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Razieh Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyed Mehdi Klantar, Seyed Mohammad Seyed-Hasani, Nasrin Ghasemi, Maryam Asgharnia, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (7-2006)

Background: Recurrent abortion is a difficult medical problem happening in about 1-2% of fertile women. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities.
Objective: The present study tries to find the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Materials and Methods: In total 165 couples were referred to genetic counselling clinic with a history of at least three previous abortions. In all women antibodies against toxsoplasmose, rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were analysed by ELIZA. In 88 couples karyotyping was conducted by analysis of G and/or C banding. Metaphase spreads were made from phytohaemaglutinin-stimulated peripheral lymphocytes using standard cytogenetic techniques. The chromosomal status was analyzed using CytoVision Ultra ver.4.0 from Applied Imaging. The 2-test and ANOVA were used for statistical evaluation. The level of p<0.05 was considered as significance.
Results: Most of the patients had 3 repeated abortions (61.2%). Cytogenetic analysis performed for 88 couples and karyotypes of 12.5% of them were abnormal. The majority of them had monosomy X (6.82%), followed by balanced translocation (2.27%). The number of female carries chromosomal abnormality exceeded significantly than of male. Coefficient of inbreeding in more than 50% of couples had fifth degree of relationship (89 out of 165). Conclusion: Our results showed that 12.5% of the couples with missed abortion had an abnormal karyotype, with no other abnormality. Cytogenetic findings in spontaneous aborted specimens could provide valuable information for genetic counseling and prenatal care in future pregnancies in couples with a history of repeated pregnancy loss.
Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (7-2007)

   Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a genetically based disorder which reflects multiple potential aetiologies and variable clinical presentations. It is clearly a heterogeneous syndrome, and current proposed diagnostic criteria include a number of disorders with similar phenotypes but radically different aetiologies. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of PCOS confusing to many clinicians and seriously delayed the clarification of its genetics, aetiology, clinical associations and assessment of treatment. There is no universally accepted clinical definition for PCOS. In this review the genetic causes and diagnosis criteria of PCOS will be discussed.
Ataollah Ghahiri, Reihane Sabahi, Mojdeh Ghasemi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (7-2008)

Background: According to the text book of obstetrics and Gynecology, prematurity is the first cause of perinatal mortality. Therefore postponing delivery will become mandatory to prevent complications of prematurity. Parental MgSO4 is one of the most common and the safest medications for this purpose.
Case report: We present a primigravida patient with multiple uterine myoma who had premature labor and received intravenous MgSO4 for 58 days in order to postpone her delivery while having a cervical dilation of 4-5 cm. The patient underwent C/S at the gestational age of 34 weeks because of reducing fetal movements and Breech presentation.
Conclusion: Because of many side effects of long term management with MgSO4 and bed rest, this protocol isnchr('39')t recommended for all patients.
Farzad Rajaei, Mehdi Farokhi, Nazem Ghasemi, Ali Asghar Pahlevan,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Considerable attention is focused on effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) and its increasing use in everyday life. Appliances and various equipments are sources of electromagnetic fields with a wide-range of technical characteristics.
Objective: In this study we investigated the effect of EMF (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) on epididymis and deferens duct in mice.
Materials and Methods: 30 BALB/C mice were selected and divided into three groups (control, sham and experimental). While control and sham groups were not exposed to EMF, the experimental group was exposed to EMF (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) 4 hours a day, 6 days per week and for 2 months. At the end of 2 months, the mice were sacrificed, dissected and samples from epididymis and vas deferens in all groups were taken and processed for light microscopic studies. 40 microscopic fields from each group were randomly selected. The diameters and the height of epithelial cells of epididymis and deferens duct in 3 groups were measured and compared using statistical methods.
Results: The data showed that the mean diameter of epididymis and deferens duct in EMF group was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p=0.001). The height of epithelial cells in epididymis and deferens duct in EMF group was considerably reduced compared to the control and sham groups (p=0.001). In addition, the weight of testes in EMF group was significantly decreased compared to the control and sham groups (p&lt;0.007). Conclusion: It could be concluded that the exposure to EMF leads to detrimental effects on male reproductive system in mice as seen by a decrease in diameter of reproductive ducts, the height of epithelial cells and weight of testes.
Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Mortazavizadeh, Aboolfazl Khorasani Gerdekoohi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenemia hyperinsulinemia insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age with an enigmatic pathophysiologic and molecular basis. Obesity hyperandrogenism and infertility occur frequently in PCOS which mostly have a genetic predisposition and are features known to be associated with the development of breast cancer risk.
Objective: In present study frequency of PCOS in patients with premenopausal breast cancer was compared with the frequency in women without breast cancer.
Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study which compared PCOS frequency in 166 patients with premenopausal breast cancer and 166 healthy controls with normal mammography in last 6 months.
Results: Eleven patients (6.62%) in case group and 16 patients (9.63%) in control group had polycystic ovary syndrome according to their questionnaire. The difference was not significant (p=0.645).
Conclusion: There was no relationship between frequency of polycystic ovary syndrome and breast cancer in this study. This might be due to the age of patients with breast cancer in this study which was mostly over 40. It could be significant if the patients were chosen in lower age for showing more effect of genetic than environment. The adjustment or matching of other risk factors could help to find the better results.
Mahbod Ebrahimi , Firoozeh Akbari Asbagh, Azizeh Ghaseminejad,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (7-2011)

 Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycle is an ideal protocol for some subfertile patients. So, we decided to try this therapeutic protocol for the patients with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by hysterosalpingography (HSG).       
Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG on cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) of the stimulated IUI cycles.          
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed between October 2006 and October 2009 in an academic reproductive endocrinology and infertility center. Two groups of patients undergoing stimulated IUI cycles were compared. Sixty-four infertile couples with unilateral tubal blockage diagnosed by HSG as the sole cause of infertility in the group (І), and two hundred couples with unexplained infertility in the group (II). The patients underwent 3 consecutive ovarian hyperstimulation (Clomiphen citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin) and IUI cycles. The main outcome measurements were the CPRs per patients for 3 consecutive stimulated IUI cycles.                                            
Results: Cycle characteristics were found to be homogenous between the both groups. CPRs were similar in group І (26.6%) and group II (28%) (p=0.87; OR=1.075; 95% CI: 0.57 -2.28).
Conclusion: Unilateral tubal blockage (diagnosed on HSG) has no effect on success rate of stimulated IUI cycles, so COH and IUI could be recommended as the initial therapeutic protocol in these patients.
Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Amir Hosein Aminian, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Najmeh Seighal, Hosein Falahzadeh, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction.
Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software.
Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.
Ataollah Ghahiri, Aida Najafian, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Alireza Najafian,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background: About 75% of the symptomatic patients who involved with endometriosis have pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. Pentoxifyllin is one of the drugs that according to its mechanism could be effective for pain relief of endometriosis which has been used for endometriosis treatment recently.
Objective: We conducted a comparative study for detecting the effect of pentoxifylin (as an immonomodelator) in preventing recurrence endometriotic pain with pentoxifylin plus a combined contraceptive pill with low dose estrogen (LD) and also the LD pill alone.
Materials and Methods: This was a comparative clinical trial on 83 patients with the chief complaint (CC) of pain (dysmenorrheal /or pelvic pain) and with the end diagnosis of endometriosis, in an operative laparoscopy. Patients, dividing to 3 groups, were treated with pentoxifylin, pentoxifylin+LD and LD alone for 10 months. The severity of pain (dismenorhea and/or pelvic pain) was detected by visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. The severity of endometriosis in the patients was: I in class I and II in class II and III in class III. The groups were matched for the pain. The number of the patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 28, 28 and 27 respectively.
Results: The pain was reduced in the groups of pentoxifylin+LD (p<0.001) and LD alone (p=0.00). The pain relief was not significant in the group of pentoxifylin alone (p=0.136). After treatment, the severity of pain was not significantly different between the LD group and the LD+penthoxyfillin group, but there was difference between these two groups and the group of penthoxyfillin alone.
Conclusion: This study showed that penthoxyfillin actually could not have any effect on the pain relief of endometriosis. It also made it clear that penthoxyfillin could not increase the efficacy of LD when used with this medication.

Azizeh Ghaseminejad, Zahra Rezaee, Mitra Forootan, Taraneh Hosseinipoor, Forough Forghani, Pooneh Nikuei,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reason of infertility due to anovulation and recurrent abortions. Progesterone has been shown to have an important role in fertilization of oocyte and fetal implantation.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of progesterone level on IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or PCOS.
Materials and Methods: In a stratified cohort study, we assigned 76 infertile women of 20-38 years old who referred to women hospital into two equal groups with fallopian tube factor infertility and PCOS. We measured the plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol on the day of HCG administration. The patients were divided into two groups based on progesterone level cut off point of 1.2ng/ml. Thereafter the incidence of pregnancy (chemical by β-HCG measurement and clinical by ultrasonography up to the 6 weeks after fetal transfer) was compared in these groups.
Results: Total pregnancy rates were 15.8% in patients with tubal factor infertility and 26.3% in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the pregnancy rate was less in patients with progesterone level <1.2 ng/ml. However this difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, we did not observe any significant differences in pregnancy rate in patients with fallopian tube factor infertility.
Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration is not well predictive of the IVF success in infertile women due to fallopian tube factor or PCOS. To obtain more uniform results, we recommend use of larger samples while the bias variable is taken into account and the ROC curve is used for determination of the unique serum progesterone level.

Mohammad Hosein Mosaddegh, Nasrin Ghasemi, Tahere Jahaninejad, Fatemeh Mohsenifar, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (8-2012)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more consecutive pregnancy losses before twenty weeks of gestation. It is caused by a variety of genetics and non-genetics factors. Thyroid autoimmunity could associate with pregnancy loss.
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Levothyroxine in treatment of RPL in women with high auto-thyroid antibodies.
Materials and Methods: In this observational cross sectional study, 900 women who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss were studied. All women with high anti-TPO antibody without any other problems entered in this study. Levothyroxine was given to them two months before pregnancy till the end of pregnancy. The doses of levothyroxine were depended on the anti-TPO levels, which were decided by endocrinologist. Women followed for the results of pregnancies.
Results: The success rate of pregnancy in women with abnormal anti-TPO with Levothyroxine therapy was 82.85%. Mean of anti-TPO in women with treatment before taking medication was 488.35 and after that it was 123.35 UI/ml. This difference was significant (p<0.05). The mean of the antibodies was not significantly different in women without treatment.
Conclusion: This study showed that Levothyroxine reduces the incidence of spontaneous abortions in women with high Anti-TPO antibody.  It decreased anti-TPO antibody levels after 2-3 months treatment.

Majid Teremmahi Ardestani, Hossein Hadi Nodushan, Abbas Aflatoonian, Nasrin Ghasemi, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by various genetic and non-genetic factors. After chromosome abnormality, thrombophilia is one of the most important genetic factors that could cause RPL. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A mutation were the most common mutations cause thrombophilia in the world.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombine gene mutations in women with RPL compared with women who had uneventful pregnancies.
Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluates the frequency of factor V-Leiden and factor II G20210 genotypes in 80 women with two or more pregnancy losses, compared with 80 women without adverse pregnancy outcome. The mutations were assessed by PCR-RFLP.
Results: Frequency of the factor V Leiden among cases was 2.5%, which was higher than controls (1.25%), but the difference was not significant. No factor II G20210 mutation was found among cases and controls.
Conclusion: These data did not confirm that factor V Leiden and factor II G20210 mutation might play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss in Iranian women.
Hossein Pashaiefar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyyed Mehdi Kalantar, Tahereh Jahaninejad, Mohammad Ali Zaimy, Nasrin Ghasemi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: Meiotic genes are very important candidates for genes contributing to female and male infertility. Mammalian MutL homologues have dual roles in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) after replication errors and meiotic reciprocal recombination. The MutL homologs, MLH1 and MLH3 , are crucial for meiotic reciprocal recombination and human fertility. In this study the functional polymorphisms of MLH3 C2531T was investigated in Iranian women with unexplained infertility.
Objective: Investigating the association between a common SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) C2531T in the MLH3 gene and female infertility.
Materials and Methods: In total, 105 women with unexplained infertility as case group and 100 women with at least one child and no history of infertility or abortion as controls were recruited for this association study. The MLH3 C2531T polymorphism was tested by tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (4P-ARMS-PCR) method.
Results: The MLH3 2531C and T alleles frequencies were 43.33% and 56.67% among infertile patients, and 61.5% and 38.5% among normal controls, respectively. In the patient and control subjects the CC (Pro 844 Pro) genotype frequency of MLH3 C2531T was 4.76% and 25%, the CT (Pro 844 Leu) genotype was 77.15% and 73%, and the TT (Leu 844 Leu) genotype was 19% and 2%, respectively (p=0.0001).
Conclusion: The presence of the polymorphic allele T leads to an increased risk of 2.09 times (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.38-3.16; p=0.0001) for developing infertility in relation to the control group. Therefore, our data suggest that the MLH3 C2531T polymorphism can be associated with the risk of unexplained infertility in Iranian women.
Mohammad Hadi Bahadori, Fatemeh Ghasemian, Mina Ramezani, Zakieh Asgari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (4-2013)

Background: It is important to protect oocytes and embryos from oxidative stress in the culture medium. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger.
Objective: Effect of melatonin during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development of mouse oocytes was evaluated.
Materials and Methods: Oocytes from supper-ovulated mouse were divided to two groups: cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs, group I) and denuded COC (d-COCs, group II). The oocytes were cultured in maturation medium with different doses of melatonin (1×101-105 nM). The cumulus expansion and nuclear status were evaluated after 24 h of in-vitro maturation. The oocytes were used for in-vitro fertilization. The fertilized oocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with different doses of melatonin.
Results: The expansion (86.79%) and maturation (80.55%) rate of COCs increased in supplemented medium with 10 nM of melatonin vs. control group (73.33%), p=0.006 and p=0.026 respectively), but oocytes without cumulus cells indicated higher maturation rate at higher melatonin doses (10 and 100 M, 84.34% and 79.5% respectively( vs. 69.33% in control group (p=0.002). Fertilization rate was higher in treated medium with 1 μM of melatonin (93.75%, p=0.007). The rate of cleavage and blastocyst formation was promoted in medium supplemented with 10 and 100 nM of melatonin (92.37% and 89.36% vs. 81.25% in control group, p=0.002). We observed a dose dependent response to melatonin treatment in this experiment.
Conclusion: Exogenous melatonin can promote cumulus cell expansion, in vitro oocyte maturation, and embryo development. However we investigated a dose-dependent response in different stages of maturation and development. It may reflect sensitive rate of oocytes and embryos to culture conditions.
Mohammad Hosein Baghianimoghadam, Amir Hossein Aminian, Behnam Baghianimoghadam, Nasrin Ghasemi, Ali Mohammad Abdoli, Najmeh Seighal Ardakani, Hosein Fallahzadeh,
Volume 11, Issue 6 (9-2013)

Background: Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed.
Results: The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment.
Conclusion: Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially.
Fatemeh Ghasemian, Roya Faraji, Maryam Asgharnia, Ziba Zahiri, Mohammad Hadi Bahadori,
Volume 11, Issue 7 (10-2013)

Background: Abnormal oocyte morphology has been associated with the hormonal environment to which the gametes are exposed.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the oocytes morphology, fertilization rate, embryos quality, and implantation rate resulted of retrieved oocytes in different times after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration.
Materials and Methods: A total of 985 metaphase II oocytes were retrieved 35, 36, 37 and 38 h after the injection of HCG as groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Oocyte morphology was divided into (I) normal morphology, (II) extracytoplasmic abnormalities, (III) cytoplasmic abnormalities and (IV) intracytoplasmic vacuoles and in each group, oocytes were evaluated according to this classification.
Results: Extracytoplasmic abnormalities were encountered in 17.76% and 31.1% of these oocytes (groups 3 and 4 respectively, p=0.007) in comparison with 12.23% group 2. Cytoplasmic abnormalities in group 4 were higher than other groups. 23.88% (p=0.039) and 43.25% (p=0.089) of resulted 2PN (two pronucleus) from groups 3 and 4 showed grade Z3 respectively in comparison to group 2 (16.44%). Normal and various categories of abnormal oocytes did not differ regarding fertilization and cleavage rates (p=0.061). However, group 4 showed significant difference in the rate of embryos fragmentation (grade III and IV embryo) in comparison with group 2 (40.96% vs. 24.93%, p=0.078). The pregnancy rate was higher in G2 and G3 groups (28.5 and 24.13% respectively).
Conclusion: Oocyte retrieval time following HCG priming affected on oocyte morphology, 2PN pattern and embryos qualities subsequently. Both good quality embryo formation and pregnancy outcomes were noticeably higher when oocytes were retrieved 36 h after HCG priming in ART program.
Nasrin Ghasemi, Tahereh Jahaninejad, Mahdia-Sadat Mostafavi, Abbas Aflatoonian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Using aspirin, heparin, or both in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage could be useful, because this problem might be initiated by thrombosis in decidual vessels.
Objective: To investigate the association between thrombophilia and unexplained recurrent miscarriage and to evaluate the efficacy of anticoagulant treatment.
Materials and Methods: In this quasi experimental, we enrolled 520 women, who had a history of recurrent miscarriage. Two hundred fifty two women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage were assigned to receive aspirin (80 mg daily) for two month before pregnancy and after confirmation of a viable pregnancy until 36 weeks of gestation or receive aspirin, as the same, plus heparin (5000 unit twice a day) subcutaneously after confirmation of viable pregnancy until 4 weeks after delivery. Type of medication was chosen for each woman according to number of abortion and age.
Results: Live-birth rates did not different significantly among the two study groups. The proportions of women who gave birth to a live normal infant were 74.5% in the group receiving aspirin plus heparin (combination-therapy group) and 79.8% in the aspirin group.
Conclusion: Live-birth rates did not different significantly among the two study groups. So, using aspirin or aspirin plus heparin did not change pregnancy rate in these patients. Using aspirin is easier than injecting heparin which should be chosen case by case.
Zahra Pourmovahed, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Iman Halvaei, Ali Nabi, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Farzaneh Fesahat,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards.
Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology.
Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test.
Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center
Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness.

Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani, Zaynab Hamoush, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Leila Hashemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (5-2014)

Background: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare form of the non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. It ends with rupture before the end of the first trimester. One of the important risk factors for ovarian pregnancy is in the use of Intra uterine devices (IUD).
Case:  We report here one such uncommon case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Our patient is a 30 years old multiparous woman with two previous cesarean sections with severe hypogastric abdominal pain. During laparotomy, ruptured ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed, and wedge resection of the ovary was only done. Histopathological examination confirmed it to be an ovarian ectopic pregnancy.
Conclusion:  IUD is one of contraceptive methods which prevents intra-uterine implantation in 99.5%, if implant occurs with IUD, it is tubal implantation in 95% of cases, and it is very rare in other places such as ovary. The most important risk factor of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is IUD as in this study it was showed
Wesam Kooti, Esrafil Mansori, Maryam Ghasemiboroon, Mahmoud Harizi, Ashraf Amirzarga,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Infertility is one of the health problems that will have a negative impact on the individual, social and economic and is seen in 10-15% of couples (1). About 40 % of the issues involved with infertility are due to the man. Male sperm cells count nowadays has decreased dramatically in comparison with those who lived 50 years ago (2). Causes of infertility in men are included: oligozoospermia, immaturity of sperm, sperm deformity, and sperm non-motility. Spermatogenesis takes place within the testes under control of testosterone secreted by the testes and secretory activity of the testes controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicle axis. Due to adverse effects and side effects of chemical drugs today, the use of traditional medicine, especially herbal therapy is taken into consideration. In traditional medicine, it has been pointed to therapeutic properties of celery. Celery has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer properties (3). Also this plant is an appetite stimulant and sexual booster (4). Previous studies have shown that sperm cells are largely vulnerable to oxidative stress but celery is rich in antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids (apiin and apigenin), vitamins E and C that can reduce oxidative stress (5, 6). So, in the present study the protective effect of celery was investigated on the cauda epididymal spermatozoa and testis in rat. A total number of 32 male Wistar rats (weighting 170-220 g) were prepared from animal house central of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Animals were maintained in plastic cages with 12/12 h light/dark cycle at 21±2oC. All experimental animals were carried out in accordance with Ahvaz University Ethical Committee. Hydro-alcoholic extract of celery was prepared by maceration method. The rats were divided into four groups of 8 animals each: control, did not receive anything; vehicle, received propylene glycol; experimental groups, and received hydro-alcoholic extract of celery with doses of 100 and 200 (mg/kg) with solvent of propylene glycol by gavage once every 48 hours for twenty days. At the end of 20th day, rats were scarified under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia then the epididymis and testes were carefully separated. The epididymis was used for sperm count and testes were prepared for morphometric and histologic evaluation. Statistical significance of differences were assessed with one-way ANOVA by SPSS for windows (version 15) followed by LSD test. P&lt;0.05 was assumed as statistically significant. Results of morphometric studies indicated a decrease in number of primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells and sperm as well as an increase of lumen diameter of seminiferous tubules in vehicle group when compared to the control (p&lt;0.05), but there was not different between the experimental groups and control (p&gt;0.05). Evaluation of tissue sections showed that germinal epithelium in the control group was normal and tissue damage was not observed in epithelial tissue. However, in the vehicle group, epithelium was destroyed and arrangement of epithelial cells was disordered, and fluid aggregation is seen into the epithelial cell and also, reduction of epithelium thickness was observed. In the experimental group (100 mg/kg), there was arrangement in germinal epithelium cells but fluid aggregation was observed into the epithelial cells. A reduced epithelial thickness was seen only in some tubules. However, all these histological changes were less than the vehicle group. In the experimental group (200 mg/kg), tissue destruction was largely improved, and there was an arrangement of the epithelial cells, there was not fluid aggregation into the epithelium, and the thickness of the epithelium was returned almost too normal state. The results of the present study showed that hydro-alcoholic extract of celery improved the destructive effects of propylene glycol on the testes and sexual cells. These findings are similar to previous studied (7, 8). Previous studies have demonstrated that excessive alcohol consumption in men can cause a deficiency in testosterone production and testicular atrophy. Testicular atrophy results primarily from the loss of spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules that this can be caused by oxidative stress generated by alcohol (9). Researches also indicated alcohol with involvement of phase system and activation of caspases induced apoptosis in testicular cells (10). Spermatogenesis and maturation of sexual cells depends on protection of cytotoxic and pathologic lesions that threatens these events. Free radicals due to a strong desire to get electrons induce damage to molecules such as fatty acid of biological membranes and its oxidation. Celery is a strong antioxidant due to flavonoids such as apiein and apigenin (5, 6). Antioxidant compounds are able to protect cell membranes against damage. Antioxidants directly or indirectly impact on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis thus increase sperm count and fertility (5, 6). So celery can be considered as a medicinal herb for infertility. However, further clinical studies are recommended. The study in the form of a research plan was approved with no 91s8 of Research Deputy of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Finally, we acknowledge deputy vice-chancellor for research affairs of AJUMS for financial support, and particularly Research Consultation Center (RCC) for technical support.
Ataollah Ghahiri, Amin Firozmand, Mojdeh Ghasemi, Fahime Nasiri, Maryam Sharifi, Mehry Abdollahi,
Volume 12, Issue 6 (8-2014)

Background: One of the most important points concerning the patients who undergo assisted reproductive techniques (ART) for getting pregnant can be the possible neonatal chromosomal abnormalities as a result of these methods. Objective: This study was conducted to help answering a part of this question. Materials and Methods: This is a historical cohort study from April 2006 to April 2007. Data were collected from women admitted in Mehregan Hospital and Esfahan Infertility Center. 225 of 2000 infertile women who had taken ART methods and 225 of 1800 women undergoing no ART treatment were included in our study. All of the cases were aged 35 or more. Data were obtained from patient files from 2 infertility centers of Isfahan, Iran. Results: Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed for all clinically suspicious infants for trisobmy 21. As a result, 4 cases of trisomy 21 in ART group and 7 in non-ART group were found. Two cases from IUI, 1 case of IVF and 1 of ICSI were found to have trisomy 21 in infants. There was no statistically difference in occurring trisomy 21 in our two groups of study and this was also the same for women undergoing IVF and ICSI. Conclusion: ART methods did not increase the rate of Trisomy 21 according to our study although we found less in ART group, it was not statistically significant

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