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Motahhareh Golestan, Razieh Fallah, Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi,
Volume 6, Issue 5 (7-2008)

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major determinants of neonatal survival as well as postnatal morbidity.
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to determine neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in LBW infants in Yazd, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective-cohort study, all births in the maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran in 2004 were evaluated and mortality rate in LBW population over the course of the first month of extra uterine life was determined.
Results: In total, 8.4% (507 of 6016 births) of all newborns were LBW and 18.7% (95/507) of all LBW neonates died. Neonatal mortality rate in Yazd was 24/1000 live births .Two- third (95 /143) of all neonatal deaths occurred in LBW. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in LBW, Moderately low birth weight (MLBW), Very low birth weight (VLBW) and Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) were 23, 11.5 , 62.5 and 117 times more than that of normal weight newborns, respectively. Nearly 65% of all LBW neonatal deaths occurred in first 24 hours after birth. Overall NMR, Early Neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) and Late Neonatal mortality rate (LNMR) in LBW were 187, 118 and 9.8 in 1000 live births, respectively. The main causes of mortality among LBW in order of prevalence were respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (59%), asphyxia (20%), septicemia (12%) and congenital malformation (9%).
Conclusion: Neonatal mortality rate in Yazd is high and LBW accounted for two-third of neonatal deaths. Therefore, effort should be intensified to implement effective strategies for the reduction of LBW births and improving the care of these vulnerable neonates.
Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi, Motahhareh Golestan, Razieh Fallah, Mohammad Golshan, Zinabossadat Dehghan,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Admission of low birth-weight (LBW) neonates in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) causes their deprivation of tactile and sensory stimulation.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of body massage on growth parameters (weight, height and head circumference) gain velocity of LBW in Yazd, Iran.
Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial study was conducted on LBW neonates whom were admitted to NICU of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran from March to December 2011. Neonates were randomly assigned to two groups. In group one, 20 neonates were received massage three times in a day for consecutive 14 days by their mothers. In group two, intervention consisted of standard and routine care as control group. The primary endpoints were efficacy in increase of mean of weight, height and head circumference that were evaluated 14 days after intervention, at ages one and two months. Secondary outcome was clinical side effects.
Results: 17 girls and 23 boys with mean gestational age of 34.4±1.22 weeks were evaluated. In the body massage group, only weight at the age of two months was significantly higher than the control group (mean±SD: 3250±305 vs. 2948±121 gr, p=0.005). No adverse events were seen in the two groups.
Conclusion: Body massage might be used as an effective and safe non-medical intervention for increasing of weight gain velocity in LBW preterm neonates.
Masoumeh Golestan Jahromi, Reza Aflatoonian, Parvaneh Afsharian, Samaneh Aghajanpour, Maryam Shahhoseini, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 16, Issue 9 (September 2018)

Background: Endometriosis is a prevalent gynecological disease, with limited known etiology and more researches are required to identify its etiology. In this manner, there is no evidence for expression and function of 3´HOX genes in 4 clusters in the limb and pelvic organs such as the uterus and its disorders (Genes in the HOXA-D clusters are subdivided into 13 paralogous groups).
Objective: This study designed to investigate the expression profile of 5 paralogous (1-5) in four clusters of HOX genes (A, B, C, and D) in ectopic and eutopic tissues of women with endometriosis compared to the normal endometrium.
Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from thirty patients (15 with and 15 without endometriosis) of reproductive age with normal menstrual cycles. The same patient provided both eutopic and ectopic tissues and control women were laparoscopically checked for the absence of endometriosis. The expression profile of these HOX genes was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique.
Results: We observed significant up-regulation of some members of HOXC and D clusters (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXC4 and HOXC5) in ectopic and eutopic tissues vs. control. Also, our data showed significant down-regulation of all of HOXA and HOXB paralogous except HOXA1 in ectopic tissues versus control.
Conclusion: Our data showed specific cluster dependent modulation of the HOX genes expression in endometriosis (over-expression of some HOX genes in cluster C and D and down-regulation of HOX genes in cluster A and B) in ectopic and eutopic tissues compare to control group. Therefore, it is possible that change of expression level of these genes in endometrium plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

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