 10 in experimented group and in 2 out 10 in control group. The number of Esterous cycle were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that after inducing endometriosis by surgical approach, only endometrial implants grew as a cystic structures and this is a unique aspect of endometrial cells. Our results showed that endometriosis had a direct effect on adhesion formation, not surgery alone and induction of this disease didn't have any adverse effect on ovarian function in female rats.
Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahnaz Heidari, Mahdi A Akhondi, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Matrigel (extracellular matrix) can improve the growth of many cell types in vitro.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Matrigel on the development of 2-4 cells human embryos in culture.
Material and Methods: Surplus 2-4 cells human embryos, resulting from ICSI, were divided into two groups (control and test). Quality of embryos in both groups was morphologically similar. The test group (n=140) was cultured in Hams’ F10 supplemented with 10% human serum albumin and 150 µl liquid Matrigel. The control group (n=140) was cultured in the same medium devoid of Matrigel. Embryos were cultured for an additional 4 days and their morphology was assessed every 24 hours. Both groups were then statistically compared.
Results: The percentage of the human embryos that reached the morula stage in the control and test groups were 79.2% and 80%, respectively (p>0.05).  However, 36.4% of embryos reached the blastocyst stage in the test group as compared to 5.7% in the control group after 144 hours in culture. This difference was statically significant (p <0.01). In addition, culture of embryos on Matrigel and medium versus medium alone significantly improved in vitro hatching (25.7% versus 3.5%; p <0.01).
Conclusion: Matrigel at low concentration enhances human blastocyst formation and hatching in vitro.


 


Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraiee, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Hojjat Zeraati, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Pegah Ebadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)
Abstract

Background: Immune system disturbances have an important role in endometriosis which may lead to infertility. It seems that inflammatory cytokines specially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) which were produced by activated macrophages have an important role in pathology of endometriosis.  Based on this theory, anti TNF-a  drugs like pentoxifylline (PX) are suggested as new drugs for Endometriosis.            
Objective: This experimental study has been done on female rats to determine the effect of PX on the endometrial implants and leukocytes in serum.
Material and Methods: In proestrous phase, one horn of rat’s bicorn uterus was removed surgically and the endometrium was implanted to different places as follows: subcutaneous, peritoneum and near ovaries. After two months observation, female rats divided into two groups randomly. In treated group (n=10) PX (5mg/kg twice a day) and in control group (n=10), normal saline (same dose) were injected subcutaneously. Then, via second laparotomy and in the same phase of the cycles, the size of implants and the amount of leukocytes in serum were measured.
Results: In treated group compared with control, the size of implants was decreased significantly in right subcutaneous  (8.05mm vs 13.50mm) p<0.01, left subcutaneous (7.64 mm vs 14mm) p<0.01, right ovary (6.64 mm vs 15.22mm) p<0.001 and left ovary (7.18 mm vs 14.56 mm) p<0.005. In treated group, the total leukocyte count (5259.54 ± 178.78 vs 15833.33 ±  259.27) p<0.02 was decreased. The number of esterous cycle was similar in both groups.
Conclusion: PX can reduce the size of endometrial implants as well as leukocyte count.
Arash Khaki, Mahnaz Heidari, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Amir Afshin Khaki,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)
Abstract

Background: Ciprofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the treatment of genitourinary tract infection.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ciprofloxacin on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rat.
Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups; control (n=10) and experimental (n=10). The experimental group was orally received 12.5 mg/kg ciprofloxacin daily for 60 days and the control group just received water and food. Rats were then killed and sperm removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and viability. Testis tissues were also removed and prepared for TUNEL assay to detect apoptosis.
Results: Results showed that ciprofloxacin significantly decreased the sperm concentration, motility (p<0.05) and viability (p<0.001). In addition, ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sperm) in the seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. The apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubular cross section was significantly increased in the experimental group (15.11±3.523) as compared with the control group (7.3±0.762) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It is concluded that ciprofloxacin has the toxicological effects on reproductive system in male rats.
Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Zohreh Hojati, Somaye Heidari, Majid Motovali-Bashi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)
Abstract

Background: About 10% of infertilities with obstructive azoospermia are congenital and caused by CF gene mutations. M469I mutation was observed for the first time in Taiwanese patients. This mutation not only causes CF, but also may be the origin of infertility too.
Objective: In this study, we aimed in designing a rapid, reliable RFLP-PCR procedure for detection of M469I mutation. The correlation and association between M469I mutation with infertility was investigated in this study.
Materials and Methods: one hundred ten patients (90 non obstructive and 20 obstructive) and 60 normal individuals were considered in this study. M469I mutation was detected using RFLP-PCR. This technique was completely designed for M469I genotyping, for the first time in our study. Amplification of the region surrounding the mutation in exon 10 of CFTR gene was then performed. RFLP analysis was carried out using the NdeI restriction enzyme. Results: All genomic DNA samples were genotyped successfully. M469I mutation was observed only in patients group. Therefore, genotype containing mutant allele (GT) has been detected only in the patients group. There was no significant correlation between GT and TT genotypes with infertility (p=0.437).
Conclusion: The M469I mutation has only been observed in Exon 10 CFTR gene of infertile patients, not in the control group. This mutation causes congenital bilateral absence of vaz deferens and finally infertility. This indicates a strong association between the M469I mutation and male infertility. Therefore, this is a CF-causing CFTR mutation that could be considered as a cause of infertility.
Mahshid Bokaie, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Behnaz Enjezab, Pooran Heidari, Mojgan Karimi Zarchi,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background: There are many reasons why some couples do not become parents. Some are infertile, some do not want kids, children can be in a social context unacceptable and for others different life goals are more important.
Objective: This study was designed to determine barriers of child adoption in infertile couples in Iran.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Iran from April 2010 to June 2011. The research program was comprised consecutively in 240 infertile couples. Experts in Guidance and Counseling vetted the instrument and set that it has content validity. Test re-test reliability was conducted by the investigators using a sample of 20 couples who have filled questionnaire.
Results: Although 230 (96%) of the respondents heard of child adoption, only 89 (37.3%) of couples knew correct meaning of child adoption. Fifty four women (24%) knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 196 (82%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby. Hoping of childbearing (78%) was the main barrier to adopt a child.
Conclusion: The barriers mentioned were cultural practices, stigmatization, financial implications, and technical problems. Most of the infertile Iranian couples prefer to stay even so without children or think about new treatment.
Leyla Fath Bayati, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Fatemeh Fadaei Fathabadi, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Mozhgan Bandehpour, Mohsen Norouzian, Mahdi Alizadeh Parhizgar, Mahmood Shakooriyan Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)
Abstract

 
Background: Tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) is the most common type of extra-uterine pregnancy and the most common cause of maternal mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies have demonstrated the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the regulation of many reproductive events that occur in the fallopian tube (FT).
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of eNOS in the FTs of women with tEP.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 30FTs samples were obtained from three groups including: 10 FTs of women that bearing an EP, 10 FTs from the non-pregnant women at luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and 10 FTs of healthy pregnant women (n=10). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and then were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Localization of eNOS was seen in secretory and ciliated luminal epithelium and vascular endothelium of all groups. However, we did not observed the expression of eNOS in smooth muscle cells of all groups. Expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of women with EP compared to non-pregnant women at luteal phase of menstrual cycle and healthy pregnant group showed statistically significant increase (p=0.00). Significant difference in expression of eNOS was not observed in luminal epithelium of FTs of women at luteal phase compared to healthy pregnant groups (p=0.78).
Conclusion: This study indicates that changes in expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of FT may lead to development of EP.

Mohammad Mehdi Heidari, Mehri Khatami, Ali Reza Talebi, Fahime Moezzi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)
Abstract

Background: Varicocele is associated with the failure of ipsilateral testicular growth and development, and the symptoms of pain and reduced fertility. The highly condensed structure of the sperm nuclear chromatin is provided by proper expression of Transition Nuclear Protein (TNP) genes, so any dysregulational expression of these genes results in abnormal spermatogenesis and infertility.
Objective:  The aim of present study was to assess the association between TNP1 mutations and varicocele in Iranian infertile men.
Materials and Methods:  Analysis of association between TNP1 gene mutation and varicocele phenotype was performed using PCR and Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism technique and DNA sequencing in 82 varicocele infertile men and 80 control subjects.
Results:  Sequence analysis was identified one variant in this gene that found in 15 infertile men and was absent in control group. This variant was a single nucleotide polymorphism that were identified in the intron region of this gene at position g.IVS1+75T>C.
Conclusion:  The effect of this nucleotide substitution in intronic region of the TNP1 gene and their role on expression remains to be determined.
Nasser Amirjannati, Farhad Yaghmaei, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mahboubeh Nasiri, Hamed Heidari-Vala, Zahra Sehhat,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility.
Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.
Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001).
Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum.
Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Reza Jalili, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Seyed Jalil Hosseini, Mohsen Norouzian, Nahid Ehsani,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)
Abstract

Background: The Wnt/β- The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in many developmental processes in both fetal and adult life; its abnormalities can lead to disorders including several types of cancers and malfunction of specific cells and tissues in both animals and humans. Its role in reproductive processes has been proven.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of the key regulator of this signaling pathway GSK3-β and its presumed role in azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: WNT3a protein concentration and GSK3-β gene expression levels were measured and compared between two groups of infertile men. The test groups consisted of 10 patients with obstructive and 10 non-obstructive azoospermia. The control group was selected among healthy men after vasectomies that were willing to conceive a child using a testicular biopsy technique. Samples were obtained by testicular biopsy and screened for the most common mutations (84, 86 and 255) in the SRY region before analyzing. GSK3-β gene expression was assessed quantitatively by real time-PCR.
Results: The WNT3a protein concentration had no significant difference between the two test groups and controls. Expression of GSK3-β was down-regulated in non-obstructive azoospermia (3.10±0.19) compared with normal (7.12±0.39) and obstructive azoospermia (6.32±0.42) groups (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Down-regulation of GSK-3β may cause to non-obstructive azoospermia. Regulation and modification of GSK-3β gene expression by drugs could be used as a therapeutic solution.
Fereshteh Rafiee, Vahid Nejati, Reza Heidari, Hossein Ashraf,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (2-2016)
Abstract

Background: Tissue protective effect of compounds with antioxidant properties has been demonstrated. The alkaloids found in barberry root are considered as antioxidants.
Objective: According to barberry protective effects in different tissues, in this study, the protective effect of Berberis integerrima Bge. root (MEBIR) was evaluated against CCl4-induced testicular damages in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: 40 mature male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1: Normal control, 2: Sham: received CCl4 diluted in olive oil (50% v/v; 1ml/kg bw), intraperitoneally, twice a week for 4 weeks, 3 and 4: Sham rats treated with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) for 28 days, 5: Sham rats treated with silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. After 28 days, serum testosterone level, absolute testis weight, catalase activity, malondialdehyde level, and histological parameters were investigated.
Results: In the treated rats with MEBIR (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) or silymarin (50 mg/kg bw), there was a significant increase in the absolute testis weight, testosterone level, seminiferous tubules diameter (p<0.001), thickness of the epithelium, tubule differentiation index) p<0.001), spermiogenesis index (p<0.001), the activity of catalase, and a significant decrease in interstitial tissue thickness (p<0.001) and malondialdehyde level in comparison with CCl4-treated group. The effect of the MEBIR at dose of 500 mg/kg bw is more than that of the standard drug, silymarin (50 mg/kg bw).
Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that the protective effects of MEBIR is possibly due to antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.
Mina Hassani, Kioomars Saliminejad, Masood Heidarizadeh, Koorosh Kamali, Toktam Memariani, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (4-2016)
Abstract

Background: Endometriosis influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Associations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes polymorphisms in endometriosis have been investigated by various researchers; however, the results are not consistent.
Objective: We examined the associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and GSTP1 313 A/G polymorphisms with endometriosis in an Iranian population.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 151 women with diagnosis of endometriosis and 156 normal healthy women as control group were included. The genotyping was determined using multiplex PCR and PCR- RFLP methods.
Results: The GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher (p=0.027) in the cases (7.3%) than the control group (1.3%). There was no significant difference between the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes between the cases and controls. The GSTP1 313 AG genotype was significantly lower (p=0.048) in the case (33.1%) than the control group (44.4%).
Conclusion: Our results showed that GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be associated with susceptibility of endometriosis in Iranian women.
Mahnaz Heidari, Niknam Lakpour, Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Saeideh Shani, Leila Goharbakhsh, Ghazaleh Cheshmi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi,
Volume 16, Issue 7 (July 2018)
Abstract

Background: Sperm processing methods separate motile sperms with good morphology from dead and abnormal forms of sperms, immature germ cells, and non-sperm cells.
Objective: The propose of this study was to compare the efficacy of upstream and swim-up processing techniques to separate sperms with the high quality especially in relation to sperm chromatin integrity.
Materials and Methods: This experimental study used semen samples from 60 normozoospermic men. Specimens were divided into equal aliquots for processing by swim up (group A), and upstream (group B) methods and compare with control by raw semen (group C). Sperm concentration, morphology, motility, DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were measured in these three groups.
Results: The results revealed that sperm concentration in the swim up samples was significantly greater than upstream samples (p≤0.04). as addition, motile sperm recovery including the percentage of progressive motility and a total number of motile sperm was better in the swim-up compared to an upstream method and raw semen (p≤0.001). The cell debris and seminal fluid were equally removed by both methods and the percentage of normal forms was also similar in both procedures (p≥0.4). In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturation were not significantly different between the three groups (p≥0.1).
Conclusion: According to results, apparently the upstream method had no significant efficiency to separate good quality sperms compare to swim up. Therefore, swim up seems to be a simple, inexpensive, reliable and widely available method with an efficient yield to separate motile sperm with good morphology and better chromatin integrity for insemination in the infertility clinics.
Mohammad Mehdi Heidari , Amirhossein Danafar, Fahime Moezzi, Mehri Khatami, Ali Reza Talebi,
Volume 17, Issue 8 (August 2019)
Abstract

BBackground: Numerous researches have provided great evidence that revealed the relationship between varicocele and sperm DNA damage.
Objective: Because of the crucial role of nuclear transition proteins (TPs) in sperm DNA condensation and integrity, this case-control study was designed to study TNP2 gene nucleotide variations in Iranian patients with varicocele.
Materials and Methods: PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in exons 1 & 2 of the TNP2 gene in 156 infertile patients with varicocele and 150 fertile men.
Results: The results of sequencing showed three variants at positions c.301C>T (p.R101C), c.391C>T (p.R131W), and g.IVS1-26G>C (rs8043625) of TNP2 gene. It was found that varicocele risk in men who have the CC genotype of g.IVS1-26G>C SNP is higher than those who don't have these genotypes (according to Co-dominant model, Dominant model, Recessive model, and Over-dominant model). The haplotype-based analysis showed that (C/C/T) and (C/T/T) haplotypes were a risk factor of in patients with varicocele compared to controls (OR = 3.278, p = 0.000 and OR = 9.304, p = 0.038, respectively).
Conclusion: Because of the significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of g.IVS1-26G>C SNP in the intronic region of TNP2 in patients with varicocele compared with controls and also because of the high conservation of this SNP position during evolution, this SNP may be involved in some important processes associated with the expression of this gene like mRNA splicing, but the exact mechanism is not clear.

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