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Showing 14 results for Ghaffari Novin

Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraii, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Alireza Mossavie Jarahi, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background: Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial tissues in ectopic places outside the uterus. This disease has an important effect on the health and fertility of affected women. It’s etiology is not clearly known. For better understanding the pathophysiology of this disease, many researchers study on several aspects of the disease on animals. Objective: In this experimental study endometriosis was induced in female rats surgically and then its side effects were investigated with special focus on adhesion formation that is a major problem in women with this disease. Materials and methods: In Protestrous phase, female rats were randomly divided into two groups. In both groups, under intra peritoneal anesthesia, laparotomy was done and left horn and associated fat were removed. In experimented group (A), the removed endometrium was cut to six square pieces (2mm each) and they were sutured to the peritoneum, near ovaries and subcutaneous. In sham group (B), the same procedure was done for the fat tissues around the removed horn and the pieces were sutured to the same places. After 8 weeks, in Protestrous phase, clinical adhesion and size of implants were evaluated. Results: The total mean size of implants was calculated in each group, and this was significantly larger in experimented group (25.4 mm versus 2 mm p=0.000). The mean diameter of implants that calculated for each site of implantation in experimented group were significantly larger in left peritoneum (p=0.002), followed by right (p=0.000) and left (p=0.000) ovaries. The endometrial tissues grew in 100% of implants in subcutaneous area. Clinical adhesions (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 7 out of 10 in experimented group and in 2 out 10 in control group. The number of Esterous cycle were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that after inducing endometriosis by surgical approach, only endometrial implants grew as a cystic structures and this is a unique aspect of endometrial cells. Our results showed that endometriosis had a direct effect on adhesion formation, not surgery alone and induction of this disease didn't have any adverse effect on ovarian function in female rats.
Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahnaz Heidari, Mahdi A Akhondi, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Matrigel (extracellular matrix) can improve the growth of many cell types in vitro.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Matrigel on the development of 2-4 cells human embryos in culture.
Material and Methods: Surplus 2-4 cells human embryos, resulting from ICSI, were divided into two groups (control and test). Quality of embryos in both groups was morphologically similar. The test group (n=140) was cultured in Hams’ F10 supplemented with 10% human serum albumin and 150 µl liquid Matrigel. The control group (n=140) was cultured in the same medium devoid of Matrigel. Embryos were cultured for an additional 4 days and their morphology was assessed every 24 hours. Both groups were then statistically compared.
Results: The percentage of the human embryos that reached the morula stage in the control and test groups were 79.2% and 80%, respectively (p>0.05).  However, 36.4% of embryos reached the blastocyst stage in the test group as compared to 5.7% in the control group after 144 hours in culture. This difference was statically significant (p <0.01). In addition, culture of embryos on Matrigel and medium versus medium alone significantly improved in vitro hatching (25.7% versus 3.5%; p <0.01).
Conclusion: Matrigel at low concentration enhances human blastocyst formation and hatching in vitro.


Tahmineh Peirouvi, Gholamhossein Farjah, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Phospholipids are distributed asymmetrically between inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane of live cells. Early during apoptosis, this asymmetry is disrupted and phosphatidylserine becomes exposed on the outside surface of the plasma membrane. There is little information about the effects of vitrification on apoptosis.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification on apoptosis of subfertile and fertile men.
Materials and Methods: In this study, semen samples were collected from subfertile (n=20) and fertile men (n=10) after 48h abstinence of intercourse. After semen analysis according to WHO criterias, each semen sample was divided into two portions. First portion was assessed by Annexin V-flous staining kit for showing apoptosis in subfertile and fertile men and second portion was assessed after vitrification-thawing. Results were analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test.
Results: After vitrification-thawing, mean percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa has increased 6 and 3 times in subfertile and fertile men respectively. This difference is significant.
Conclusion: Vitrification-thawing could disrupted membrane asymmetry and caused apoptosis. Therefore, it will cause reduction of functional spermatozoa in access of Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ART).
Afsaneh Mohammadzadeh, Mahnaz Heidari, Haleh Soltan Ghoraiee, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi, Hojjat Zeraati, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Pegah Ebadi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (7-2007)

Background: Immune system disturbances have an important role in endometriosis which may lead to infertility. It seems that inflammatory cytokines specially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) which were produced by activated macrophages have an important role in pathology of endometriosis.  Based on this theory, anti TNF-a  drugs like pentoxifylline (PX) are suggested as new drugs for Endometriosis.            
Objective: This experimental study has been done on female rats to determine the effect of PX on the endometrial implants and leukocytes in serum.
Material and Methods: In proestrous phase, one horn of rat’s bicorn uterus was removed surgically and the endometrium was implanted to different places as follows: subcutaneous, peritoneum and near ovaries. After two months observation, female rats divided into two groups randomly. In treated group (n=10) PX (5mg/kg twice a day) and in control group (n=10), normal saline (same dose) were injected subcutaneously. Then, via second laparotomy and in the same phase of the cycles, the size of implants and the amount of leukocytes in serum were measured.
Results: In treated group compared with control, the size of implants was decreased significantly in right subcutaneous  (8.05mm vs 13.50mm) p<0.01, left subcutaneous (7.64 mm vs 14mm) p<0.01, right ovary (6.64 mm vs 15.22mm) p<0.001 and left ovary (7.18 mm vs 14.56 mm) p<0.005. In treated group, the total leukocyte count (5259.54 ± 178.78 vs 15833.33 ±  259.27) p<0.02 was decreased. The number of esterous cycle was similar in both groups.
Conclusion: PX can reduce the size of endometrial implants as well as leukocyte count.
Soheila Arefi, Haleh Soltanghoraee, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Ali Sadeghpour Tabaei , Marefat Ghaffari Novin , Hojat Zeraati, Pegah Ebadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: Despite numerous developments in the field of assisted reproduction, the implantation rate remains low. Among the various reasons of implantation failure, endometrial regularity has an important role. Hysteroscopy is an accurate method for evaluating the endometrial characteristics, with the ability to treat uterine pathology.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the findings on hysteroscopy and thereafter the result of subsequent IVF/ICSI in infertile women with the history of frequent unexplained and unsuccessful IVF/ICSI attempts.
Materials and Methods: In this observational study, the hysteroscopy findings and the outcomes of subsequent IVF/ICSI were evaluated in 89 infertile women admitted in Avicenna Infertility Clinic, with previous repeated (more than two) failed IVF/ICSI-ETs, including the patients with normal Hysterosalpinography (HSG) and excluding severe male factor infertility and also thrombophilia, genetic and immunologic problems. The data were analyzed with SPSS software and Fisher exact, chi-square, and MC-Nemar tests.
Results: In 53 (59.5%) cases, hysteroscopy revealed abnormal intrauterine findings including adhesions 7 (13.7%), single polyp 11 (20.7%), endometrial polyposis 10 (18.8%), endometrial hyperplasia 10 (18.8%), uterine cavity hypoplasia 4 (7.8%) and myoma 5 (9.8%). These abnormalities were significantly higher in women with more than 8 years of infertility (chi-square=4.7, p-value=0.03). After hysteroscopy and subsequent IVF/ICSI-ET attempt using standard long protocol, pregnancy rate were significantly higher compared with the previous repeated IVF/ICSI attempts (35.8% versus 0%). Conclusion: According to this study, we strongly suggest evaluation of endometrial integrity by hysteroscopy in patients with repeated IVF/ICSI-ETs failure, before entering any other fertilization procedures.
Mohammad Nouri, Aliyeh Ghasemzadeh, Laya Farzadi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (7-2008)

Background: It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to deleterious effects on a range of sperm parameters. Vitamins E and C are capable of reducing ROS levels and lipid peroxidation. Objective: The aim of study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation as indicated by Malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamins E and C in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men and their relationships with semen parameters. Materials and Methods: Forty men with normozoospermic and 60 infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermic semen profiles were randomly selected. Semen analysis was done according to the WHO standard. Sex hormonal profiles were measured by ELISA methods. The level of vitamins (C and E) and MDA were measured by HPLC and tiobarbiotic acid, respectively. Results: MDA concentration in the spermatozoa (0.10.06 nmol/ml) and seminal plasma (1.90.35 nmol/ml) of asthenoteratozoospermic were significantly higher than in normozoospermic males (p<0.001).The level of vitamins E and C in seminal plasma of normozoospermic were significantly higher than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). However, the amount of vitamin C in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic was significantly less than in asthenoteratozoospermic males (p<0.01). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value of MDA of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were more than vitamins C and E. The level of vitamin C of spermatozoa had more diagnostic value when compare to vitamins C and E in seminal plasma. Conclusion: The level of MDA in seminal plasma and spermatozoa and vitamin C in spermatozoa may be a diagnostic tool for etiology of infertility in the asthenoteratozoospermic patients.
Arash Khaki, Mahnaz Heidari, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Amir Afshin Khaki,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (7-2008)

Background: Ciprofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic in the treatment of genitourinary tract infection.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ciprofloxacin on testis apoptosis and sperm parameters in rat.
Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into two groups; control (n=10) and experimental (n=10). The experimental group was orally received 12.5 mg/kg ciprofloxacin daily for 60 days and the control group just received water and food. Rats were then killed and sperm removed from cauda epididymis and analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and viability. Testis tissues were also removed and prepared for TUNEL assay to detect apoptosis.
Results: Results showed that ciprofloxacin significantly decreased the sperm concentration, motility (p<0.05) and viability (p<0.001). In addition, ciprofloxacin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid and sperm) in the seminiferous tubules when compared with the control group. The apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubular cross section was significantly increased in the experimental group (15.11±3.523) as compared with the control group (7.3±0.762) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: It is concluded that ciprofloxacin has the toxicological effects on reproductive system in male rats.
Khadijeh Foghi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Zahra Madjd Jabbari, Tohid Najafi, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Abouzar Rostampour Yasoori,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (7-2011)

Background: Non obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is one of the causes of male infertility in which spermatogenesis process is disturbed. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in spermatogenesis process.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of eNOS in human testicular tissue in men with NOA and men with normal spermatogenesis by using immunocytochemistry.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, testicular biopsies were obtained from 10 men with NOA and 7 men with normospermia who were attended to infertility center for diagnosis or infertility treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize the isoform of eNOS in these tissues and the intensity of staining was semi quantitively assessed. In addition, the histopathological evaluation was examined in both groups.
Results: The isoform of eNOS enzyme activity was detected in the cytoplasm of sertoli and leydig cells in both groups. There was, however, a considerable variability in the intensity of staining between two groups. The expression of eNOS in Leydig cells in control group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the NOA group. In contrast, expression of eNOS in Sertoli cells in NOA was more than those in the control group. eNO Simmune staining was absent in the normal germ cells but was intense in the abnormal germ cells with piknotic neucleous. The most histopathological finding were hypospermatogenesis (27.2%), Sertoli cell only syndrome (18.1%) and tubular fibrotic (13.6%).
Conclusion: These results suggested that increase level of eNOS may play an important role in the apoptosis process in the abnormal germ cells and disturbance of spermatogenesis process.
Tohid Najafi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Jalil Pakravesh, Khadijeh Foghi, Fatemeh Fadayi, Gelareh Rahimi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (7-2012)

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies suggested the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in female infertility.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endometrial tissue of women with unexplained infertility.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study a total of 18 endometrial tissues obtained from 10 women with unexplained infertility and 8 normal and fertile women by endometrial biopsy, 6 to 10 days after LH surge. Specimens were fixed in 4% paraformaldhyde fixative and frozen sectioned for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation using monoclonal anti-human eNOS antibody. Hematoxilin and Eosin was used for Histological dating. Results: Localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was seen in glandular and luminal epithelium, vascular endothelium and stroma in both fertile women and women with unexplained infertility. Although there were differences in immunoreactivity of glandular epithelium (p=0.44), vascular endothelium (p=0.60) and stroma (p=0.63) but only over-expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium (p=0.045) of women with unexplained infertility compared to fertile women was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study suggests that changes in luminal expression of eNOS may influence receptivity of endometrium.
Leyla Fath Bayati, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Fatemeh Fadaei Fathabadi, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Mozhgan Bandehpour, Mohsen Norouzian, Mahdi Alizadeh Parhizgar, Mahmood Shakooriyan Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (2-2014)

Background: Tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) is the most common type of extra-uterine pregnancy and the most common cause of maternal mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that incorporates in many physiological processes of female reproductive system. Recent studies have demonstrated the possible role of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the regulation of many reproductive events that occur in the fallopian tube (FT).
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of eNOS in the FTs of women with tEP.
Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 30FTs samples were obtained from three groups including: 10 FTs of women that bearing an EP, 10 FTs from the non-pregnant women at luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and 10 FTs of healthy pregnant women (n=10). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and then were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Localization of eNOS was seen in secretory and ciliated luminal epithelium and vascular endothelium of all groups. However, we did not observed the expression of eNOS in smooth muscle cells of all groups. Expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of women with EP compared to non-pregnant women at luteal phase of menstrual cycle and healthy pregnant group showed statistically significant increase (p=0.00). Significant difference in expression of eNOS was not observed in luminal epithelium of FTs of women at luteal phase compared to healthy pregnant groups (p=0.78).
Conclusion: This study indicates that changes in expression of eNOS in luminal epithelium of FT may lead to development of EP.

Nasim Borhani, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mehdi Manoochehri, Mohsen Rouzrokh, Bahram Kazemi, Ameneh Koochaki, Ahmad Hosseini, Reza Masteri Farahani, Mir Davood Omrani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (4-2014)

Background: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities in the male which is characterized by altered development of urethra, foreskin and ventral surface of the penis. Androgen receptor gene plays a critical role in the development of the male genital system by mediating the androgens effects.
Objective: In present study, we looked for new variations in androgen receptor promoter and screened its exon 1 for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in healthy and hypospadias Iranian men.
Materials and Methods: In our study, at first DNA was extracted from patients (n=100) and controls (n=100) blood samples. Desired fragments of promoter and exon 1 were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The promoter region was sequenced for the new variation and exone 1 screened for five SNPs (rs139767835, rs78686797, rs62636528, rs62636529, rs145326748) using restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.
Results: The results showed a new single nucleotide variation (C→T) at -480 of two patients’ promoter region (2%). None of the mentioned SNPs were detected in patients and controls groups (0%).
Conclusion: This finding indicates that new single nucleotide polymorphism in androgen receptor promoter may have role in etiology of hypospadias and development of this anomaly.
Hamid Nazarian, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Reza Jalili, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Seyed Jalil Hosseini, Mohsen Norouzian, Nahid Ehsani,
Volume 12, Issue 5 (6-2014)

Background: The Wnt/β- The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in many developmental processes in both fetal and adult life; its abnormalities can lead to disorders including several types of cancers and malfunction of specific cells and tissues in both animals and humans. Its role in reproductive processes has been proven.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the expression of the key regulator of this signaling pathway GSK3-β and its presumed role in azoospermia.
Materials and Methods: WNT3a protein concentration and GSK3-β gene expression levels were measured and compared between two groups of infertile men. The test groups consisted of 10 patients with obstructive and 10 non-obstructive azoospermia. The control group was selected among healthy men after vasectomies that were willing to conceive a child using a testicular biopsy technique. Samples were obtained by testicular biopsy and screened for the most common mutations (84, 86 and 255) in the SRY region before analyzing. GSK3-β gene expression was assessed quantitatively by real time-PCR.
Results: The WNT3a protein concentration had no significant difference between the two test groups and controls. Expression of GSK3-β was down-regulated in non-obstructive azoospermia (3.10±0.19) compared with normal (7.12±0.39) and obstructive azoospermia (6.32±0.42) groups (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Down-regulation of GSK-3β may cause to non-obstructive azoospermia. Regulation and modification of GSK-3β gene expression by drugs could be used as a therapeutic solution.
Maryam Nezhad Sistani, Anahid Maleki, Maryam Salimi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Hamid Nazarian,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (9-2017)

Background: common use of sevoflurane in congenital defects during repeated surgeries may have detrimental effects on spermatogenesis after puberty.
Objective: This study investigated sevoflurane effects on spermatogenesis process in male mature mice after exposure in prepubertal time.
Materials and Methods: 24 neonatal NMRI male mice were randomly classified in three groups. Experimental 1 and 2 groups (exposure to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and 2 MAC sevoflurane, respectively in 2 lit/min oxygen (O2) for 7 days (30 min, daily) and control. All groups were sacrificed after 2 months. Histological assessment, immunohistochemistry and apoptosis process was done. Bax and Bcl2 expression was evaluated in the testicular tissue by real time Poly Chain Reaction.
Results: Our results showed that the integrity of testicular tissue was preserved in both experimental groups. Count of spermatogonial cells had significant decrease in group 2 compared to others. The rate of apoptosis in spermatogonial cells was 15±3% and 9±2% in the group 2 and 1, respectively. Also, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was 0.2615, 1.0070 and 9.3657 in control, experimental group 1 and 2, respectively. This result was significant (p≤0.002) between groups 2 with other groups.
Conclusion: Continuous exposure of 2 MAC sevoflurane in 2 lit/min O2 simultaneous during prepubertal may create more testicular tissue damage in terms of cellular and molecular function compared to continuous exposure to lower level of sevoflurane by increase in ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and apoptosis in germ cells after puberty.
Parvin Dorfeshan, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Mohammad Salehi, Fatane Farifteh,
Volume 17, Issue 6 (June 2019 2019)

Background: The expression of miR-302 over the period of early embryogenesis could possibly regulate the maternal transcript clearance. Zygotic transcription activation is mostly related to maternal messages degradation.
Objective: In this study, the effects of in-vitro maturation technique (IVM) on the expression of miR-302 in human embryo produced from immature and mature human oocytes (matured in vitro and in vivo, before sperm exposure) obtained from females under gonadotrophin therapy were evaluated for assisted reproduction.
Materials and Methods: Immature oocytes were cultured in vitro. The injection of oocytes-producing polar bodies was given using fresh sperm. Then, the embryo quality score was assessed in the IVM group compared with the control group. In both the groups, embryos with normal morphology were included in the molecular study. Only one blastomere was removed from three-day embryos and then the embryos were frozen. The expression of miR-302 in embryos was measured through quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Our data showed a significant reduction of miR-302 expression in the IVM group vs. the control group (p = 0.02). The embryo quality score showed a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.01).
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the IVM process had a negative effect on the expression level of miR-302 in human pre-implantation embryos. Considering the major role of expression miR-302, a decrease in miR-302 expression
could be related to a reduced potential  in the early embryonic development.

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