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Esmail Fattahi, Kazem Parivar, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (7-2009)

Background: Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which is used worldwide in agriculture. The exposure to this chemical might lead to damages to the living systems.
Objective: The present study was done to investigate the effects of diazinon on the structure of testis and levels of sex hormones in adult male mice. Materials and Methods: For this experiment, the mature male mice divided into three groups; Control (no injection), sham (corn oil injection) and DZN (diazinon was administrated at dose of 30 mg / kg for 30 d five consecutive days per week). Animals were killed 35 days after the latest injection. Testes tissues sections were provided to investigate the histopathological changes. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Data were analyzed using of one-way ANOVA. Significance was set at p<0.05.
Results: A significant reduction was observed in diameter and weight of testes after DZN administration. Furthermore, DZN brought about significant reduction in sperm counts and spermatogenic, Leydig and Sertoli cells and a decrease in serum testosterone concentration. Histopathological examination of testes showed degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules (p<0.001). The levels of LH and FSH were increased in DZN groups compared to the control and sham groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: DZN is a toxicant for mammals’ spermatogenic cells during the early spermatogenesis. Therefore, application of DZN should be limited to a designed program.
Esmail Fattahi, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mossa Gardaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 5 (10-2012)

Background: Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide widely used to control pests in agriculture and farm. Carbaryl adversely affect the reproductive endocrine systems in animals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate Carbaryl effects on the pituitary-gonad axis in rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental - analytical study, 60 adult male rats were divided into four equal groups: control, sham and experimental (1 and 2) groups that received 10 and 30 mg/kg Carbaryl via intraperitoneally injection. The sham group was subjected to intraperitoneally injection with olive oil while the control group did not receive any injection. Animals were sacrificed 35 days after the last treatment. Tissue sections were prepared from testes to investigate possible changes occurring in spermatogenic and Leydig cells. Blood samples were collected in which the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormones (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured.
Results: The results showed significant reduction in testes weight (p=0.042) and seminiferous diameters (p<0.001) within the experimental groups compared with control group. Also, the number of germ cells, spermatocyts, spermatids and Leydig cells on the testes of the experimental groups was significantly decreased (p<0.001). Accordingly, significant decline in the testosterone levels (p<0.001) and increase in LH and FSH levels were observed (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These results demonstrated that Carbaryl has capacity to exert adverse effects on fertility. Therefore, have to be taken to account in applying Carbaryl for any studies and or commercial use.
Laya Farzadi, Homa Khayatzadeh Bidgoli, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Zahra Bahrami, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Vahideh Shahnazi, Mohammad Nouri,
Volume 13, Issue 6 (8-2015)

Background: Vitamin D in complex with its receptor by regulating gene expression, endometrium immune response and stimulation of endometrium decidualization can be involved in implantation. So, it seems that the amount of vitamin D in follicular fluids (FF) may have an association with ART success.
Objective: First, we intended to investigate the possible association between levels of follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D with assisted reproductive outcomes. Second, we examined relationship between 25-OH vitamin D levels with number and quality of oocytes.
Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, 80 infertile female candidates for IVF/ICSI were enrolled. Blood samples (on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration) and follicular fluids were taken, and then levels of serum estradiol and follicular fluids 25-OH vitamin D were measured. Also clinical characteristics of patients (duration of infertility, causes of infertility, menstrual status), number and quality of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes, estradiol levels, and clinical pregnancy were evaluated.
Results: Concentration of FF 25-OH vitamin D in pregnant women was significantly higher than non-pregnant women (p=0.007) but there were no significant differences in age, body mass index (BMI), duration of infertility, menstrual status, number of oocytes, oocytes quality, number of fertilized oocytes, and serum estradiol levels between the two groups. Statistically positive correlation was found between 25-OH vitamin D levels with patient age and implantation rate (r=0.264, p=0.018 and r=0.301, p=0.007 respectively).
Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that vitamin D without affecting the number and quality of oocytes can independently improve implantation rate and IVF outcome.

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